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Zhe Bible Student's Xibrar? 

Old Testament Criticism. By Canon Girdlestone, m.a. 

THE LAW IN THE PROPHETS. By the Rev. Stanley 
Leathes, D.D. 


J. J. Lias, M.A., Cha?icellor of Llandaff Cathedral. 

4z.— 511 pages. 

hausen. By the Rev. W. L. Baxter, M.A., D.D. 


HEZEKIAH AND HIS AGE. By the Rev. R. Sinker, D.D. 
Librarian of Trinity College, Cambridge. 


ABRAHAM AND HIS AGE. By the Rev. H. G. Tom kins. 

For particulars 0/ the above see advertisement at the end of the 
Volume. Other Voltimes in preparation. 

. " 


A Royal Hittite 

tyre & Jport/swoocfe. Lith . London. 




Late Vicar of Branscombe, sometime Rector of St. Paul's, Exeter; 

Member of the Committees of the Palestine and the Egypt Exploration Funds. 

Member of The Royal Archaeological Institute, the Society of 

Biblical Archeology, &c. 

Author of "Studies on the Times of Abraham," " The Life of Joseph 
in the Light of Egyptian Lore," &c. 


Edinburgh, Glasgow, Melbourne, Sydney, and New York. 


THIS book, in its original form, has been long out 
of print, and in preparing it afresh in a revised 
and augmented form, and with a slightly modified title, 
the great and increasing harvests of nineteen years 
have had to be taken into account. This could not be 
without the voice of mourning for those whom we have 
lost from the scenes of their labours. In England we 
miss our venerable and courteous Orientalist chief at 
the British Museum, Dr. Birch, and the veterans Sir 
Henry Rawlinson, Fox Talbot, D. H. Haigh, our 
ardent and clear-sighted George Smith (now resting 
beside Burckhardt at Aleppo), and William Houghton, 
Bertin, and Terrien de la Couperie; and in Egyptology, 
C. W. Goodwin, Canon Cook (the learned pioneer in 
Biblical lore); Sir Gardner Wilkinson, Bonomi, Reginald 
S. Poole, also the generous enthusiastic Miss Amelia 
B. Edwards, and Sir Erasmus Wilson ; and I cannot 
forget our devoted first secretary of the Society of 
Biblical Archeology, W. R. Cooper. In the field of 
Palestine we lament Dean Stanley, Sir G. Grove, 
E. H. Palmer (so untimely lost), Dr. Malan, Tyrwhitt 
Drake, and Holland, who after all his travels drew 


his last breath on a green mountain-side in Switzer- 
land. And how do we honour the names of Mariette, 
Brugsch, Chabas, Dumichen, Ancessi, the monumental 
renown of Lepsius, and the many-gifted devotion of 
F. Lenormant. 

Time would fail to tell the enduring results of such 
lives. How vast and manifold has the work become ! 
By many skilled and patient hands the survey of 
Palestine, with its whole apparatus of scientific re- 
cords, now over-passing the Jordan and the time- 
honoured goals of Dan and Beersheba, is still being 
carried on in an almost exhaustless field. 

The successive winters' tasks of our Egypt Ex- 
ploration Fund, and its various offsets, give us 
magnificent acquisitions of knowledge and surprises 
inexpressible from Der el-Bahri, Zoan, Pithom, Goshen, 
Takhpankhes, Bubastis, Koptos, the Fay inn, and the 
dwellings of " the New Race " ; and no less convictions 
of vast ignorance spring from the works of American, 
French, and German explorers in Chaldsea, Northern 
Syria, Africa, Asia Minor, and Arabia. The foresights 
and guesses of twenty years since were mere glim- 
merings of our rising day. Time would fail to tell 
of these things aright. But the Congresses of Orien- 
talists at many centres afford meeting-places of a 
great brotherhood with great hopes. 

Let us take some slight account of the accessory 
Bible knowledge of a student here in England in 
this sixtieth year of Queen Victoria. First, we have, 


bound up with our Bibles, auxiliary information, on 
all sides, put forth by the Queen's Printers, and 
others who have followed in their steps. With a 
geographical groundwork ever increasing in fulness 
and accuracy, our history knows more than in past 
years where to find itself at home. Our maps shine 
with growing points of light, and now we have hand- 
books of true science fit for the scholar who would 
have " at his beddes hed," like Chaucer's " clerke of 
Oxenford," "a twenty bokes clothed in black or red." 
Here are Schrader's invaluable commentaries from 
Babylonia and Assyria, and the full and exact re- 
searches of the learned Abbe Vigouroux in La Bible 
et les Decowvertes Modernes. Of late years, besides 
the Transactions and Proceedings of the Society 
of Biblical Archaeology and the Victoria Institute, 
together with the Memoirs of the Exploration 
Committees, the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, the Religious Tract Society, and other 
publishers are putting forth handy volumes of high 
authority, in attractive and convenient form, for 
teachers and students who may not have access to 
vast public libraries and class-rooms. The series en- 
titled By-paths of Bible Knowledge and such books as 
Prof. Sayce's Higher Criticism and the Monu- 
ments, Patriarchal Palestine, Egypt of the Hebrews, &c, 
and the excellent History of Egypt of Prof. Petrie, 
the series of small histories of the S.P.C.K., besides 
the magnificent illustrated works of Prof. Maspero, The 
Dawn of History and The Struggle of the Nations, 

vill PBEFACE. 

contain an immensity of solid learning well fitted 
for those who are not " specialists." These have all 
arisen since these " Studies " were put forth by way 
of pioneering nineteen years ago. I must add the 
masterly works of Prof. G. Adam Smith (Historical 
Geography of the Holy Land), and Dr. W. Max 
Muller (Asien unci Eurojja nach Altagyptischen 
Denkmaler), which I have scarcely had time to study 
as I would wish. 

It must be said with joy that a most generous 
spirit of fellow-work and mutual help animates 
men of different nations, in the field of exploration 
and in museums and libraries, and homes of private 
students. The writer of these pages must record 
his lively gratitude once more for unfailing kindness 
shewn to him by scholars in England, America, and 
various parts of the world, and by critics of different 
views and persuasions. He has also to express sincere 
regret that his correspondence and work altogether 
have of late years been sorely restricted by failing 
health, and must ask kind indulgence and forgiveness 
from friends far and near, assuring them of undi- 
minished regard and gratitude. Professors Sayce, Petrie, 
and Maspero, the Abbe Vigouroux and Canon Girdle- 
stone ; and M. Naville, M. Groff, Dr. de Cam, Prof. 
Rohart, M. de Lantsheere, Dr. Trumbull, Prof. Osgood, 
Mr. Pinches, Mr. Boscawen, and other distinguished 
scholars are hereby asked to accept most sincere 
thanks for their great kindness on many occasions. 


It is to be believed that in the sincere and devout 
spirit that consecrates the study of Holy Scripture 
itself with the additional knowledge which God is 
pleased to unveil to us from the remotest past, we 
are finding unawares a remedy for the homeless and 
restless spirit which challenges all things that are 
most surely believed among us, and that peaceable 
"ordering of the course of this world by His govern- 
ance," even the world of intellect, in which His 
Church may serve Him " in all godly quietness " : 

" Let knowledge grow from more to more, 

But more of reverence in us dwell ; 

That mind and soul, according well, 

May make one music as before, 

But vaster " — 

When " grace and truth came by Jesus Christ " His 
main work lay in the busy swarming " Galilee of 
the Gentiles." What we are to understand by that 
is most truly and vividly painted by Prof. G. Adam 
Smith in his twentieth and twenty-first chapters of 
The Historical Geography of the Holy Land, as in- 
deed partly aforetime by Dr. Merrill in his little handy 
book: Galilee in the Time of Christ (R. T. S.). This 
small book, and that larger one, are of great value 
in comparing what God did in the fulness of time 
by the Son of His love, with the scenes in which the 
Friend of God was " fore-evangelized " in the very 
midst and focus of the world that then was, two 
thousand years before. The parallel is " marvellous 
in our eyes" — how by that old fore-gospel covenant 


in Abraham all nations should be blessed, and how 
in spite of all ignorance and bigotry and hindrance, 
" his Seed, which is Christ," in " the beginning of 
the Gospel," as St. Mark says, born in the city of 
David, was bred and grew up for His work in 
" Nazareth of Galilee" for " the sinless years that 
breathed beneath the Syrian blue." "A vision of all 
the kingdoms of this world was as possible from this 
village as from the Mount of Temptation," says Prof. 
G. Adam Smith, in summing up his results, and we 
may add : as possible as at Ur-Kasdim, at Kharran, 
Damascus, Shekem, Hebron, and Zoan in the old time 
before them. Let me here quote Prof. Max Muller's 
eloquent words : " If from our earliest childhood we 
have looked upon Abraham, the Friend of God, with 
love and veneration . . . his venerable figure will 
assume still more majestic proportions when we see 
in him the life-spring of that faith which was to 
unite all the nations of the earth, and the author of 
that blessing which was to come on the Gentiles 
through Jesus Christ. And if we are asked how this 
one Abraham passed through the denial of all other 
gods to the knowledge of the one God, we are con- 
tent to answer that it was by a special Divine 
revelation .... We want to know more of that 
man than we do, but even with the little we know 
of him, he stands before us as a figure second only 
to Onft in the whole history of the world." * 

* Chips from a German Workshop, vol. 1, page 371, &c, quoted by Dean 
Stanley, History of the Jewish Church, ed. 1883, I. 13. 


The author of these Studies was told many years ago 
by a very learned and distinguished Professor that they 
are " pre-critical," and gladly accepted the expression. 
It is not internal analysis, but external contemporary 
evidence, that has for the most part engaged his atten- 
tion for twenty-five years of leisure from pastoral 
charge. For in view of the resurrection to life of 
those great races and nations, among whom Abraham 
lived and moved and had his being, it seemed high 
time to bring these things into comparison with our 
own goodly heritage of Holy Scripture, in loyal 
deference to that divine goodness which, in the fulness 
of time, had awakened them from " the hole of the 
pit"; and to see what would be the result. "Truth 
springeth out of the earth, and Righteousness hath 
looked down from heaven." This providential un- 
veiling of the civilization of the most ancient Chaldsea, 
at Telloh and Niffer and elsewhere, pushes back all 
our accustomed reckonings of elates and conditions; 
and it takes time and much reflection to adjust our 
thoughts anew. Lately, in this sort of study, the 
author has been led to re-examine passages in the 
New Testament referring to the life of Abraham, and 
especially an expression in the Epistle of the Galatians 
(3. 8), where St. Paul declares that " The Scripture, 
foreseeing that God justifieth the nations of faith, 
fore-evangelized to Abraham : — ' In thee shall all the 
nations be blessed.'" Now it is usual to take the 
word " Scripture " here as a personification, as if 
St. Paul had written "God," and not "the writing." 


It was thought, apparently, to be fore-dating Scripture 
to take the word as literal, and not as a rhetorical 
fio-ure ; as if Abraham could not, in the nature of the 
case, have possessed "living oracles" in writing. But 
I trust we have now outgrown " the days of this 
ignorance," and can well hold it credible that Abra- 
ham had recorded the words of God on which he 
lived, and that those written words, as well as older 
records of his forefathers, formed part of the material 
used in writing the Book of Genesis; as St. Luke 
drew up his record of the Gospel. It is no longer 
hard to believe that Abraham, thus " fore-evangelized " 
as the well-spring of blessing for all nations, before 
his departure from Kharran (Gen. 12. 3), recorded 
those " laro-e, divine, and comfortable words," and 
that St. Paul referred to this "fore-gospel," written 
ages before the "law was brought in because of 
transgression." For St. Paul's contemporary, Josephus, 
the princely and priestly historian of his nation, 
ascribes to Abraham great learning, and quotes Berosus, 
the Chaldaean historian, to that effect, as does Eusebius 

Knowing what we now possess of the exact and 
innumerable writings of ages, even long before Abra- 
ham, is it credulous or irrational to understand 
St. Paul as referring literally to inspired writing as 
enlightening and evangelizing Abraham ? Who but 
Abraham himself would record the words wrung 
from his faithful heart, " My son ! God will provide 


Himself the lamb/' as if he had heard the Voice : 
" Behold the Lamb of God ! " — when he rejoiced that 
he should see the day of Christ, as if he beheld 
the " nations " walking in the light " of that city 
which hath the foundations" for which he was look- 
ing as a stranger and pilgrim on earth ; as we in 
our day see the "springing and germinant" fulfilment 
of those promises, while times and seasons ripen to 
eternity in the purpose of the ages. 

Here is the " touch of nature " — of " our ransomed 
nature " — to " make the whole world kin " ; and as 
that old world rises out of its grave, and we behold 
it, almost with " no hint of death in all its frame," 
is it not our high calling to " use that world as not 
abusing it" — to lay Christian hands on its hoarded 
treasures and hallow them to God ? Dean Stanley 
nobly expressed the spirit becoming well such inquiries 
as these : — " So to delineate the outward events of 
the Old and New Testament as that they should come 
home with a new power to those who by long fami- 
liarity have almost ceased to regard them as historical 
truth at all, so to bring out their inward spirit that 
the more complete realisation of their outward form 
should not degrade but exalt the faith of which they 
are the vehicle." (Preface to " Sinai and Palestine") 

This is the spirit, as seems to me, in which we may 
do true and laudable service in museums and libraries, 
in lecture-rooms and learned societies, in homes and 
studies, travels and explorations. This is surely a 


branch of the " promotion of Christian knowledge " 
which needs no apology. These records, that eye 
hath seen and ear heard, were written by learned 
scribes, many of them ages before Abraham was in 
his cradle, very many during the days of the years 
of his pilgrimage. But God, Who has thus kept for 
us these records of the times of the " old fathers " — 
and even of " the old time before them " — " inhabiteth 
eternity " and " hath given unto us eternal life, and 
this life is in His Son." As it is written : — " Eye 
hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered 
into the heart of man, the things which God hath 
prepared for them which love Him ; but God hath 
revealed them unto us by His Spirit." " So, then, 
they which be of faith are blessed together with the 
faithful Abraham." 

H. G. T. 

Monday in Easter Week, April 19th, 1897. 

P.S. — Since this Preface was completed I have 
read with great pleasure the small and handy volume of 
Pastor Stosch, of Berlin, The Origin of Genesis (Eliot 
Stock, 1897), in which the author argues from internal 
evidence that the chapters here studied were indeed 
originally written by Abraham himself, excepting 
that the fourteenth chapter was recorded by Melchi- 
zedek. I prefer to recommend the perusal of this 
book rather than attempt to condense its interesting 
and very thoughtful line of examination. 


The promised volume of Prof. Hommel has also 
been added just now to the valuable publications of 
the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. 
It is entitled Ancient Hebrew Tradition as Illustrated 
by the Monuments : a Protest against the Modern 
School of Old Testament Criticism. This is a clear 
and intelligible condensation of very cogent external 
evidence, including the striking results of comparison 
with the Arabian researches of Dr. Glaser and others, 
and an estimate of the retrospective inferences to be 
drawn from the Tel el-Amarna Tablets. This eminent 
Assyriologist speaks thus : " I confidently assert that 
all the traditions concerning the period before Joseph 
{i.e. of the Patriarchs, including the primitive records 
which Abraham brought with him from Chaldsea), 
which have been handed down to us in Genesis in 
various recensions, were even at that time current 
among the Israelites, and that, too, in a written form " 
{i.e. during their stay in Egypt], p. 296— " traditions 
put into writing long before the time of Moses," 
p. 307. " We have clear evidence that Abraham 
must have brought the primitive traditions with him, 
and that they were not borrowed for the first time 
from the Canaanites after the conquest of the region 
to the west of Jordan." 

This very important addition to the " pre-critical " 
treatment of this great subject is entirely confirmatory 
of the tenor of these Studies, which were published 
in the same year (1878) that saw the beginning of 


Wellhausen's History of Israel. Well might Bishop 
Lightfoot thus moderately estimate the danger of a 
sceptical mood in his celebrated defence of the New 
Testament : — " It seems to be assumed that, because 
the sceptical spirit has its proper function in scientific 
inquiry (though even here its excesses will often im- 
pede progress), therefore its exercise is equally useful 
and equally free from danger in the domain of 
criticism. A moment's reflection, however, will show 
that the cases are widely different." " In whatever 
relates to morals and history — in short, to human life 
in all its developments — where mathematical or 
scientific demonstration is impossible, and where con- 
sequently everything depends on the even balance of 
the judicial faculties, scepticism must be at least as 
fatal as credulity."* 

H. G. T. 

May 20th ; 1897. 

* Essays on the Work entitled Supernatural Religion (1889), page 26. 



Description of the Plates ....... xxi 


Abraham's Fatherland .... 

Religious "Worship in Abraham's Time ..... 20 

Political and Social Life in Chald-ea ... 4G 

Migration to Kharran ...... .61 

The Land of Canaan ...... .75 

The Place of Sichem ........ 89 

S 6517. b 

xv iii CONTENTS. 



The Canaanite 94 

Abraham goes down to Egypt . . . . . .123 

Egypt in the Twelfth Dynasty . . . . . .131 

The Hyksos 160 

Abraham returns to Canaan . . . . . .189 

Elam and its Kings — Kedor-La'omer's "War and Defeat . 196 

Genesis Historical, not Mythical . . . . .237 

Appendix of Notes . . . . • • • .243 

Index . . . . . . . • • • .251 


I. — Royal Hittite (Coloured Frontispiece). 
II. — Naram-Sin, Nebuchadrezzar, and Khammurabi. 
III. — Marduk-nadin-akhi. 
IV. — Group of Heads Typical of Races. 
V. — Amenemhat, Khafka, and Teta and his Wife. 
VI. — Hyksos Statuary. 

VII. — Two New Heads, Probably Hyks6s, etc. 
VIII. — Hittites and Amorites. 
IX. — Arabs, Syrians, etc. 
X. — Babylonian Seal-cylinders. 



Plate III. 





Plate IV. 


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Plate Y. 


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Plate YI. 

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( xxi ) 


Plate I. Frontispiece. See page 113. Chromo-lithograph f rom 
a water-colour drawing by the Author. Beniaining portion of one 
of the long panels in relief, executed in a kind of porcelain, from 
the ruins of a palace of Barneses III. at Tel-el- Yahudieh, in Lower 
Egypt, identified as a Kheta (Hittite). It has always seemed to 
me a princess or queen, and I quite believe so thought Dr. Birch, 
in whose old study at the British Museum the drawing was made, 
but it has, I am told, been doubted whether it may not represent a 
man. (See Prof. Hayters Lewis, T.S.B.A., vn., 177, etc., and 
Mr. Griffith's " Tel-el- Yahudieh," Eg. Expl. Fund, for descriptions 
of these beautiful enamelled works in porcelain.) This, and another, 
representing a Kheta king or prince (given in colour as frontispiece 
to my Studies on the Times of Abraham), exhibit the more refined 
and handsome aspect of the Kheta countenance, which in its 
coarser examples we have in Plate VII., and in their own portrai- 
ture from Mer'ash, which I long ago identified as a chief town of 
a Hittite kingdom — Markhashi. The sub-aquiline, finely-curved 
nose of this princess is characteristic ; rather thick, but not coarse, 
lips, and general outward curve of the face, but not a notably 
retreating chin. 

Plate II. Two typical heads from Babylonia. See pages 207, 234. 
Beliefs representing most renowned monarchs, rulers, and con- 
querors, viz. A, Naram-Sin, son of Sargon I. (cir. 3800 B.C.), whose 
features are of that straight and continuous outline shown also in 
the Babylonian head given in Plate IV. (H), and not unlike the 
familiar Greek type, with which compare the cameo of Nebuchad- 
nezzar the Great from an onyx cameo in the Museum at the 
Hague, Fig. B. With this is to be contrasted the aquiline Semitic 
profile of Abraham's contemporary Khammurabi (Amraphel, king 


of Shin'ar) given in Fig. C. These fine and extremely important 
portraits have that familiar and modern look which is so surprising 
also in very early Egyptian sculpture. Khammurabi's attitude 
seems devotional, while his remote predecessor's, sceptre and 
weapon in hand, speaks only of dignified command. 

Plate III. The head of Marduk-nadin-akhe, king of Babylon, 
cir. 1150, from a beautiful black boundary stone in the British 
Museum. It apparently furnishes a rare specimen of the Turanian 
type of ancient Chaldsea, as explained by Prof. Lenormant and 
Dr. Ernest Hamy (La langue primitive de la Chaldee, p. 383 
and plate). 

Cf. a good woodcut of the entire figure, front. G. Smith, 
Hist, of Babylonia (S. P. C. K.). 

Plate IY. Eight typical heads, drawn by the Author. See 
page 101, etc. 

A. Head of the "chief of the mountains," Absha, from the 

procession of Amu, in the tomb of Khnumhotep at Beni- 
Hassan (from the Eg. Expl. Fund memoir on Beni-Hassan 
by Mr. Griffith, Vol. I.), twelfth dynasty. 

B. Head of Buten, bringing tribute. Wall-painting, from a 

tomb at Thebes, twelfth dynasty. British Museum. 
G. Jew of South Palestine. One of the men of Lakish making 
submission to Sennakherib. British Museum. 

D. Semitic-Elamite ambassador. British Museum. Assyrian 

Basement, No. 121. 

E. Arab fleeing on a camel. British Museum. Assyrian 


F. Northern Israelite. One of Jehu's officers bearing tribute 

to Shalmaneser II. Black obelisk in British Museum. 
The oldest known monument which gives with certainty 
the physiognomy of the sons of Abraham, still perfectly 

G. Susianian captive. Assyrian Basement, Nos. 58-62. 

H. Babylonian war with Saiil-Mugina. Assyrian Basement. 
Compare this profile with those of Naram-sin and Nebu- 
chadnezzar and E in the plate, and contrast them with A, 
B, C, D, F. 


Plate V. Egyptians of early date, drawn by the Author. See 
page 164, etc. 

A. Profile, and B, front face, of Amenemhat, a functionary of 
the twelfth dynasty, from the statuette in black stone in 
the British Museum. A characteristic type of the date. 

C. Statue in diorite of Kha-f-ra, the Pharaoh of the fourth dyn- 

asty, who built the second Pyramid of Gizeh, with the pro- 
tecting Horus-hawk, See Be Rouge's Six Prem. Dynasties. 

D. Head of Teta, the architect of the second Pyramid, and E, 

the head of his wife, from the false doorway of their tomb 
brought from Gizeh. British Museum. Typical of ruling 
Egyptians of the great fourth dynasty, whom Sir R. Owen 
compared to " Europeans." 

Plate VI. Group of Hyksos sculpture. Seepage 164, etc. The 
old attribution of sculpture of this marked character to the Hyksos 
has been very well and explicitly vindicated by M. JSTaville in his 
memoir on Bubastis {Eg. Expl. Fund), and also in his highly 
interesting paper on The Historical Results of the Excavations at 
Bubastis, read July 5, 1889, to the Victoria Institute (Trans. V. I., 
Vol. xxiii., pp. 137, etc.). " If, as I believe, the Hyksos were 
Mesopotamians they were not barbarians ; they belonged to 
nations which had already reached a high degree of civilization, 
and which in particular were well skilled in the art of sculpture" 
(p. 147). " The type of the features is quite different from the 
Egyptian. The cheek bones are high and strongly marked, the 
nose wide and flat and aquiline, the mouth projecting forward with 
stout lips. At first sight it is impossible not to be struck by the 
fact that we have there the image of a foreign race and not of 
native Egyptians. Thus, there has been an art of the Hyksos, or 
rather the conquered have made the education of their masters; 
for, except the characteristic foreign type, the workmanship, the 
style, and the attitude [of the Sphinxes of San] are absolutely 
Egyptian, and these monuments must have been made by Egyptian 
sculptors. . . . 

Some Egyptologists have suggested that the strange monuments 
of Tanis were, perhaps, the produce of local art, or that they 
belonged to a much older period. In this last case Apepi would only 
have usurped what had been done before him, and there would be 
no Hyksos style. I must say that when I went for the first time 


to Tanis I very nearly adopted this view ; but the discoveries made 
in the excavations of 1888 have convinced me that Mariette's 
opinion was the truth. There has been a Hyksos art, and kings of 
later time have not hesitated in taking possession for themselves 
of what the so-called barbarians had made." p. 148. 

M. Naville then vividly describes the discovery of the two 
Hyksos statues — the one was at Gizeh and the other in the British 
Museum — and the legs of the statue of Khian ; the visit of 
Dr. Schliemann and Dr. Virchow, and the opinion of the latter 
" that the Hyksos monuments must be considered as representing 
Turanians, without being able to determine with which branch of 
this very large stock they must be connected. It was the same as 
the conclusion put forward in this country by Prof. Flower, who 
sees in the monuments of San a Mongoloid type. Turanians or 
Mongols — such is the racial origin attributed to the Hyksos by 
high authorities ; but that does not mean that the population itself 
was Turanian. The worship of Set-Baal, the influence of the 
Hyksos invasion over the customs of Egypt, and especially over 
the language, points clearly to a Semitic element which was pre- 
vailing among the conquerors, though their kings — at least those 

who left us their portraits — were evidently not Semites 

I said that I believed the Hyksos to be Mesopotamians. The 
researches of Assyriologists all agree that from a very early epoch 
the population of Babylonia consisted of several strata of popula- 
tions having each a different origin. It was then what it is now ; 
and I believe that the conquest of Egypt by the Hyksos is not un- 
like what would happen at the present day if the population of 
Mesopotamia overran the valley of the Nile. You would have 
masses, in great majority of Semitic race, speaking a Semitic 
language, having a Semitic religion, and being under the command 
of Turks, who are not Semites but Turanians " (p. 150). He then 
describes the two royal statues, saying of the younger ones : — 
" Consider attentively the face, look at the beautifully modelled 
features, the special care which the artist has taken to reproduce 
all the characteristic signs of the race, the strongly marked cheek 
bones, the stout und projecting lips, the somewhat hollow cheeks, 
the fleshy corners of the mouth. If you bear in mind that this 
has been cut in an extremely hard stone you will agree with me 
that this head, regardless of its historical value, is a work of art, 
and even a masterpiece " (p. 151). 


The reader will agree that we could not spare a word of this 
masterly estimate. M. Naville points out that the head in the 
British Museum represents a younger man than that at Gizeh, 
" but it is possible also that it is the same man at two epochs of his 
life, one young, perhaps, when he had but shortly ascended the 
throne, the other when he was more advanced in years." With 
four large and beautiful photographs of the younger face before 
me, most kindly given by M. Naville in 1887, and the vivid remem- 
brance of the statue itself in the British Museum, and also with 
the ftne photogravure of the front view of the older face {Bubastis, 
Plate XI.), it seems to me very probable that they represent the 
same Hyksos Pharaoh at different times of life. I may refer for 
more detail to a paper of my own on the Hyksos in the Journal of 
the Anthropological Institute for November, 1889, pp. 184, etc., and 
to the selection of Hyksos heads in the plates which we are 
describing, viz. : — 

A. Profile, and B. Front face of the Sphinx of San described 

in the text, page 168. 
C. The head in the Ludovisi Collection at Rome, page 166. 
.D. The broken statue found in the Fayum, page 167. 

E. The younger colossal head from Bubastis, in the British 

Museum, page 172. 

F. The statuette of green basalt in the Museum of the Louvre, 

page 171. 
I think M. Deveria was right, and that F is a face of a Hyksos 
Pharaoh. The features are distinctly of the character of the other 
heads of this group. M. ]STaville has well observed that the bodies 
are often done conventionally by inferior sculptors, but the por- 
traits by highly accomplished artists. The remark of Mr. Ball 
applies : — " It is not likely that the Osarkons and Shishaks were 
of so Mongolian a type " (Mon. Illust., No. 55). 

Plate VII. A, B. Front and three-quarters aspect of head of 
a Pharaoh in Tcloft with urseus, from photographs most kindly 
sent to me by the Eev. William MacGregor, Vicar of Tamworth, 
from the original in his collection at Bolehall Manor House, 
purchased by him in Lower Egypt. The material is, strange 
to say, obsidian. It is of the character of the Hyksos sculp- 
ture so-called, and rightly, as I believe. The face has the same 


underbuilding as the San Sphinx type, and the Bnbastis heads 
at Gizeh and the British Museum, which in front view are nar- 
rower than one would expect. (See for the older head ISTaville's 
Buhastis, Plate XI.) The sub-aquiline nose, thick but expressive 
lips (the upper lip rather deeply channelled), the sad, anxious, 
not fierce or surly, look, are in common. But the chin recedes 
more than in the San Sphinx, and the contour of the coun- 
tenance is more like that of the Kheta, especially in the lines of the 
nose. The eye-brows are strongly marked. In all points the heads 
from Bubastis shew gentleness and refinement modifying the same 
ethnic type. 

When I compare this strongly marked face with the cast of Miss 
Edwards' royal head of a statuette from the Peretie Museum at 
Beyrout, it grows distinctly on me to perceive the same type in a 
young and delicate countenance. 

In Mr. MacGregor's obsidian head the muscular structure of the 
facial type is revealed by a rather haggard leanness, and confirms 
what we have learned from the rest. Its evident masterly reality 
in so strange and almost impossible a material is amazing. As far 
as I know, this head, as also the next, has not before been pub- 

C, D, E. Front face, three-quarters, and profile views of a head 
now in the Edwards' Museum at University College, London, from 
a cast given me by the owner, the late Miss Amelia B. Edwards, 
thus described by herself : — 

"Head of a Hyksos King. 

" This head is in dark grey granite veined with diorite, evidently 
from the Sinaitic quarries, which were those worked by the Hyksos 
rulers. It was purchased by me from Mr. Grevile Chester in 1886, 
and it came from the celebrated collection of M. Peretie at Beyrout. 

" This is the first head of Hyksos type wearing the hlaft and 
uraeus of royalty known to science, and the first that has been seen 
in this country. It precedes by two years the Hyksos statues of 
Apepi found this year at Bubastis by M. Xaville. 

"Amelia B. Edwards, 

" Hon. Sec, Eg. Expl. Fund." 
" Sept. 3rd, 1888." 


The three beautiful photographs now reproduced in collotype by 
the Woodbury Company were executed by Mr. William Percival 
Wiseman from the cast in my possession. 

Plate YIII. A. " Syrian," almost certainly Hittite (Pet He, 222). 

This face is no more strange than the portraits made by Hittites 
of themselves, as I proposed to shew from a photograph kindly 
given me by my friend, Dr. J. Gwyther, made by him at Mer'ash 
in Northern Syria, but, unfortunately, the slab was so much worn 
that the photograph cannot well be reproduced. See, however, the 
quaint portraits of another Hittite relief sculpture in Prof. Sayce's 
Hittites, p. 63 (R. T. S.). 

Dr. Gwyther's Hittites are really like heroes of "Donnybrook 
Fair," far more than they resemble any of our notions of Orien- 
tals, and my intention was to prove to the reader's eyes that the 
Egyptians had not " caricatured" the Hittites in such faces as A 
or B, two heads from Prof. Petrie's casts, 215, 216. 

G. Hittite warriors (Petrie, 13, 15). 

D. Eelief panel brought from Tell-el- Yehudieh, from a water-colour 
drawing by the Author (see frontispiece of Studies in the Times of 
Abraham). This and the companion panel represented in colours 
in the frontispiece of this volume will shew a much more refined 
and cultured version of the Hittite face, to which, indeed, great 
beauty was ascribed by the Egyptians in some favoured princess. 

E. A northern Syrian of Aia, which I take to be Kefr Aya near 
the Orontes {Petrie, 23). 

F. Amorite king from a panel of Eameses III. at Tell-el-Tehu- 
dieh, from a water-colour drawing by the Author (see Times of 
Abraham). It will be observed that the long beard, scaled off, has 
yet left its mark. When perfect, this figure exactly resembled the 
portrait of the same king in relief-sculpture on stone at Medinet- 
Habu, far away, a remarkable proof of the fidelity of Egyptian 

G. A good example of Semitic Syrian race, and of Egyptian 
art. {Petrie, 238). 

H. A Syrian of Merom (Petrie, 123). 


Plate IX. A. Chief of Punt, south-west Arabia and the 
Somali coast, temp. Hor-em-heb (Petrie, 5). 

B. Officer of Punt {Petrie, 113). 

C. Man of Yanuamu, North Syrian (Petrie, 81a : see also Petrie's 
Hist, of Egypt, n., 182). 

D. Menti of Sati. Arab of the desert (Petrie, 95). 

E. Shasu. Nomad Arab (Petrie, 42). 

F. Jewish governor of Gannata, temp. Rehoboam (Petrie, 37). 

G. Jewish governor of Yud-hammelek, probably Yehud of Dan, 
temp. Rehoboam (Petrie, 38). 

H. Sennakherib in his chariot at Lakish (British Museum). 

Plate X. Seal and seal-cylinders, in the British Museum, from 
casts by Mr. Ready. See page 140. 

A. Seal-cylinder found by Gen. di Cesnola at Curium in Cyprus, 
bearing the name of ISTaram-Sin (see text, page 207), described and 
figured by Prof. Sayce, T. S. B. A., v., p. 442. The inscription, as 
translated by him, reads thus: — "Abil-Istar son of ]lu-balid, the 
servant of the god Naram-Sin." Abil-Istar is worshipping Naram- 
Sin, "bowing himself in the house of Rimmon/' or Rammanu, the 
Sky-god, who is represented with his symbol, the thunderbolt, 
standing behind the king, while a priest stands behind the votary, 
over whose head (in grotesque false perspective) an antelope falls 

B. The sacrifice of a bull, perhaps to Sin, from whom showers 
descend, as in the hymn given in page 22, etc. Beside him another 
god stands on a gryphon, symbol of the Sun-god. Compare Fig. F 
in this plate. 

G. This remarkable seal is explained by Lenormant (Les 
Origines cle Vhistoire, i., -pp. 119, 120). Who but this clear- 
sighted and gifted writer could have divined the meaning and 
analogy ? And who can but wonder at the imagery of devotion 
emblematic of things supreme, and consecrated for ever in the 
inspired words of God's prophet; just as the vast stages of ascent 
to the shrine of Babylonian temples furnished the vision of Jacob 
at Bethel, so far as the outward visible sign was concerned. 

The readers of the prophecies of Ezekiel will know how he was 
made of God to behold things of heaven suggested by these Baby- 


Ionian symbols, as Isaiah, beheld the glory of God in His house, and 
the burning seraphim. 

" On waves, expressed as usual by tremulous lines, floats a 
wonderful and living vessel, which terminates at stern and stem by 
a human figure issuing as far as the waist. On this vessel one 
beholds two Kirubi, or winged bulls, back to back, seen in profile, 
which turn their human faces towards the spectator. These two 
Kirubi suppose necessarily the existence of two others, whom they 
hide, to support the other side of a ' pavois,' which they bear on 
their shoulders. On this ' pavois ' is a throne, where sits a bearded 
god, clad in a long robe, crowned with an upright tiara, or cidaris, 
holding in hand a short sceptre and a large ring, a circle without 
ornaments.* A personage of smaller dimensions, clad in a long 
robe, waits before the god as attending his orders ; it is evidently 
his angel, his maldch, as one would say in Hebrew, his shulcal, 
as one would say in Assyrian ; it is he who will serve as mediator 
to communicate between the god and his worshipper, who contem- 
plates him in an attitude of devotion." 

" All this offers a singular conformity with that which Ezekiel 
describes when he sees the four 'hay 6th, or Kerubim, in pairs back 
to back, and moving themselves ' each one in the direction of his 
face ' towards the four sides. 

" Above the heads of the animals it had the appearance of a 
'pavois' (raqia') f of shining crystal, which stretched on high above 
their heads . . . and above the 'pavois,' which was over their 
heads, it had the appearance of a sapphire stone in form of a 
throne ; and on this form of a throne appeared as the figure of a 
man placed above it on high. 

" And I saw as enamel ('haschmld) [_' amber,' A. Y.], as a fire 
within which was this man, and which radiated all around, from 
his loins upwards, and from his loins downwards, I saw as fire, 
and as if a shining light with which he was encompassed. 

" Such as the look of the bow which is in the cloud in the day of 
rain, such was the look of this shining light which surrounded 

* This is the same symbol which the Sun-god holds in the tablet of Abu-habba, 
Mori. Illust., No. Ill, as Mr. Ball says, " indicating the straight course of the sun 
across the heavens," which he compares to the Egyptian hieroglyph shen, of 
similar form. 

■ + I do not know what English word to use. Our A. V. and R. V. have "firma- 
ment." Segond translates in French "ciel," and in the same word Genesis "expanse." 


him ; it was the vision of the image of the glory of Jehovah " 
(Ezek. 1. 26, 28 ; cp. 10. 1, 18, 19). 

" The vision of Chapter 10 adds one agent more, still answering 
to one of the personages figured on the Assyrian cylinder : it is 
•the man clad in linen, carrying an ink-horn (ecritoire) at his 
girdle,' who received the orders of Jehovah seated on His throne 
above the cherubim, and who executes them as an angel or his 

Space forbids to quote further from this marvellous but just 
interpretation of the symbolic figuration of things divine which 
Ezekiel beheld transfigured in vision by the river Chebar. Lenor- 
mant adds footnotes still further developing his explanation of the 
cylinder, for which he refers to Plate III., Fig. K, of my Studies 
of the Times of Abraham. 

D. A cylinder-seal in the British Museum, representing " the 
god of Kharran," and so inscribed above the head of the tall 
figure, which I now believe to represent Sin, the Moon-god, of 
whom Kharran is the most ancient known seat of worship. The 
symbolic crescent is above his head. The small figure on the right 
probably represents the " messenger " god, Nebo, whose planet, 
Mercury, called "the prince of the men of Kharran," is the star (as 
I suppose) above the altar (see text, page 72). 

E. The celebrated seal-cylinder of the brother of a king of Erech, 
on which I have commented in the text (pages 140, 141). It is 
figured, and well described, by Mr. Ball (Mon. Illust., No. 43). 
" According to the inscription in the right-hand top corner [it] 
belonged to Ussi, the brother of the king of Erech, the scribe, thy 
servant. It may be referred to the times of Ur-ba'u and Dun-gi. 
The central figure, the only one whose head is covered, who carries 
a sceptre, and towards whom the others look, those nearest him 
having the hands folded on the breast in the usual attitude of 
deference, is probably the king of Erech. He wears the flounced 
robe of the Babylonian priests and gods, which, according to 
Heuzey, was really a fleecy stuff or woollen tissue, with tufts 
arranged in rows, called by the Greeks Jcaiinakes (the poet 
Menander mentions a purple robe of this kind, cf Josh. 7. 21). 
Two of his attendants wear a dress of similar material, and carry 
wands of office. Immediately behind him walks a shaven person- 
age in a fringed robe, who may represent the scribe, the owner of 


the seal. An armour-bearer, or body guard, with bow and quiver, 
and an arrow in the right hand, leads the way. Under the inscrip- 
tion two slave boys are seen carrying a stool and a bundle of some 
kind." * 

F. A god with a guardian gryphon, crested, and a sacrificial 
animal, as I suppose, behind (seal-cylinder, British Museum). 
This is given for the sake of the gryphon, which may be compared 
with the symbolic creature of Sutekh. 

* See The Queen's Printers' Illustrated Teacher's Bible, 1897. 




"TOOTHING in our days is more wonderful, not even the 
-^ colossal growth of natural science, than the fresh start 
of history. Everywhere the structure of historic litera- 
ture is rising anew on the basis of archeology, and even 
more than this : for as in the Church of St. Clement at 
Rome, deeper, more ancient, and hitherto unsuspected 
chambers have been brought to light, so the sagacious 
labours of antiquary and scholar have now recovered whole 
empires, such as the first kingdom of Chaldaea, and the 
primeval Elam, and a language, civilization, literature, and 
polity fresh risen from the dust of four thousand years. 
We need not speak of Egypt, whose triumph has been 
already celebrated. Still Egypt is daily yielding fresh spoils ; 
and in her records the germs even of European history are 
with keen delight recognized by the veterans of classic lore.* 
There is scarcely a study of more absorbing interest than 
is afforded by this new birth of history. It enlists students 
of many sciences, enrolling them in one guild, whose brethren 
learn at last duly to honour one another. In the cave 
geologist meets archaeologist over the engraven mammoth- 
tusk. Hither comes the artist too, smitten with surprise at 

* Gladstone, Contemporary Review, July 1S74; Homeric Synchronism. 1876. 

S 6517. 


the genial freedom of some pristine Landseer's sketch. Here 
the zoologist recognises with delight the shaggy fell of fur 
and hair and the gigantic sweep of tusk, which authenticate 
at once the subject and the savage artist's fidelity. 

Over the prisms and tablets of Babylonia stand men of 
science and of literature in equal rapture. Queen Victoria's 
astronomer catechizes the astronomer royal of King Sargina. 
The scholar of Oxford, forsaking awhile his Bodleian, revels 
in the archives of Kouyunjik. The veteran ethnologist of 
London devotes himself to the life-like statuary of earliest 
Egypt, spirantia signet; and the poet of the nineteenth cen- 
tury honours as he best may the " noble rage " of Pentaiir, 
and pores with wonder over the descent of Ishtar into the 
"place of no return." The archaeologist becomes the judge, 
and often the vindicator, of the aspersed annalist of old 
time. The " father of pickaxes " avenges the quarrel of the 
" father of history " ; Herodotus, Manetho, Berosus, even 
Livy, even Josephus, raise their honoured brows from amidst 
the dust of exploration with laurels greener than ever. 

But this is not our chief point. There is one venerable 
collection of records, one " Bibliotheca," which professes 
divinely to make known the " purpose of ages." It is either 
historical, or else, as men euphemistically say, " unhistorical ; " 
which means fabulous. 

How do these chronicles bear the collation with independent 
and authentic evidence now borne by contemporary records ? 

Was the old isolation of Scripture better or worse for its 
credibility ? For better for worse it is now for ever past, 
and must give way to a manifold twining with the web of 
human memorial. No longer do the royal personages of 
Holy Writ hold their way as in another world to our 
imagination. Their names, their cities, friends, enemies, 
alliances, conquests, captivities, are read in hieroglyphic and 


in cuneiform. It was, after all, tins very world in which 
they lived and died. 

This former isolation of which I have spoken, this seclu- 
sion of Scripture history from almost all besides which Ave 
were learning under the epithet "profane," was a matter of 
secret cogitation to many minds. For our own part, every 
new link of true connection between Biblical and other 
history does not darken or desecrate the Bible, but lights 
and hallows that other. It is true enough, indeed, that we 
could not reasonably wish the inspired writers to have filled 
their scrolls with things more or less remote from the 
supreme purpose of God; but when in His benign pro- 
vidence these records fall into our hands, they waken up a 
thousand dormant questions, quicken a reverent curiosity, 
substantiate or else at once annihilate our dreamy conjectures' 
and make us feel as we read again the hallowed stories of 
Abraham, Joseph, David, or Daniel, how truly the divine 
purpose ever was, not that His servants should be taken 
from the world, but kept from the evil, and made "salt 
of the earth" to those with whom they had to do. 

The test of " internal coincidence " has been applied to 
the Old Testament with admirable sagacity and effect by 
the late Professor Blunt* and others, and we may well be 
thankful that this line of proof was enforced by the very 
absence of external testimony. It is the task of this day to 
recognize this external testimony, never seen by our fathers, 
but now given into our hands as fresh as it is ancient ; 
much of it in the shape of actual parallel evidence, but 
far more in the scarcely less valuable form of "historical 
illustration," f the material out of which the enlightened 
imagination represents the times and men that were of 

* Undesigned Coincidences. Murray. 

t See for instance Hist. Illustrations of the Old Test, by Prof. Rawlinson. S.P.C.K. 

A 2 


old ; for the historian must be a seer before he can be a 
judge, and this historic divination (so to speak) is one of 
the highest achievements of literature. 

Meanwhile, humbler workmen may select and store the 
material. We will, however, write a few words as to the 
available bearings of the work hitherto wrought on the 
future study of Holy Writ. 

And first, it is quite clear that the mere occurrence of a 
host of names, personal and local, alike in the monumental 
records of the past, and in the faithful traditional memory 
of the present (as in Egyptian or Assyrian annals, on the 
one hand, for instance, and in the rich harvest of ancient 
names gathered by the surveying officers in Palestine, on the 
other), is of very high value in direct confirmation. 

Then the study of the recovered monumental languages 
(especially Egyptian, Akkadian, and Assyrian) is beginning 
to take effect in the verbal interpretation of Scripture, and 
will be of more and more importance in settling the true 
meaning of words and phrases, now rescued from conjectural 
theory, and brought into the light of true knowledge. 

Of history we have briefly spoken. Its bony framework, 
chronology, is as yet very dimly discerned. But we believe 
that the spiritual life of history, theology, will be verified 
by the deepest research as truly as it is approved by the 
inmost consciousness of man. 

Of this "great argument" something will Lave to be 
stated in these pages. 

In collating the records of Holy Scripture with extraneous 
evidence, we will bear in mind tbeir relative rank. 

We gladly quote from a distinguished French historian 
his judgment on this point. Of the earliest portion of the 
Book of Genesis, M. Francois Lenormant thus writes : * — 

* Man. of Arte. Hist, of the East, Vol. I., p. 1. Asher, London, 1S09. 


" This sacred story, even without the assured and solemn 
authority which it derives from the inspired character 
of the book in which it is found, would always form in 
sound criticism the base of all history ; for merely considered 
from a human point of view it contains the most aneient 
tradition as to the first days of the human race, the only 
one which has not been disfigured by the introduction of 
fantastic myths of disordered imagination run wild." 

Our endeavour in this work is, not so much to de- 
lineate a portrait of Abraham, "the friend of God," as to 
sketch-in the background of the historical picture in which 
he is the central figure : for the devious path of his pilgrim- 
age here on earth, led him " from one kingdom to another 
people " : from his cradle-land in Mesopotamia, the mother- 
country of all civilization, to the future home of God's people, 
hallowed even then by the presence of a Melchizedek and his 
fellow- worshippers, and into that marvellous land of Egypt, 
where the light still shines on monuments winch were old when 
Abram came thither. In truth his tent-pegs were everywhere 
struck into ground already rich with the harvest of the past, 
and broadcast with the seed of all the world's future destiny. 

The substance of the following work originally took 
the form of Lectures delivered during the winters of 1872 
and 1873. An epitome was read to the members of the Vic- 
toria Institute in April 1877, and is published in the Transac- 
tions, xii., p. 110, &c, with the discussion which followed.* 

* In 1878 the author published a small quarto volume with illustrations, mostly 
from his own drawings, entitled Studies on the Times of Abraham (Bagsters, 
15, Paternoster Row) . This has been recast and greatly enlarged by the author, with 
the title slightly altered, and now forms one of the series entitled by the publishers, 
Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode, Her Majesty's Printers, The Bible Student's 
Library, under the general supervision of the Rev. Canon Girdlestone, to whose kind 
and friendly counsel the author is greatly indebted. He has now also, as formerly, 
to acknowledge, with most earnest thanks, the kindness of his friend Prof. Sayce, 
in examining the proofs, correcting translations, and in many valuable forms of 


In 1875 appeared the first volume of a work by the Rev. R. 
Allen, entitled, Abraham: his Life, Times, and Travels. Two 
more volumes were promised, but have not yet been published. 

Mr. Allen has evidently devoted much careful study to 
the archaeology of early Chaldaea, and his Appendix contains 
a good collection of geographical descriptions. He has chosen 
the form of a biographical narrative, written as by a con- 
temporary, which ends (as far as it has yet appeared) with 
the death of Abraham's father at Kharran. The Author of 
the following work had carried the life of Abraham, in 
his Lectures, down to the end of the campaign of Kedor- 
la'omer. The two works are entirely independent of each 
other. In 1877 was published, Abraham the Friend of God, 
by J. Oswald Dykes, M.A., D.D. This work is a biography 
including the whole of the patriarch's career. Its plan is 
altogether different from that of the present volume. 

The footnotes to the following pages will guide the reader 
to the sources of information, and will, it is hoped, mark out 
a course of inquiry to many studious minds ; for the Author 
trusts he may rather awaken than satisfy an earnest interest 
in his subject. 

He believes that the true conditions of the patriarch's life 
may be better estimated in the light of these and kindred 
studies. Let not the devout Christian despise them as super- 
fluous or derogatory. He may not have met with those who 
believe that Abraham no more really existed than Hercules. 
Let the sceptic for his part honestly consider that the his- 
toric Abraham has a very good account of himself to give 
to the critical inquirer, which must fairly be explained away 
before the mythological Abraham can take his place. This 
topic is more fully treated in an Appendix. The highest and 
divine aspects of the subject do not fall within the special 
scope of these humbler contributions to Biblical study. 


None the less does the Author recognize the transcendent 
significance of the person, the life, the faith of Abraham, 
which gives a dignity far beyond the nobility of earth to all 
that concerns him. 

The Author acknowledges with lively gratitude the in- 
valuable information and assistance so generously given him 
by distinguished scholars and antiquaries, especially by the 
late Dr. Birch, the deeply regretted George Smith, and other 
gentlemen of the British Museum, the Rev. Professor Sayce of 
Oxford, M. Chabas, the Rev. D. H. Haigh, the late W. R. 
Cooper, Secretary of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, "W. 
St. Chad Boscawen, Esq., and Colonel C. R. Conder, R.E., 
formerly in command of the Survey of Palestine. 

He believes that he has fairly indicated in the footnotes his 
obligations to the published works from which he has drawn, 
both English and Continental. 

In the references the initial letters W. A. I. designate the 
Inscriptions of Western Asia, published by the Trustees of 
the British Museum ; P. E. F. the Quarterly Statements pub- 
lished by the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. 

In the present unsettled orthography of Eastern names, it 
has been difficult to preserve entire consistency ; nor is the 
Author prepared to defend himself at all points ; but he has 
endeavoured to steer an even course in the main, avoiding, 
for instance, such confusions as have arisen between Kharran 
and Haran, between Kham the patriarch and Ham the city, 
and working in the general direction of orthographic correct- 
ness and uniformity. 

By way of Appendix are given some notes which have 
occurred to the mind of the Author as desirable for ex- 

( 8 ) 


Abraham's fatherland. 

THE land of Abram's nativity was known by the name of 
its capital city, the dwelling-place of Terakh, the true 
site of which has been recovered of late years, and identified 
by the most ancient inscriptions found on the spot. 

On the westward side of the Euphrates rise from the dead 
marshy level mounds of ruin, which possibly mark the birth- 
place of Abram, and which gave the name of Uru-ma or Ur- 
ma, " Ur-land," to the whole region of Akkad. 

The plain, reaching to the Persian Gulf on the south-east, 
bounded (or nearly so) by the Euphrates westward, and the 
Tigris (Hiddekel) eastward, and on the north by the edge of 
the higher undulating country of Upper Mesopotamia, was 
about the size of Denmark, or less than, half the size of 
England. It had a rich alluvial soil, brought thither by the — 

" . . . . streams which, fast or slow, 
Draw down iEonian hills, and sow 
The dust of continents to be." 

In fact the very land is, like Egypt, due to the work of the 
rivers themselves in their annual overflow, an agency which 
has added about one hundred and twenty or one hundred and 
thirty miles to the south, since the days of which we are 

It is characteristic, perhaps, of these sons of Shem, that 
their home at that time should have been in the great city on 
the westward side of the river, if, as Prof. Sayce writes, " the 


original home of the Semitic people was apparently Arabia." * 
From the port where the Euphrates discharged its ample 
waters into the beautiful and sheltered sea, the " ships of Ur" 
set sail, like the ships of Egypt, with their precious lading of 
corn and dates, and other fruits ; for the warm land, irrigated 
like a garden (the only natural home of the wheat-plant, 
where it was twice mown in the year and then fed down),f 
was (as classic writers tell) the richest in all Asia. The 
wheat would commonly produce two hundredfold, and at the 
highest even three hundredfold. The other chief boast of 
Chaldasa is the stately date-palm, whose endless uses for man 
and beast have been celebrated in all ages. The shady palm- 
groves embowered the whole country, laden with their delicious 
golden clusters, and mingled with tamarisk, and acacias, and 
pomegranates. " This region," says Prof. Eawlinson, " was 
amongst the most productive on the face of the earth ; 
spontaneously producing some of the best gifts of God to 
man ; and capable under careful management of being made 
one continuous garden." 

This is indeed scarcely a subject of wonder, if it was in this 
part of the earth that the Lord God had " planted a garden," 
and had "put the man whom He had formed," as Sir Henry 
Rawlinson supposes ; and the gift of the wheat-plant, indi- 
genous only in Chaldsea, has by different nations been ascribed 
to an especial divine origin. 

It is remarkable that the name of Ur emerges in the Scrip- 
ture record first as the birth-place of Terakh's sons ; nor is it 
mentioned among the antediluvian cities of Berosus.J It is 
not one of the four cities of Nimrod, which were Babel, and 
Erech (now Warka), and Akkad, and Calneh. 

* Assyr. Gram., p. S ; Maspero, Baton, &c, p. 619. 

t Anc. Mon., Vol. I., p. 31 ; De Candolle in B. & O. B., II., 266. 

X See Lesprem. Civ., Vol. II., p. 22, as to the rise of Ur. 


Now the celebrated cycle of legends discovered by Mr. G. 
Smith makes the hero-king, provisionally called Izdubar, or 
Dhubar, now read as Gilgames, whom Prof. Sayce has identified 
with the Gilgamos of iElian,* rule over an empire stretching 
from the Persian Gulf to the "land of Bit-ani, or Bachtan 
near Armenia on the north," f and his capital was Erech. 
But it is clear that in Abraham's time Ur had lately ceased 
to be the reigning city and had been succeeded by Babylon. 
Ur had dominated the whole of Babylonia in the time of 
Urukh (or rather Ur-ba'u), the great builder-king, and his 
son Dungi, whose signet cylinder is now in the British 
Museum. No one could become the legitimate lord of Shumir 
and Akkad before he had been solemnly enthroned in the 
temple at Uru (Maspero, Dawn, &c, 619). So that a great 
change had happened before the time of Abraham. 

Since I first wrote on this subject the earliest history of 
Chaldaea has been more and more revealed by a succession of 
most important excavations following in the lines of Loftus, 
Rich, Botta, and Layard. The last of these more recent works 
have been carried on by M. de Sarzec at Telloh, the site of 
the ancient city of Lagash, and by Prof. Hilprecht, equipped 
by the University of Pennsylvania, at Nuffer or Niffer, the 
site of the most primeval capital Nippur. Some outline of 
the historic results, which are even now unrolling their amaz- 
ing scroll before our eyes, must be here given to enable us to 
estimate in a rough way what sort of land and condition of 
things were those out of which Terakh and Abram were called 
to bring away their patriarchal clan at the divine summons. 

It is hard, amidst the complexity of details, to find a clear 
path and keep oneself from being lost as amidst the reedy 
jungles of those endless marshes. I may quote a little, with 

* Sayce, Bab. Lit., p. 25. Bagster, 1877. 
t Assyr. Disc, p. 205. 


grateful acknowledgment, from an excellent short paper of 
Prof. Hommel on " The Oldest History of .the Semites " {Expos. 
Times, Dec. 1896). Bat first I will explain that the con- 
jectural date for the old Sargon, viz. about 2,000 B.C., had been 
overthrown by an inscription of Nabu-nahid (Nabonidus), the 
last king of Babylon, who states that Sargon's son Naram-Sin 
lived 3,200 years before, viz. 3750 B.C. If this record is true, 
the victorious Semitic power, which held all the west country 
to the Mediterranean in subjection, must have triumphed and 
flourished some 1,500 years before the days of Abraham. The 
museums are now in possession of historic inscriptions of 
Sargon and Naram-Sin which prove their conquests in North 
Mesopotamia, North Syria, and Magan (Sinaitic Arabia and 
Midian). Thus these over-lordships were influences which had 
been at work many centuries before, instead of fresh exten- 
sions of power in the times of which we are writing. A 
mace-head of Sargon of pear-like shape, formed of hard veined 
stone and bearing his royal title, is now in the British 
Museum (see photogravure, Boscawen, The Bible and the Monu- 
ments, p. 23), and a precious bas-relief portrait of Naram-Sin 
in stone is engraved in Maspero's Lawn of Civilization, p. 602 ; 
where also may be found (p. 601) reproduced a splendid cylinder- 
seal of Sargon's scribe Ibni-shar, which, as Prof. Maspero says, 
" must be ranked among the masterpieces of Oriental engrav- 
ing." Also in the De Clercq collection is a haematite seal- 
cylinder representing " Naram-Sin, servant of the god Marti!," 
the crescent-moon above the god. (Cat. Appendix, 121 Us.) 

This is important as shewing a secondary title of devotion to 
a western god, such as I had imagined (following Gr. Smith), 
if Kudur-Lagamar had been the same person as Kudur-Mabuk. 
We now proceed to Prof. Hommel's clear statement of 
historic results, as before, and since, Prof. Hilprecht's great 
discoveries at Nippur. 


" The scheme of early Babylonian history which we were 
justified in constructing hitherto (after the publication of 
de Sarzec's Decouvertes and Part I. of Hilprecht) was some- 
thing like the following : — 

" Shortly before b.c. 4000. — Kings and the so-called elder Patesi (' priest- 
kings ') of Sirgnlla. Inscriptions purely Sumerian. 

" Cir. 3700. — Kings of Kis who certainly ruled over Sippar and Agade 
in N. Babylonia, and had possession also of Nippur. With their pre- 
decessors war had already been waged by the Patesi of Sirgulla, as is 
proved by an inscription of En-timinna. Inscriptions begin to be Semitic. 

" Cir. 3500. — Sargon and Naram-Sin. Inscriptions likewise Semitic. 

" Cir. 3300 ff. — The younger Patesi of Sirgulla, most notable of whom 
is G-udea (cir. 3000 or 2900). Inscriptions Sumerian. 

" Cir. 2800. — The so-called elder kings of Ur (Urgur, Ur-ba'u) and his 
son Dungi. The latter overthrew the Patesi of Sirgulla. Inscriptions 

" Cir. 2500 ( + ). — A series of Semitic kings of Nisin, who stand in the 
closest relation to Nippur, but rule also over Ur. Their inscriptions, 
however, are composed in Sumerian. 

" Cir. 2300. — The so-called younger kings of Ur, who were likewise 

"Cir. 2100. — Kings of Larsa, the first of them Semites, but thereafter 
comes a king of Elamite descent, Iri-aku (the Arioch of Gen. 16, 1) son 
of Kudur-Mabuk, who was overthrown (cir. 1900 b.c.) by the king of 
Babylon, Khammurabi (of the first dynasty of Babylon, which, remarkably 
enough, was of Arabian origin). 

" The above will now enable the reader the better to appre- 
ciate the surprising nature of the recent discoveries. 

" Thanks to the circumstance that the excavations at Nippur 
have been directed with true archaeological intelligence and 
with the utmost care, and not in the violent fashion which is 
too common in such operations, we can use the different strata 
dug through as excellent chronological aids. Directly beneath 
the platform on which was built the ' step ' temple of King 
Ur-ba'u of Ur (cir. 2800 B.C.) there was another platform com- 
posed of bricks of a peculiar form and size, stamped with the 
names of Sargon and Naram-Sin. 


" From this it follows that when the Bel-temple had fallen 
into decay after some 700, or, according to another reckoning, 
1,000 years, Ur-ba'u cleared away all the rubbish down to the 
original platform, and laid upon the latter a new platform, on 
which he rebuilt the temple. An accumulation of eleven metres 
of rubbish had to be removed by the Americans before they 
reached the level of Sargon's platform. Now, since the temple 
of Bel was completely destroyed soon after the birth of Christ, 
these eleven metres of stone and earth contain nearly 4,000 
years of Babylonian history (cir. 3500 B.C. — 200 a.d.). But 
Mr. Haynes has now continued the excavations below Sargon's 
platform, till water and virgin soil have been reached. In all 
he has sunk shafts to the depth of nine metres beneath the 

" As the traces of pre-Sargonic buildings discovered during 
this process are of notably smaller dimensions, and no longer 
reveal the presence of a more ancient ' step ' temple, Hilprecht 
rightly concludes that the rubbish-heaps belonging to the 
epoch prior to B.C. 3500 must have accumulated more slowly, 
and that they pre-suppose a longer lapse of time than that 
between Naram-Sin and the final destruction of the temple of 
Bel. Hence the inference that the pre-Sargonic temple of 
Bel, whatever was its form, must have been founded not later 
than during the seventh thousand years B.C., and in all pro- 
bability still earlier." 

Well may we agree with Prof. Hommel " that we cannot be 
sufficiently grateful to God for the new light which is being 
thrown upon it [the pre-Abrahamic chronology] by the monu- 
ments which have been awakened from six thousand years of 

With the many centuries involved in those strata of Prof. 
Hilprecht's deepest diggings (or rather Mr. Haynes's work) 
we have only so much concern as that they give us a far 


widened view of the antiquity, highly advanced civilization, 
and complex conditions of the ancient life into which Abram 
was born. As regards the art of Sargon's days one's eyes are 
enlightened with a vast surprise in studying the photogravure 
of that profile-relief of Naram-Sin given by P. Scheil (Rec. 
de Travaux, xv. 64) and reading the just and sagacious 
remarks of Prof. Maspero on the next page. After the brutal 
shew of brawny strength in the figures sculptured in stone, 
or graven in chalcedony, to which we are accustomed in the 
works hitherto accounted earliest, it is equally amazing and 
instructive here to see the graceful shoulder and fine agile arm in 
the best style of early Egyptian work, and the straight delicate 
nose resembling that of Kha-f-ra in his celebrated statue 
(Maspero, Dawn, &c, p. 602). This, however, is in keeping 
with the Babylonian profile, so strongly contrasted with the 
fierce eagle's beak and cruel force of the Assyrians, or the 
blunt homely mould of Turanian features as in Marduk-nadin- 
akhe. I cannot but feel that we have this refined type before 
us in the cameo of Nebuchadnezzar the Great, at Berlin. This, 
then, was the aspect of old Sargon's son and equally renowned 

The primeval position of the Semites in Chaldaea was indeed 
vindicated by the late lamented G. Bertin, in a Memoir on 
The PreaJcTcadian Semites. He regarded that race as having 
passed through Northern Syria, and by that route entered 
Chaldaea. In his Populations of the Fatherland of Abra- 
ham, published by his sisters since his death, he asserts his 
opinion that they "settled for some time in Arabia Felix," 
and there " acquired the strong characteristics which make 
them a well-defined race." " The Semites first spread through 
Palestine and Syria, and a strong body of them crossed the 
Euphrates and peopled the whole of Assyria and Babylonia 
from the mountains of Armenia to the Persian Gulf." 


Mr. Bertin would have rejoiced had he lived to see the 
records now published by Hilprecht, and his conclusion that 
the majority of these kings, as Prof. Hominel says, "are 
Semites, who penetrated into Babylonia from the north, that 
Kish (east of Babylon), Erech, Ur, and Larsa mark the stages 
of this triumphal progress, and that their starting-point, Gish- 
ban (' city of the bow '), must have been the ancient bow- 
shaped Harran in Mesopotamia." 

But I think " the bow " refers rather to the renowned 
weapon of the nomads of the desert called by the Egyptians 
Sati-u, and by the Semites of Babylonia Suti, whose distinctive 
emblem was the bow and arrow, the use of which in a cele- 
brated religious tableau is being taught by the god Set to 
Thothmes III. (Wilkinson, Am. Eg., Birch's ed., iii. 137). 

In the year B.C. 2280, a powerful king of Elam, Kudur- influence 

■*■ ° of Elam. 

nakhundi by name, had conquered the country, ravaged Erech, 
and carried off the image of Nana, or " Ishtar the Archer of 
the goddesses," * which remained at Shushan for 1,635 years, 
till recaptured and restored to Erech by Assur-bani-pal. Thus 
fell " Erech the blessed." 

Ur was a walled town of somewhat oval boundary, many & r f e t 
centuries old at the time of Abram's birth. It was the great 
port for the commerce of the Persian Gulf, and had been, as 
we have said, the capital of Chaldsea in the time of the great 
builder-king Ur-ba'u, and for some time afterwards at any rate. 

It seems very natural that Ur should have been Terakh's UrKasdim. 
home, the place of Abram's "father's house," since we find 
from the Babylonian records, that it was about his time the 
capital ; and being on the western side of the great river, it 
was the more open to the favourite land of the Semitic 
people, and the pastures bordering on, or including, the 

* Assyr. Disc, p. 226. 


desert, and the better protected from the great eastern enemy 
Elam. It is true, however, that a subordinate channel of the 
Euphrates ran to the west of Ur. 

The lamented G. Smith writes as follows as to the identity 
of " Ur of the Chaldees " : "I have no doubt the Babylonian 
city of Ur is meant. There is not the slightest evidence of a 
northern Ur, and a northern land of the Chaldees at this 
period." * This view of a northern Ur Dr. Edersheim calls 
" evidently erroneous." I cannot, in view of more recent 
endeavours to revive the tradition that Urfa, a few miles from 
Kharran, is the Ur Kasdim of Genesis, see ground for doubt- 
ing the soundness of George Smith's judgment. Such is also 
the verdict of the late venerable Franz Delitzsch in his last 
book on Genesis (chap. 11. 28). He vindicates the identification 
of Uru (now Mugheir) with Ur Kasdim, and quotes Ed. 
Meyer : " Babylonia is esteemed by the Hebrews as the home 
from which their ancestors migrated " {New Com. Gen. 12. 1). 

See also Schrader on Gen. 11. 28 : " Ur of the Chaldees .... 
is identical with the town Uru of the cuneiform inscriptions, 
which in its remains is at present represented by the ruins of 
Mugheir," &c. Then follows an elaborate vindication. 

The history of Babylonia and the neighbouring countries 
is most difficult to trace in these early ages, and the 
chronology unsettled. At any time both may be suddenly en- 
lightened by some piece of terra-cotta under the sagacious eyes 
of our Assyriologists. Meanwhile we will venture, with great 
diffidence, to piece together in a tentative way some con- 
spicuous portions of this great puzzle-map, and see how they 
will fit. 

A venerable and most striking figure is presented to us in 
the person of Sargon. Of this prince, it is in after ages 
recorded that he was born in secret retirement, for fear of an 

* 2 Chald. Gen., p. 298. 


uncle who had usurped the government. His mother com- 
mitted him (like Moses) in a wicker cradle to the river, whose 
stream floated him away to the dwelling of a man called 
Akki, a water carrier, or perhaps irrigator,* who brought him 
up in husbandry. At length Sargon took the kingdom and 
became a renowned conqueror, carrying his arms successfully 
into Elam on the east, and through Syria on the west, even to 
the Mediterranean. " His image at the setting sun he set up." 
He subdued the whole of Babylonia, and established his capital 
at Agade (some distance north f of Babylon), where, however, 
he was besieged in vain by a revolted host, whom he com- 
pletely overthrew. Like some other great Babylonian 
monarchs he was a devoted friend to literature and science, 
and founded a library at Erech, whence his invaluable records 
were long ages afterwards removed by the enlightened Assyrian 
monarch Assur-bani-pal, copied, translated, and edited for his 
library ; and are now in the British Museum. The date of 
Sargon I. was given by MM. Lenormant and Menant as about 
B.C. 2000, but the date now received from Nabonidus is far 
earlier, viz. 3800. And we have monuments of his own time 
completely confirming the historic character of this ancient 
Sargon. His date may hereafter receive further elucidation. 

We now have abundant evidence of the predominating in- 
fluence of the Semitic race before the date of Abram, which 
would have been auspicious to the race of Terakh. " Hence- 
forward," says Prof. Sayce, " Sargon and Naram-Sin, instead 
of belonging to ' the grey dawn of time,' must be regarded as 
representatives of ' the golden age of Babylonian history ' ' 
{Coritemp. Review, Jan. 1897). But when (as both the Book of 

* "Le chef des eaux." Menant, Babylone, etc., p. 99. It is to be noted that 
this legend of Sargon's youth is of much later date than his own time. G. Smith, 
Hist. Bab., p. 78. 

t Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. I., p. 49. 

S 6517. B 


Genesis and the monumental history indicate) the Elamitic 
power again swept over Western Asia, that would be in itself 
an incentive to migration from Ur, whence the decisive voice 
of Jehovah summoned Abram and his father towards Canaan. 
And Abranvs splendid exploit against Kedor-la'omer would 
have a still further significance than is apparent on the face 
of the Biblical record. 

In truth, the monumental records entirely agree with Holy 
Scripture in representing this region between the Persian Gulf 
and the Armenian mountains as the hive of the world, throw- 
ing off successive swarms of various great races ; " the cradle 
of Semitic civilization," as Dr. Birch writes, " highly civilized 
and densely populated at a time when Egypt was still in its 
youthful prime." 

But the descendants of Shem were not the only civilizers of 
Babylonia. As we have before stated, those far-spreading 
tribes, called by ethnologists Turanian, had been beforehand. 
" All appearances," says Lenormant,* " would lead us to regard 
the Turanian race as the first branch of the family of Japhet 
which went forth into the world, and by that premature 
separation, by an isolated and antagonistic existence took, or 
rather preserved, a completely distinct physiognomy." "A 
thick stratum of Turanian civilization underlay Semitism in 
Western Asia. In fact all the great towns both of Assyria and 
Babylonia bear Turanian names." So writes Prof. Sayce 
in a most interesting essay on the origin of Semitic civiliza- 
tion, f 

" The Turanian people," says Mr. G. Smith, " who appear to 
have been the original inhabitants of the country, invented the 
cuneiform mode of writing. All the earliest inscriptions are 
in that language, but the proper names of most of the kings 

* Arte. Hist, of East, Vol. I., p. 64. 

t Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. I., p. 298. 


and principal persons are written in Semitic in direct contrast 
to the body of the inscriptions. The Semites appear to have 
conquered the Turanians, although they had not yet imposed 
their language on the country." * 

" There were at first," writes Berosus the priestly Chaldaean Mixture of 

L •* races. 

historian (born B.C. 261), "at Babylon a great number of men 
of alien races f who had colonized Chaldaea." And Abram's 
childhood was doubtless familiar with the motley mixture of 
faces, costumes, and dialects of the great races of Japhet, 
Shem, and Ham, into which our learned scholars have divided 
mankind ; and among all these races of the sons of men his 
life's work lay. 

* Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. I., p. ?9. 

t i.e., different from the Babylonians. On this sense of aXkonQvels, see Chald. 
Magic, p. 350. 

B 2 

( 20 ) 



rPHE city of Ur was devoted to the worship of its chief 
-J- tutelary deity the great Moon-god, whose huge ziggurat, 1/ 
a sacred observatory-tower of three stages or more upholding 
the shrine, oblong in form and ascended by stairs, rose high 
above the buildings of the city in its northern quarter. There 
the royal " monthly prognosticators " kept the night-watches, 
holding in highest worship the " light that rules the night," 
chanting their hymns, casting their omens, offering sacrifices, 
receiving votaries, and within the temple-bounds holding 
courts of justice in the name of the king, their sovereign 
pontiff. The very bricks, made under sacred auspices, were 
stamped with the king's devotion : " To Sin his king, Ur-ba'u, 
king of Ur, his house built, and the wall of Ur built " ; and 
the like. 

On the bricks of the lower stage of the great temple of 
Mugheir we read : — * 

" Ur-ba'u, king of Ur, has built the temple of the god Sin." 
This inscription appears fully to identify the edifice, the god, 
the builder, and the local name, "Uru, the exact equivalent 
of the Hebrew ■fltf," says Mr. Boscawen. 

The worship of the Moon-god was the local cultus of this 
ancient city, and is thus described by M. Lenormant in his 
interesting work, Les premieres Civilisations : f " This god, 
considered as a male personage, was called in Accadian Uru-ki 

* See Menant, Babylone, p. 74. t Vol. II., p. 158. 


and Aku ; in Assyrian Sin. In the inscriptions of the kings 
of the ancient Chaldaean empire he appears as holding one of 
the most exalted places among the gods, and the higher we ad- 
vance (in antiquity) the greater appears the importance of his 

" The monarchs of the primitive dynasties regarded him as 
their chief protector, as his name enters as a special element 
into the composition of most of their proper names. In fact 
he was the god of the most ancient capital of Akkad, the 
town holy above all to the Chaldyeans, the great city of Ur 
(now Mugheir), whence Abraham departed at the summons of 

With the deepest interest we read the liturgical hymns given 
by this distinguished historian. One of these, the best pre- 
served of all, and almost uninjured, is the hymn to the Moon- 
god actually used in the city of Ur in the earliest times, of 
which the Akkadian original is given with its Assyrian trans- 
lation on a tablet in the British Museum. 

From the French of M. Lenormant we have rendered this 
incantation as closely as may be, preserving a somewhat 
rhythmical cast in order to save it from prosaic flatness of 

The grammatical construction, fluctuating from the second 
to the third person, is preserved. 

" Lord ! prince of gods of heaven and earth, whose mandate is 

exalted ! 
" Father ! god enlightening earth ! Lord ! good god, of gods the 

prince ! 
" Father ! god enlightening earth ! Lord ! great god, of gods the 

prince ! 
" Father ! god enlightening earth ! Lord god of the month, of 

gods the prince ! 
" Father ! god enlightening earth ! Lord of Ur, of gods the prince ! 
"Father! god enlightening earth! Lord of the alabaster house, 

of gods the prince ! 


"Father! god enlightening earth! Lord of crowns, duly re- 
turning, of gods the prince ! 
"Father ! god enlightening earth ! awarder of kingdoms, of gods 

the prince ! 
" Father ! god enlightening earth ! by lowering the proud himself 

enlarging, of gods the prince ! 
" Timely crescent mightily horned, doom-dealer, .... * splendid 

with orb fulfilled ! 
" Self-produced, from his home forth-issuing, pouring evermore 

plenteous streams ! 
" High-exalted, all-producing, life unfolding from above ! 
"Father, he who life reneweth in its circuit through all lands ! 
"Lord! in thy godhead far and wide as sky and sea thou 

spread'st thine awe ! 
"Warder of shrines in (Akkad's) land and prophet of their high 

estate ! 
" Gods' sire and men's, of childhood guide (?), even Ishtar's 

self thou didst create ! 
" Primseval seer, rewarder (sole) fixing the doom of days remote, 
" Unshaken chief, whose heart benign is never mindful of thy 

wrongs : 
" Whose blessings cease not, ever flowing, leading on his fellow- 
" * Who from depth to height bright piercing openeth the gate of 

heaven !....* 
" Father mine, of life the giver, cherishing, beholding (all) ! 
"Lord who power benign extendeth over all the heaven and 

earth !....* 
" Seasons (?), rains, from heaven forth-drawing, watching life 

and yielding showers ! 
'• Who in heaven is high exalted ? Thou ! sublime is thy behest ! 
" Who on earth is high exalted? Thou ! sublime is thy behest ! 
" Thou thy will in heaven revealest ; (thee) celestial spirits 

(praise !) 
" Thou thy will on earth revealest ; thou subdu'st the spirits of 

earth ! 
"Thou! thy will in heaven as the luminous pether shines! . . . .* 
" Thou ! thy will upon the earth to me by deeds .... * thou 

dost declare ! 
" Thou ! thy will extendeth life in greatness, hope, and wonder 

wide ! 
" Thou ! thy will itself gives being to the righteous dooms of men ! 



" Thou ! through heaven and earth extendest goodness, not re- 
membering wrong ! 

" Thou ! thy will who knoweth ? Who with aught can it 
compare ? 

" Lord ! in heaven and earth thy lordship of the gods none 
equals thee!" 

There are yet some mutilated lines to complete this mag- 
nificent ode of pristine idolatry, calling on this "king of 
kings" to favour his dwelling the city of Ur, invoking him 
as " Lord of rest " (that is, of the weekly sabhath rest) : and 
so in broken sounds it dies away. 

In such strains did the kings and priests of Ur adore the 
moon as it "walked in brightness" through the crystalline 
spaces of a Babylonian sky. 

Mr. Boscawen has given this liturgical hymn {The Bible 
and the Monuments, p. 59), and remarks on the Moon-god 
taking the priority among the Semites : " It was so in the days 
of the Chaldeans' nomad life, it remained so for centuries after 
they had become settled in Babylonia. There was but one 
great centre of moon-worship in Babylonia, and this, strangely 
enough, the city which we may regard as the birth-place of 
the Hebrew nation, namely, Ur of the Chaldees, the moon 
being called * Lord of Ur ' ; but there were numerous shrines 
cf the Sun-god, indeed every city had its local sun-god or 
solar hero" (p. 61). 

In the engraved seal-cylinder of Ur-ba'u this god is set forth Ur-ba'u. 
under his usual symbol of the crescent. The design seems to re- 
present the introduction by priestesses of a female votary, led by 
the hand to the presence of a venerable enthroned personage, pro- 
bably the priest-king himself, who propitiously stretches out his 
own right hand, wearing a solid bracelet round the wrist. The 
priestesses have a peculiar crown-like mitre, the new votary a 
simple fillet round the head. All the disengaged hands are 
upheld in the religious attitude known as " the lifting up of 


hands." The votary wears a long garment reaching to the 
feet, and bordered with a stripe ; over it a sort of tunic, cut 
with that long sweeping curve which we see in later Assyrian 
costume, and fringed. 

The principal priestess has the marked Babylonian dress 
characterised by its many flounces, which we cannot see with- 
out a smile, and which we find many ages later, worn by women 
of the Ei/ ten, from the same country, in the Egyptian triumphs.* 
These are produced by the spiral winding of very long shawls 
or similar constituents of dress. Mr. Loftus describes the 
dancing boy in a dress with flounces of red, yellow, and blue, 
whom he saw performing in Chaldaaa,! and Mr. G. Smith gives 
an account of a dancer similarly dressed J in a flounced and 
fringed garment of red and blue. The form and colours are 
surely relics of primaeval fashion, and the colours symbolical 
of the various heavenly bodies to whose worship the dancers 
were devoted. Eed was the colour of Nergal (Mars), blue of 
Nebo (Mercury), pale yellow of Ishtar (Venus). 

The third month of the year was sacred to the Moon-god, 
and its Semitic name Sivan is connected " in all probability " 
with his Semitic name Sin, as Sir Henry Rawlinson has pointed 

This was the month devoted to the very important task 
of making the bricks which they " had for stone," and Sin 
was the patron of the work. The month nearly corresponds 
with May. 

The walls and at least three great sacred buildings in Ur 
were the work of the great and renowned king Ur-ba'u, 
namely, the temple of Sin the Moon-god, another called Bit- 

* Wilkinson, Anc. Egyptians, Vol. I., p. 391. 

t Chald. and Susiana, p. 22. 

t Assyr. Disc, p. 130. 

§ Herod., Vol. I., p. 505, ed. 1862. 


timgal, and the tower of stages of which we have spoken, 
called Bit-sareser. The polytheism of this very early age is 
shewn by his having built, besides these, a temple to Nana, or 
Ishtar (Astarte, "the daughter of the Moon-god," as she is 
called in the hymn), at Erech, another to the Sun-god Samas 
(Shemesh) at Larsa (now Senkereh), another to Bel, and a 
separate one to Belat " his lady " (Beltis the wife of Bel), at 
Nipur (Niffer), another to Sar-Ili "his king," the supreme 
god II, " the king of the gods," at Zirgulla. In truth, poly- 
theism was stamped on the earth in temples and towers, and 
the warlike or beneficent works of kings. Rimmon was the 
patron of the all-important irrigation ; Sin of brickmaking 
and building ; Nergal of war. Polytheism glittered in scrolls 
of light in the constellations of the firmament ; it measured 
days and months, and years and cycles, and by its auguries of 
good or ill decided the least ways of house-life, and the 
greatest collisions of nations. It has been observed that gods 
were identified with stars before the invention of writing in 
Babylonia, " and that the most natural symbol of a deity was 
thought to be a star," which is accordingly the " determina- 
tive " * of the names of gods in cuneiform inscriptions. " It 
is plain," writes Prof. Sayce, " that the full development of 
astro- theology cannot have been much earlier than B.C. 2000." t 
And Mr. George Smith gives the same date for the develop- 
ment of systematic mythology : "2,000 years before the 
Christian era it was already completed, and its deities definitely 
connected into a system, which remained with little change 
down to the close of the kingdom." J And M. Lenormant 
writes at length to the same effect. § It is very interesting to 

* *-»~T in its later conventional form; originally a star of eight ravs. 
t " Astron. of Babylon." Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. III., p. 176. 
% Chald. Gen., p. 52. 
§ La Magie, p. 114 ; also see L s Dieux de Babylone, p. 20. Paris, 1877. 


find Prof. Sayce from another point of view, writing thus in 
his excellent Lectures on Babylonian Literature* : — 

" The Gisdhubar epic on the one side cannot be older than 
the formation of the Accadian calendar and zodiac, which, as 
it begins with the sign of Aries, must be later than B.C. 2300." 

" On the other hand Accadian had ceased to be spoken 
before the seventeenth century B.C., and the earliest engraved 
gems we possess have representations taken not only from 
the adventures of Gisdhubar, but from other myths as well. 
Perhaps, therefore, we cannot be far wrong, in assigning the 
composition of the epic to about B.C. 2000, and referring the 
independent lays out of which it is composed to the centuries 
that immediately preceded. The bloom of Accadian poetry 
might then be placed just four thousand years ago, when 
the nature-myths, which had once expressed a very real and 
definite meaning, had grown faint and misunderstood, and 
become the subjects of numberless ballads and hymns." 

The whole system, then, of sidereal worship, with its hier- 
archy of the Chaldsean Olympus, was in full working order 
when Abram was born in his father's house, in " Ur of the 
Chaldees " ; and this family even had been drawn into the 
stream, for " thus saith the Lord God of Israel, Your fathers 
dwelt on the other side of the flood (Euphrates), even Terah 
the father of Abraham, and the father of Nahor, and they 
served other gods." 

When the child saw the rising sun lift its orb above the 
mountains of Elam, he beheld a god, defender of the men 
of Sippara and of Larsa. Even the morning, the evening, 
and the mid-day sun had different names (as in Egypt), 
Dumuzi (Thammuz), and Tu or Tutu, the one the " Sun of 
Life," the other the god of death, f who was received by 

* P. 41. 

t " As'ron. of Babylon." Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. III., p. 165. 


the gigantic guardians into the nether world,* and Adar 
the southern sun.f 

Such must have been his thoughts, as the child's wistful 
eyes pursued " the last faint pulse of quivering light " towards 
the " land of Martu," little thinking that thither his own 
pilgrimage would be led ; and when above the darkening 
ziggurat, which rose like huge stairs to heaven, the stars 
would come out of the fading sky, he would be taught to 
mark the pole-star Dayan-same, and the splendid configuration 
of the giant which we call Orion, and the stars of strong in- 
fluence called interpreters and judges and counsellors ; those 
bright and searching " eyes " the planets he would hail as 
the masters of destiny, the moon and sun among the mystic 
seven, with Mercury, Venus, Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars in 
the order here given. Sulpa-uddu,J "the messenger of the 
rising sun," from its colour called " the blue star," was 
the planet Mercury, the star of Nebo. It was known as 
" the prince of the men of Kharran," the far northern 
city which was to be the second home of Terakh till his 
death. In that translucid heaven the varying phases of 
beautiful Venus, like a lesser moon, are visible, and made 
it the favourite of all eyes. The records of the Chaldean 
observers are singularly striking and happy in their phrases 
of native poetry. How interesting is, for instance, this tablet, 
translated by Prof. Sayce, with its life-like eye-witness of 
the stars' behaviour, and abrupt warnings, or auguries of 
good ! § 

"Venus drew forth a rising" (a slight haze creates a visible 

dawn). Misfortune. 
" In its orbit duly it grows in size. 
" Venus a rising does not kindle. Prosperity. 

Chald. Gen., p. 2t8. t La Magie, p. 120. % Or, Dunpa-uddu. 

§ Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. III., p. 1«7. 


"Afterwards its station it makes to ascend, and proceeds, and, 

Venus rises, and the star Niru like a flag floated. 
" The view is clear. The country is smitten. 
"Rebellion is hostile. Cities by arms are oppressed." 

Venus was identified with the goddesses Ishtar and Bilat, 
and was the tutelary of Agade and of Erech. 

Saturn was a star of sinister augury, and from its feeble 
light was called Kus, darkness, and in Semitic Kaivanu, the 
Hebrew Kiun. Jupiter was the star of Merodach, the special 
patron of great Babylon. " The red planet Mars " was the 
star of Nergal, "he who goes forth in strength," and was 
claimed as " the king of Cutha." It was reckoned among the 
stars of Martu or the west. One would think that in the 
lapse of ages he had changed his colour, since it is called in 
these ancient observations " The White Star," although in the 
celebrated stage-tower of Borsippa his colour is a full red. But 
it is well known that this planet, most like the earth, has its 
seasons, and presents the singular aspect of a spreading white- 
ness from the growth of snow round the polar regions, and 
this may account for the epithet "white." His warlike 
character was marked by the titles * of " plunderer," " agent 
of deaths," and " star of the chariot." 

Among such lore was Abram's boyhood passed. It was 
attributed to him by his remote descendants that he had 
taught astronomy to the Egyptians, and it seems highly 
probable that they learned it from f the men of Chaldaea. 
It would seem that beneath this sidereal cultus lay a more 
ancient Turanian system of elemental powers and magic rites 
used without special sanctuaries. Rising above the swarm of 
deceitful omens, how sublime is that sure word of destiny 
spoken by Jehovah to His servant, when " He brought him 
forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell 

* Eawlinson, Arte. Mon., Vol. II., p. 546. t Proctor, Saturn, p. 189. 


the stars, if thou be able to number them : and He said unto 
him, So shall thy seed be. And he believed in Jehovah ; and 
He counted it to him for righteousness." * 

We have seen that in the hymn to the Moon-god he was 
invoked as " Lord of Rest." This must refer to the Sabbath- 
rest, the new moons and Sabbaths having been ever closely 
connected. " The Sabbath-rest was known," writes Prof. 
Sayce, " to the Accadians, who had been led by their astro- 
nomical observations to set apart the seventh, fourteenth, 
twenty-first, and twenty-eighth days of the month, as days of 
sulum or rest, on which certain works were forbidden." " But 
the Assyro-Babylonian Sabbath differed from the Hebrew 
Sabbath in its essentially lunar character. In the Old Testa- 
ment, Sabbaths and new moons are distinguished from each 
other ; in Babylonia and Assyria, the feast of the new moon 
was necessarily a Sabbath. The Babylonian calendar, in fact, 
was based on the week of seven days." 

We cannot suppose that Abraham's descendants first ob- 
served the Sabbath in Egypt. We find that it was observed 
by the Akkadians and Semites in Chaldgea whence Abraham 

The Book of Genesis distinctly says that God blessed the 
seventh day and sanctified it, because that in it He had rested ; 
a primal cause which is echoed in the giving of the law by 
God Himself when He said, " Remember the Sabbath day to 

keep it holy " "for in six days Jehovah made heaven 

and earth," etc., "and rested the seventh day, ivherefore 
Jehovah blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it." f 

An additional reason given in the reproclamation of the law 
does not invalidate the original one ; and an astronomical 
connexion with the moon's time of revolution only more 

Gen. 15. 4, 5, 6. t Ex. 20. 10, 11. 


plainly bears the image and superscription of the great King, 
who before resting from His work, had " set " or appointed 
the moon as well as the snn " for signs and for seasons, and 
for days, and years." Why should we " accept the week as of 
pagan origin," and why should the day which God's servants 
called "a delight, the holy of Jehovah, honourable,"" have 
sprung from a sinister planet, and unlucky auguries of the 
monthly prognosticators ? Surely " the rest of Jehovah thy 
God " was the pristine ordinance never, as it would seem, 
wholly lost, and now revindicated from all lower uses, and 
associations of ill-starred gloom or sensual laziness, to its first 
glory. The Sabbath is called by the memorable name, " day 
of rest of the heart " in an early calendar,! written in Assyrian, 
and from the Akkadian equivalent the word " Sabbath " is 
derived, " sabattu " ; " sajxdtu " is also explained to mean " com- 
plete," in W. A. I. II., 25, 14, says Prof. Sayce.J Let it be 
noticed that this " Sabbath " was " a feast," " a festival," " the 
white day " ; as well as a holy day of rest and sacrifice. 

It is clear that when Abram was brought up in his father's 
house at Ur of the Chaldees, the seventh day was a sacred 
day of rest ; and the very word sulum, which is, I suppose, 
equivalent to the Hebrew shalom, is fragrant with thoughts of 
peace, salutation, benediction, and salvation. 

It is an inquiry of absorbing interest how far the first and 
true revelation still lingered among the several leading races 
of the early world. The means of solving this question in its 
several branches are now being restored to us. 

Let us first then inquire whether the idea of " the Holy 
One that inhabiteth eternity " was really lost. Damascius 
(born about a.d. 480), § citing Eudemus the peripatetic, about 

* Isa. 58. 13. t W. A. I., II., 32. 1. 

% Sayce, Hibbert Lectures, p. 76. 

§ Cory's Fragments. Second Edition, p. 318 ; and see Lenormant, Les Dieux de 
Babylone, p. 6, 1877 ; see Appendix. 


eight centuries earlier, says thai " of the barbarians the Baby- 
lonians seem to pass over in silence the One principle of the 
universe, but to make two, Tauthe and Apason," etc. 

napiivai, Ivo he Troieiv, TavOe kou Ana.(rav, k. t. X.) 

This appears to be the true account of the matter ; and 
the heathen neo-Platonist philosopher understood what he was 
writing about. The inferior " gods " were creatures, but the 
sole first creator is taken for granted, and rarely appears. See, 
for instance, the portion of the creation-tablets given by Mr. 
G. Smith, * where the one God is explaining to the newly 
created man his duties, or that fragment which recounts the 
rebellion of the angels.f Thus wrote the late Mr. Fox 
Talbot : % " Amidst the chaos of names a feeling of the real 
unity of the divine nature is visible. The phrase ' God and 
man ' sometimes occurs. ' God and the king ' is very frequent. 
No particular god is here named or intended, but the word 
-Hf- § is put absolutely, like the Greek to e ?ov, and may be 
translated either ' God * or ' heaven.' " 

In Mr. Boscawen's account of the creation-tablets, || I 
cannot think him right in his statement : " it was necessary 
for the Babylonian to develop the Creator, while the Hebrew 
starts with the postulate ' there is a God ; he is the Creator.' " 
For I do not think the idea of creation is involved in the 
words, " the chaos Tiamat was the genitrix (or, as G. Smith 
translates, ' the producing mother ') of them all." This chaos 
is surely no more to be identified with the Creator than the 
earth, or the water, in the Book of Genesis when it is said, 

* Cliald. Gen., p. 80. 

t Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. IV., p. 349; Records of the Past. Vol. VII., 
p. 123. 

% Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. II., p. 35. 

§ Ana Akkadian, ilu Assyrian, i.e., god; but constantly prefixed as a "deter- 
minative " to the names of particular gods. 

|| Academy, pp. 219, 344. 1877. 


"Let the earth (or the waters) bring forth." The one 
originator of all is (as Damascius says) passed over in silence. 
Let us hear M. Lenormant* : — 

"When we penetrate beneath the surface of gross poly- 
theism it (namely, the religion of Assyria and Babylonia) 
had acquired from popular superstition, and revert to the 
original and higher conceptions, we shall find the whole based 
on the idea of the unity of the Deity, the last relic of the 
primitive revelation disfigured by and lost in the monstrous 
ideas of pantheism, confounding the creature with the Creator, 
and transforming the Deity into a god-world whose manifesta- 
tions are to be found in all the phenomena of nature " . . . . 

" The supreme God, the first and sole principle from whom 
all other deities were derived, was Ilu, whose name signifies 
God par excellence. Their idea of him was too comprehensive, 
too vast, to have any determined external form, or conse- 
quently to receive in general the adoration of the people ; 
and from this point of view there is a certain analogy be- 
tween Ilu and the Cronos of the Greeks, with whom he was 
compared by the latter. In Chaldsea it does not seem that 
any temple was ever specially dedicated to him." His name, 
indeed, is preserved in the most ancient name of Bab-ili, 
" Gate of God." This is, however, the Semitic name, which 
is exactly equivalent to the Turanian Ka-dimirra ; or, as M. 
Menant reads, Ka-dingira. 

It is deeply interesting to read that at one at least of the 
Chaldasan schools monotheism was taught down to a late date. 
" That at Orchoe or Erech was .... well known, and main- 
tained its reputation down to the times of the Romans. In the 
period of the Seleucidae the doctrine of the unity of God was 
distinctly taught there : as we know from tablets with cunei- 

* Anc. Hist, of the East, Vol. I., p. 452 ; and see La Magie, p. 102, 117. 


form inscriptions, dated in the reign of several Greek kings, 
found at Warka, and now in the British Museum. The only 
name of a deity found in them, and this is many times re- 
peated, is " God One." * This may have been, as in Egypt, a 
system of reserved and esoteric instruction. At all events this 
very city of Erech, from the time when it was the capital of 
Gilgames, was given over to the worship of Ishtar and other 

The progress of corrupt worship is distinctly traced by Mr. ff C ^'J/ ioiQ/l 
G. Smith f in this very case of Ishtar. " Her worship was at 
first subordinate to that of Anu ; and as she was goddess of 
love, while Anu was god of heaven, it is probable that the first 
intention in the mythology was only to represent love as heaven- 
born ; but in time a more sensual view prevailed, and the wor- 
ship of Ishtar became one of the darkest features in Babylonian 
mythology. As the worship of this goddess increased in favour, 
it gradually superseded that of Anu, until in time his temple, 
the house of heaven, came to be regarded as the temple of 
Venus." Again, writing of the time of Izdubar, he tells us :J 
" The city of Erech, originally a seat of the worship of Anu, 
was now one of the foremost cities in this Ishtar worship." 

We find evidence, indeed, in some fragments of legal tablets 
written in Akkadian, of the early date of the most revolting 
practices, even in connexion with the worship of Anu himself. 

The mode of worship in primitive Babylonia is receiving 
fresh illustration day by day. It is certain that it was observed 
from week to week, and from festival to festival, and from fast 
to fast, with all pomp and splendour ; with processions, music 
and hymns of high-wrought adoration, and impassioned prayer. 
Probably the burning of incense was an accessory from early 
times, as we may learn from Khasisadra's sacrifice on issuing 

* Lenormant, Anc. Hist, Vol. I., p. 495 ; Les prem. Civ., Vol. II., p. 167. 
t Chald. Gen., p. 56. % Chald. Gen., p. 56. 

S 6517. C 


from the ark.* But it is certain that propitiatory sacrifices 
were offered in abundance. 

The principal victims were the ram and the bull, the most 
valued subjects of man, as indeed the first and second signs of 
the zodiac bear witness. But to these a fearful addition must 
be made : I speak of human sacrifice. The horrible practice of 
parents devoting their own children in the fire is traced, in 
2 Kings 17. 31, to the inhabitants of Sepharvaim, that is, the 
two cities of Sippara, separated by the stream of the Euphrates ; 
or rather, says M. Menant, by a canal f called Nahar-Agade. 
One of these was called Sippar-sa-Samas, " Sippara of the Suu- 
god" (the present Abu-habba, where Mr. Bassam has made 
memorable discoveries) ; the other, Sippar-sa-Anunit, was the 
ancient capital of Sargon the First, of which we have before 
spoken, Agade. 

The men of Sepharvaim, we are told, when transplanted to 
Samaria, were those who " burnt their children in fire to A- 
drammelech and Anammelech, the gods of Sepharvaim " ; the 
former, Adru, a form of Shamash the Sun-god, says Lenormant, 
the latter, Ann, each with the addition Melek, king. The 
temple of Samas at Sippara was originally built by Ur-ba'u, king 
of Ur. 

It is now clear that those Semitic races who practised this 
form of worship did not originate it, but received it from the 
Akkadians, who were their instructors in so much besides. 
M. Lenormant called attention to a fragment bearing most 
distinctly on this matter,J and Prof. Sayce has since treated it 
in an interesting paper read by him to the Society of Biblical 
Archaeology. § 

Prof. Sayce holds that u it was not only the worship of the 
sun, and all that it implied, which was borrowed by the 

* G. Smith, Assyr. Disc, p. 191. t Menant, Babylone, p. 96. 

\ Les. prem. Civ., Vol. II., p. 196. § Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch.. Vol. IV., p. 25. 


Semitic from the Accadian, but the dreadful rites with which 
it was associated as well" ;* and this inference he confirms by 
two cuneiform texts : one is that part of an Akkadian poem 
of pre-Semitic age mentioned by M. Lenormant, and of which 
Prof. Sayce gives the original Akkadian text and the Assyrian 
version, with his translation, which in effect agrees entirely 
with M. Lenormant's : — 

" The augur cried thus :— The offspring who raises the head among 
mankind ; — (his) offspring for his life he shall give ; the head of the off- 
spring for the head of the man he shall give ; the neck of the offspring 
for the neck of the man he shall give ; the breast of the offspring for the 
breast of the man he shall give."f 

" This highly interesting text," observes Prof. Sayce, " gives 
us distinct evidence of the doctrine of vicarious sacrifice among 
the Akkadians, as well as of the Akkadian origin of the sacri- 
fice of the first-born." He then quotes " a passage from the 
great astronomical work drawn up for the library of Sargon of 
Agade .... and based on Akkadian originals," of which we 
have before spoken. 

"When the air-god (Rammanu) is fine, prosperity. 
" On the high places the son is burnt : " 

thus shewing the place and mode of this terrific sacrifice ; and, 
we may add, the regular and common-place way in which it 
was regarded. Moreover, in the magnificent De Clercq collec- 
tion of seal-cylinders are intaglios which clearly represent 
human sacrifices, and are so classified and described in the 
catalogue {Tome //., pi. vn. 30 Us ; pi. xix. 178, 180). 
It is appalling to inspect these contemporary artistic records 
of the Sumerian age. 

This is a topic of deep and awful import, to which we may 
have occasion to return in the course of this work. 

We therefore will content ourselves with the sufficient proof 
thus given that the question, " shall I give my first-born for my 

* See also Sayce, Bab. Lit., p. 46. t Sayce, Hibbert Lectures, p. 77. 

C 2 


transgression : the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul ? "* 
was answered in the affirmative when Abrain was a boy in Ur 
of the Chaldees. 

Among the ceremonies of worship, the use of a sacred ark 
dedicated to a deity would seem to have existed in the earliest 
times in Babylonia, as it did in so notable a manner among the 
Egyptians ; for in the sixth tablet of the great series, " the ark 
of his god Lugal-banda is mentioned in Mr. Gr. Smith's trans- 
lation in connexion with some observances of worship, f 

The traces of religious belief on the great subjects of human 
destiny in the life to come are very important, and stir our 
deepest feelings. As we draw nearer the fountain-heads of 
history. " such thoughts, the wreck of paradise," more clearly 
reveal themselves. 

The consciousness of sin, J and its desert and punishment, the 
origin of temptation and transgression. § the fall of angels and 
of man,|] the flood as the punishment of human iniquity,* - the 
fear of death (" death I feared, and lay down on the ground," 
"the waters of death will not cleanse thy hands "), the rever- 
ence and yearning for righteousness, and belief in its reward at 
the hands of God,** the belief in immortality of the in 
judgment to come, in a heaven of blessedness and a place of 
punishment, are all now brought to light as "articles of faith" 
among Akkadians and Semites alike, gradually entangled and 
overlaid in the " many inventions " of the " evil imagination of 
man's heart," losing their only true significance and sanction as 
men u did not like to retain God in then* knowledge." In fact, 

* Mic. vi. 7. 

t Assyr. Disc, p. 175. " Long lists of these arks are given,"' says Mr. T?oscawen, 
"in W. A. I. II., and they appear to have been sacred barges like the boat of the 
Egyptian Osiris." 

X Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. II., p. 76; Records, Vol. VII.. p. 131. 

\ Chald. Gen., p. ^4. Assyr. Disc, p. 185. 

■; Assyr. Disc, pp. 177, 181. ** Ibid., p. 193. 

H Trans. Soc Bib. Arch.,\o\. I., p. 106 ; Vol. IV., p. 7; Oppert, L 'Imm ort. de 
YAtne chez les Chald. 


the result of all the investigation of recent years is that which 
has been most accurately summed up by St. Paul in the begin- 
ning of his epistle to the Romans. 

There is one point, however, of especial importance, to which ff ™ rrec - 
we shall have occasion to revert, but which must be lightly 
touched at once, as it regards the great beliefs of Abraham's 
early days (Schroder, by Whitehouse, II. 313). It is the resur- 
rection of the dead. This belief seems to have been especially 
associated with the great god of Babylon, Marduk (Merodach), 
of whom we will now speak. 

Marduk was identified with the planet Jupiter. His Ak- 
kadian name, which was but slightly altered, was Amar-utuki ; * 
and it is now found out that his worship at Babylon must have 
been of extreme antiquity, as it was restored by the ancient 
monarch Agu-kak-rimi,t and he is mentioned as the son of Ea 
in the tablet of the " Seven Wicked Spirits." J He was called 
"The God of Hosts," viz., of stars. "Marduk," writes 
M. Lenormant,§ "is one of the types of those gods who die and 
rise again to life periodically, characteristic of the religions of 
the shores of the Euphrates and Tigris, of Syria and Phoenicia. 
The famous pyramid of the royal city of Babylon passed for his 
tomb, where they shewed to devotees his sepulchral chamber, 
afterwards plundered by Xerxes, which they called the place of 
rest of Marduk:' He is called " the merciful one who takes 
pleasure in raising the dead to life." (Dawn, etc., 696.) 
Asari is a title of Marduk, identified by Hommel with the 
Egyptian Osiris (Ausiri). 

I have always been impressed with the deep, penitent and 
longing spirit of Chaldaean religious documents as in contrast 
with the mood of the Egyptian formulae o f devotion. It is like 

* Lenormant, Les prem. Civ., Vol. 1 1 ., p. 170. t Assyr. Disc, p. 225. 

± Assyr. Disc, p. 399 ; Records of the Past, Vol. IX., p. 143. 
§ Les prem. Civ., Vol. II., p. 171. On Marduk see also M. Lenormant s Essay, 
Les dieux de Babylone, Paris, 1877. 


the great gulf between the Pharisee and the Publican in the 

The same thought is expressed by Dr. Pressense, " Egypt 
was self-satisfied ; it might be called the Pharisaic nation of 
antiquity," etc. {Ant World and Christianity, 84). 

But the wail of the heart-stricken miserable sinner breaks 
out in Chaldgea — 

" Falling with his weight of cares 
Upon the great world's altar- stairs 
That rise through darkness up to God." 

" Let the god whom I know not be pacified toward me ! " 

Mr. Boscawen followed this line of inquiry in a paper read 
some years ago to the Yictoria Institute, comparing these cries 
u de profundis" with the penitential Psalms of Holy Scripture. 

A hymn is given by M. Lenormant # which belongs to a col- 
lection of magic formulae, and contains an " expression of the 
belief in the resurrection of the dead, the care of whom would 
be naturally attributed to Mardnk, as a god who himself died 
and revived. This is one of the first indications which one can 
hitherto take hold of as to the ideas of the Chaldaaans and 
Babylonians regarding the future life." 

In the Akkadian text of the " Seven Evil Spirits," Marduk 
is called "Protector of the Covenant," says Prof. Sayce. His 
part as the earnest, pitiful, and indefatigable redresser of 
wrong, and reliever of misery, is a very important feature, and 
worthy of careful attention. 

Marduk was identified with Asari-mulu-dugga, the merciful 
helper of the human race, whom the Akkadians invoked in 
every necessity as the " eldest son of Ea," the god of the abyss 
and of wisdom. He was the great mediator of the old re- 
ligion, and to him was assigned the power of " bringing the 
dead back to life." This, therefore, was not a later develop- 

* Also given in Chald. Magic, p. 193 ; and by Mr. Boscawen, Trans. Soc. Bib. 
Arch., Vol. IV., p. 297, in a very interesting paper. 


merit of the Semitic system, but part of the ancient heritage. 
There is much in this to remind us of the Egyptian Osiris.* 
The Egyptian analogies to the seven portals of Hades to 
be passed successively, with their guardians, the central judg- 
ment-hall, the water of life, and the mystic bark of Ea, else- 
where described, are very remarkable, and deserve mature study. 

As among the Egyptians, the lore of magic abounded. In- Magic. 
deed it is well known that from first to last the Chaldssans were 
the renowned masters of the art, from the highest form of 
astrology down to the lowest jugglery. 

Auguries, spells, amulets, inscribed phylacteries, invocations 
against evil spirits and diseases of every sort, are testified by 
the tablets to have been in continual use among the Akkadians, 
from whom the Semitic races learned this whole system of 
superstitious vanities. 

Besides the epic and the lyric poetry, which is emerging from 
the darkness of four thousand years, there are popular proverbs 
which will be available ere long in illustration of their ways of 
life. M. Lenormant has given a few specimens; such as these: — 

(On retribution.) 
" Thou go'st to spoil 

" The field o' th' foe ! 
" One comes to spoil 
" Thy field,— the foe ! " 
( Good out of evil.) 
" Oh ! be it mine to eat the fruit of death, 
" And so transform it into fruit of life ! " 

(A field song of good omen.) 
" The wheat of uprightness 
" Unto its top of thriving growth shall press : 
" The secret spell 
" We know right well ! 
" The wheat of plenteousness 
" Unto its top of thriving growth shall press : 
" The secret spell 
" We know right well ! " t 

* Prof. Hommel has since proposed such analogies. Oriental Cong., London, 1S92, 
Vol. II., p. 227, &c. See Appendix. t Lenormant, Les prem. Civ., Vol. II.. p. 201. 


This little ditty, which I have put into rhyme to avoid the 
flatness of mere lines of literal translation, may well remind us 
of the cheery Egyptian threshing-song to the oxen.* There 
are, indeed, snatches of pleasant song which the ploughmen of 
Akkad would sing to their oxen on the threshing floor and in 
the furrowed field. These are given by Prof. Sayce in his 
Lectures on Babylonian Literature.} It is a happy relief from 
sad and solemn studies to hear, as it were, the chirping of 
grasshoppers, and find " the old poetic fields " blooming from 
the dust of this "primitive and ante-Semitic Chaldsea," of 
which Ur was the ancient mother-town, and Terakh, Nakhor, 
Abram, and Lot were citizens. 

In the Abbe Yigouroux's now renowned work La Bible et 
les Decouvertes modernes, 6me. ed., i. 335, etc., he has argued 
the Chaldasan origin of Abraham from the linguistic side in an 
elaborate way, and Mr. Boscawen has lately at some length ex- 
plained the affinity of the Hebrew and Phoenician languages 
with the Babylonian and Assyrian in The Bible and the Monu- 
ments, chap. I. He had previously argued The Historic, evidences 
for the Migration of Abraham in a very interesting manner. 
{Trans. Vict. Inst. (1886), xx. 92, etc). 

It seems clear that in e very-day life the abominations of 
idolatry would press on the faithful servant of the One God, 
as he was earnestly striving to rise from the entanglement 
and manifold snares of the worship of innumerable " other 
gods." As in Egypt, so in Babylonia, it is not so much any- 
thing like absolute darkness as the multitudinous refraction 
and colouring of the light of heaven which meets our eyes. 

The soul of a man (how much more of a child) might on 
all sides be " secretly enticed," as well as outwardly " driven," 
to " worship and serve the creature more than the Creator " ; 
and at last to lose sight of the Creator altogether. In reading, 

* Wilkinson, Pop. Ace, Vol. II.. p. 43. t P. 63. 


even in their wreck and ruin, in a far distant age, and with 
the eyes of a Christian of perhaps the thirtieth generation, 
these hep.iofelt prayers, praises, adoration — these narratives so 
honestly believed, so carefully recorded, — we may feel in 
some palpable degree the spell, and verify to ourselves the 
necessity of a sharp and sudden breach, a stern renunciation 
of the entire order of familiar life. For these ancient people 
(like the Athenians of St. Paul's day, and with far more 
earnestness), were " very religious." All that they did was 
sanctioned by the best they knew of faith and devotion. 
Their most costly efforts were devoted to the gods ; the 
temples, " the houses of their delight," were the prominent 
features of every city, and not, as afterwards in Assyria, mere 
adjuncts to the palaces. Their invasions of conquest, their 
magnificent public works of irrigation and the like, were all 
devoted to the gods. In their endless votive inscriptions, their 
psalms of adoration, their humble and penitent prayers, we 
have only to change the object, and all would be well. 

Only read Jehovah for Sin or Marduk, and we Christians 
stand rebuked by their devotion. 

The house of Terakh had turned to " other gods," as we 
know from Holy Scripture. It is a strange thing to find in the 
Talmud that Terakh's wife is called " Amthela, or Amtelai, the 
daughter of Karnebo." There was a town called by the name 
Kar-Nebo (Kar-Nabu, wall of Nebo) in Assyria, mentioned 
on the Paris Michaux Stone.* 

This was not far from Bagdad. Does not "daughter of 
Karnebo " mean a native of this town ? or should we now refer 
it rather to Karnavu, an Arabian city mentioned by Hommel 
from one of Glaser's Minasan inscriptions. (Hommel, Am. 
Heb. Trad. 250, 274.) 

* Records oftlie Past, Vol. IX., p. 94 ; Del. Wo lag das Par. 1 206. 


It is interesting to find in Mesopotamia the name of a town 
Til-sa-turkhi (Del. Gen. 11. 25). I have long since suggested 
the comparison of " turakhu," the Assyrian name of the ante- 
lope, which was, I think, a sacred and sacrificial animal among 
the Chaldaeans, with the name of Terakh. Prof. Sayce now 
says : " Terah is Tarkhu, the name of a god among the 
Hittites (as in the name of Tarkhu-lara, king of Gurgum, 
and Tarkhu-nazi, king of Malatiyeh). It seems to be the 
same as Tarku or Tarqu (as in Tarkondemos). Turgu, the 
Kassite Bel, has been compared. A cuneiform tablet states 
that Turku represented the god Rimmon or Hadad." {Exp. 
Times , May 1897, p. 357.) But is it not rather the antelope ? 

The shades of the picture must be duly painted. Religion 
had turned to superstition, and superstition in its darker mood 
had brought forth magic, the great besetting sin of the Chal- 
daeans, by which the children of Abraham in the days of their 
captivity long afterwards became so deeply tainted. Earlier 
than the days of Terakh, we know that this malign and gloomy 
spell possessed the souls of his fellow-countrymen. 

The old Akkadian tablets bear witness to this. Rhythmic 
charms were sung, " non innoxia verba," to bring evil on an 

Thus the Assyrians, and the Babylonians before them, 
thought to utilize for their malicious ends the power of those 
swarming evil spirits who were (as they believed) the authors of 
every species of disease, and who might, as Prof. Sayce writes, 
"be swallowed with the food and drink that support life." 
They counted no less than 300 spirits of heaven, and 600 
spirits of earth. The charms were in the old Akkadian 
tongue, and doubtless of most ancient date. They are bad 
enough for the hags in " Macbeth." This is the style ; and 
a little will suffice. The tablet is translated by Prof. Sayce in 
Records of the Past, and still more recently by Mr. George 


Smith in his excellent manual of the history of Assyria. * The 
case of the victim is thus " lively set forth " : — 

" The evil curse like a demon fixes on a man 
As a scourge voice over him is fixed 
An evil voice over him is fixed 
The evil curse, the ban, the madness 
That man the evil curse slaughters like a lamb 
His god from over him departs 

His goddess, the giver of counsel, has stationed herself without 
The scourging voice like a cloak covers him and bears him away."f 

It is evidently going hard with the poor victim. What 
must be done for him ? Two things were orthodox :— 

An exorcism must deliver him, and a counter-mine must 
be driven for him under the sorcerer, who must thus be 
" hoised with his own petard." 

First, for instance. An exorcism : — 
" The painful plague, the potent plague, 

The plague which quits not a man, 

The plague-demon who departs not, 

The plague unremovable, the evil plague, 

Conjure, Spirit of heaven ! Conjure, Spirit of earth ! " f 

But perhaps this is rather a prophylactic than an antidote. 
So we will take the following : — 

" May the sick man, by offerings of mercy (and) peace, like copper 
shine brilliantly. To this man 
May the Sun-god give life ! 
Merodach (first-born son of the deep), 
The blessing and the dazzling glory are thine ! 
Conjure, Spirit of heaven ! Conjure, Spirit of earth ! " X 

But next, as to the sorcerer. The counter-charm : — 

" Like this date which is cut and cast into the fire 

The burning flame shall consume, and to its stalk he who plucks 

(it) shall not restore (it), 
For the dish of the king it shall not be used ; 

* Published by S.P.C.K., p. 17 ; see also Chald. Magic, p. 6 k 
t Sayee, Hibbert Lectures, Appendix III., pp. 471, 472. 
X Ibid., p. 450. 


(So) may the guardian-priest cause the ban to depart from him 
(and) unloose the bond 

Of the torturing disease, the sin, the backsliding, the wicked- 
ness, the sinning, 

The disease which exists in my body, my flesh (and) my muscles. 

Like this date may it be cut, and on this day may the burning 
flame consume (it) ! 

May the ban depart that I may see the light ! " * 

We must note the symbolic actions which marked these 
magic rites, and the antiquity of the opinion that " curses fly 
home to roost." 

The following is a benignant spell, of the kind apparently 
alluded to in the little harvest-song which we have already 
given. The translation is by Prof. Sayce. 

" The pure pourer of libations to Ea, the messenger of Merodach, 

am I, 
The coal I have kindled, and I lull to rest, 
The fire have I lighted and I increase. 
The whole offering have I offered and I glorify. 
Like the coal I have kindled I will lull to rest. 
Like the fire I have lighted I will increase. 
Like the whole-offering I have offered T will glorify. 
May the god of herbs, the assembly of god and man, unloose 

the knot he has knotted ! 
From the knot of the heart may the god and goddess of 

the son of deliver him ! 

May his backsliding be outpoured on this day ! 
May they forgive him ! May they deliver him ! " f 

This is in the spirit of many old staves of benediction in all 
ages, down to those still sung in .country villages in England to 
bless the crops and apple-trees. Compare the field song given 

The reader who is curious in this matter may find other 
formula? of the same kind in Records of the Past, Vols. I. and 
II. ; and an elaborate and learned work on Magic among the 
Chaldaeans was written by M. Lenormant, and is available to 

* Sayce, Hibbert Lectures, p. 473. t Ibid., p. -17o. 


the English reader in a translation sanctioned and amended by 
the author.* 

To this I am happy to add a more recent work, viz., Baby- 
lonian Magic and Sorcery, by Leonard W. King, of the B. M. 
(Luzac, 1896). The "Prayers of the Lifting up of the 
Hands " were written in metre, " rough form of verse and half- 
verse," with rubrics for ceremonial use (p. xxvii), and burning 
of incense (p. xxix). Offerings were presented of "pure water, 
honey, butter, dates, garlic, corn and grain, various kinds of 
flesh, fragments of gold, lapis-lazuli, alabaster," etc. " Pure 
water simply offered in a vessel before the god, or used for 
sprinkling on a green bough in his presence." Gifts to pro- 
pitiate the god and incense were offered before the words of 
the incantation can take effect (p. xxx). 

The Egyptians were scarcely less given to the use of spells, 
amulets, exorcisms, and the whole armoury of magic. Such 
things must not be overlooked by those who would endeavour 
to estimate fairly the spiritual thraldom from which in all ages 
the divine Redeemer has set His children free. When we turn 
from these debasing superstitions, and all the pitiful apparatus 
of idolatry, to the amplitude of Abraham's single faith in 
Jehovah, who among us can duly prize that " precious faith," 
the saving gift of God ? Who can value aright the goodly 
heritage of Abraham's sons according to the promise ? 

* Anc. Chald. Magic, Bagster, 1877. 


( 46 ) 



E will now turn to the polity, and laws, and transaction 
of business. "It is the opinion of the majority of 
Assyrian scholars," says Mr. G. Smith in his important work, 
Assyrian Discoveries* " that the civilization, literature, myth- 
ology, and science of Babylonia and Assyria were not the work 
of a Semitic race, but of a totally different people, speaking a 
language quite distinct from that of all the Semitic tribes. 
There is, however, a more remarkable point than this : it is 
supposed that at a very early period the Akkadian or Turanian 
population, with its high cultivation and remarkable civiliza- 
tion, was conquered by the Semitic race, and that the con- 
querors imposed only their language on the conquered, adopting 
from the subjugated people its mythology, laws, literature, and 
almost every art of civilization." Prof. Sayce, in his valuable 
essay on Semitic civilization before quoted, has pointed out how 
the Semitic people borrowed their principal words of rule, civil 
authority, and law, from Akkadian sources. 

To the same effect writes M. Menant, in his work on 
Chaldsea.f " These peoples," viz. those ancient possessors of 
Chaldaea called Surniri and Akkadi, " had a constitution civil 
and religious so powerful, that they imposed not only their 
system of writing, but also their political and religious system 
on their invaders." It has, however, more recently been 
rendered doubtful by the surprising results of discoveries at 
Tello and Xiffer, whether the Semitic or Turanian population 
of Chaldasa were really earliest in the field, as students of 
Prof. Maspero's Dawn of Civilization will discover. "The 

* P. 419. t Babylone et la Chald., p. 49. Paris, 1875. 


political constitution of the Assyro-Chaldaean kings submitted 
to the influence of that of their predecessors, for we see the new 
sovereigns adopt their titles, and perpetuate them during the 
whole duration of the empire." 

The most ancient title we can discover, and which is found 
among those of antediluvian kings, is that of "Shepherd." 
M. Men ant gives the cuneiform monogram of which the 
original pronunciation is not known,* " but it was rendered in 
Assyrian by the articulation ri\i (H^H)." The Hebrew word 
is often used in the Bible, beginning with Abel, who " was a 
shepherd of sheep." If often occurs in the sense of ruling, and 
is applied to God as " Shepherd of Israel." The readers of 
Homer will remember the familiar equivalent. Of all royal 
titles it is the most pleasing and patriarchal. 

The terms used for "throne," and "judge," besides the 
words of majesty, came from the Akkadian. It is clear that 
there was a hereditary element in the royalty of those days, 
which was of course almost the essence of a patriarchal power, 
but the lines were often broken by usurpation or conquest. 
There were viceroys of provinces, and chiefs or nobles, like the 
" princes " of Egypt : and the whole system was sanctioned and 
knit together by the strongest religious element. 

If the king, also sovereign pontiff, was not usually wor- 
shipped as a god in his lifetime, like the Pharaohs, as indeed 
appears in the case of Naram-Sin, son of Sargon I., as shewn 
by Prof. Sayce,t at least the more venerated were adored in 
after ages : as Gilgarnes, and Suqamuna and Amaraku. 
Khammurabi is called " god " in his lifetime, so too are Eri- 
aku, and Pur-Sin of Ur and Gimil-Sin, etc. A seal-cylinder 

* *y-y,y T- See also ^FiEi] sib, Assyr. ri'u, belu, shepherd, lord. Sayce, 

Assyr. Gram., No. 237, and JgT, No. 484, sheep. 
t Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. V., p. 442. 


in the De Clercq collection represents " Da-na-tum, the son of 
Sin-taiar, the servant of the god Rim-Sin " (Eri-aku) (Cat. 187, 
text). Prof. Sayce now explains the name " Amraphel, king of 
Shinar," as Ammnrabi-iln, i.e. Khammurabi the god. M. Lenor- 
mant notices * that the two words expressed by the same ideo- 
gram and signifying "god," ana and dimmer, were sometimes 
applied to kings, t as in Egypt the title of ^ J, "Good God." 
This subject will be treated in reference to the shepherd-kings. 

The priestly office and other chief functions were hereditary 
among the Chaldaeans, properly so called, who are said by 
Diodorus Siculus to have been the most ancient of the Baby- 
lonians. As to the Hebrew name Kasdim, for the Chaldaeans, 
it might seem to be formed from " Casadu, a common Assyrian 
word (' to possess ') ; Gasidu will be the nomen agentis" as Prof. 
Sayce says in his Assyrian Grammar, \ p. 14. Thus the Kasdim 
would be the possessors of the land where they dwelt : the lords, 
and not the subject race. But it has been explained as a 
dialectic variant of the word Kaldi, applied in the inscriptions 
to Southern Chalda3a,§ and a later suggestion has been thrown 
out by Prof. Sayce in P. 8. B. A. 1896, p. 172. 

The kings and suzerains of ancient Babylonia were far from 
being always mere despots and tyrants, in the evil sense of 
those words. We may be sure that their power was limited in 
many directions by the established strong customs, the "com- 
mon law" of the generations ; the opinion and will of priests 
and princes, by whom they were surrounded ; the exigency of 
precarious and troubled times, of a very exposed country, and 
restless royal neighbours. But there are evidences of high aims 
and beneficent designs for the public good. 

* Etudes sur quelques p. des Syllabaires, p. 14. 
t W. A .1., II., 33, 1. 34, 35, e-f. 

t Assyr. Gram, for Comparative purposes, Triibner, 1872 ; not the later Assyr. 
Gram., Bagster. 

§ Schracler, Gen. 11. 28. 


Doubtless we shall soon know more of the polity and laws 
of early Babylonia, and the precedents of legal decision in the 
courts. For social life we may now refer to Prof. Sayce's con- 
cise account in his Private and Social Life among the Baby- 
lonians, R. T. S., and to Mr. Pinches' paper, Trans. Vict. List. 
xxyi. 123, &c, and Mr. Boscawen, Ewp. Times, vi. 371. 
Prof. Sayce has published in Records of the Past * a few memo- 
randa of decisions so laconic in expression as to be vague and 
uncertain in import, for the most part ; but there are some 
landmarks, and his comment is valuable : " The patriarchal 
character of society implied by them (the laws) will be noticed, 
as well as the superior importance possessed by the mother, 
denial of whom by the son involved banishment in contrast 
with the milder penalty enjoined for renunciation of the father. 
This importance of the mother in family life is still a distin- 
guishing feature of the Finnic Tatar race. The slave, it will 
be seen, was already placed to some extent under the protection 
of the state, and the first step on the road towards the amelio- 
ration of his condition had been made." 

One of these rules regards the " portion of goods," in the 
shape of real property, to be given to a child. " In every case 
let a married man put his child in possession of property, pro- 
vided that he does not make him inhabit it." 

Three bear witness to the predominant religious feeling in 
family life. " For the future a sanctuary shall be erected in a 
private demesne." f 

This law, one would think, might have been made an 
instrument of religious persecution, such as that which Abra- 
ham was said to have undergone, as we shall hereafter notice. 

But the next and the following decision seem to secure at 

* Vol. III., p. 21. M. Lenormant has also given and explained these laws, Chald. 
Magic, ch. xxxi. 

t The original, both Akkadian and Assyrian, is given by M. Lenormant, 
Etudes sur quelques p. des Syllabaires, p. 79. 

S 6517. D 


least the undisturbed right of property : " (A man) has full 
possession of his sanctuary in his own high place. The sanc- 
tuary (a man) has raised is confirmed to the son who inherits." 

Then we find laws to secure the honour due to father and 
mother ; and the penalties of denial or family treason. " His 
father and his mother (a man) shall not (deny)." "A decision. 
A son says to his father : Thou art not my father, (and) con- 
firms it by (his) nail-mark (on the deed)." That is, I suppose, 
he formally repudiates the authority of his father by deed duly 
signed in the usual way by "his mark" with the finger nail on 
the clay. The penalty follows : "he giyes him a pledge, and 
silver he gives him." The Assyrian version gives it thus: " he 
recognises his pledge to him" : he enters into security for the 
future, and pays a fine. 

Next follows the parallel case of denial of the mother, with 
its severer penalty of personal disgrace and seclusion, or banish- 
ment. " A decision. A son says to his mother : Thou art not 
my mother " ; (in this case nothing is said of a formal deed, 
yet) " his hair is cut off, (in) the city they exclude him from 
earth (and) water, and in the house imprison him." (Assyrian 
version, " they expel him.") 

In the converse cases, where a father or mother repudiates 
a son, the father is the more severely visited. 

" A decision. A father says to his son : Thou art not my 
son. In house and brick-building they imprison him." 

" A decision. A mother says to her son : Thou art not my 
son. In house and property they imprison her." This seems 
as if she had the range of her garden or other premises. 

A married woman has her property secured to her. An un- 
faithful wife who repudiates her husband, " into the river they 
throw her." 

" A decision. A husband says to his wife : Thou art not 
my wife. Half a maneh of silver he weighs out in payment." 


With regard to the preference given to the wife, M. Lenor- 
mant remarks : — " This peculiarity .... is so much the 
more worthy of attention, not only because we find nothing 
similar in the Semitic world, but because it is directly opposed 
to the spirit of some posterior Babylonish institutions as re- 
volting to morality as they were degrading to womankind, yet 
consecrated by religion, and as far as I can see of Kushite 

These laws shew a very advanced social polity, afterwards 
exceedingly impaired among many or most of the ruling nations. 
The " wild justice " of personal revenge is here well broken 
in, and life and property efficiently protected. Even the slave 
is not subject to the irresponsible power of his master; wit- 
ness : " A decision. A master kills (his) slaves, cuts them to 
pieces, injures their offspring, drives them from the land and 
makes them sick ; his hand every day a half -measure of corn 
measures out (in requital)." 

Such were some of the laws of Akkad. 
In Kouyunjik Mr. G. Smith found half of a curious tablet, 
copied from a Babylonian original, giving warnings to kings 
and judges of the evils which would follow the negle3t of 
justice in the country. * They are most instructive. 

The administration of justice receives curious light from 
the tablets recording law cases in the courts. For instance : 
Mr. G-. Smith gives the following account f of a family lawsuit 
in the time of Khammurabi, a great king of whom we shall have 
more to say by and by ; that is, about the time of Abraham. 

" Zini-nana and Iriba-sin a dispute had. To settle it a judge they 
took, and to the temple of Samas they entered. In the temple of Samas 
sentence he pronounced : the slave Lussamar-Samas and the female slave 
Lislima to be the property of Iriba-sin ; the slave Ipsinan and the female 
slave Ilamannalamazi to be the property of Zini-nana. A statute in the 

* Assyr. Disc, p. 97 ; Records of the Past, Vol. VII., 119. 
t Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch. Vol. I. p. 91. 

D 2 


temple of Samas and the temple of Sin they proclaimed : brother to brother 
should be loving, brother from brother should not turn, should not quarrel, 
over the whole a brother to a brother should be generous, the whole he 
should not have. By the names of Ur, Samas, Maruduk and Sarkimuna 
(four gods, of whom the last was a deified king of old time), and Kham- 
murabi the king they swore. Witness Davkinaseme son of Apiyatu. Wit- 
ness Abil-sin son of Urmanse. Witness Sin-esses the priest. Witness Ibus- 
hea the dugab. Witness Samas-mubanit priest of Gula. Witness Nabi- 
sin son of Idin-sin. Witness Sin-uzili son of Zini-nana (one of the parties). 
Witness Inu-sin son of Sin-seme. Witness Sin-gimlaanni the .... of 
the judges. Tablet the witnesses impressed in the month Addaru, in the 
year when Khammurabi the king, Anu, Anunit and Nana (a god and two 
goddesses) adorned." 

Tablets of this kind, to record important business, are 
generally fabricated in duplicate. First a tablet of clay was 
moulded and inscribed; then an outer coat of clay was put 
over the tablet, and the same record (sometimes with varia- 
tions of a merely clerical kind) inscribed on the outside. Thus 
if the outer shell be injured, the same inscription is found on 
the kernel inside. In this case the record is " in Semitic 
Babylonian, but most of the other tablets in the collection " 
(in the British Museum), as Mr. Smith tells us, "are written 
in Turanian, although occasionally one copy will give a Semitic 
equivalent for the corresponding Turanian word in the 

There are very many of these tablets belonging to the 
times of the early kings. They "relate mostly to sales of 
land ; but some are leases, others sales of grain, slaves, and 
camels, and a few are loans, wills, and law-cases." From such 
transactions Abram must have learned his knowledge of busi- 
ness, which we see in the acquisition of his wealth of various 
kinds, including "the souls which he had gotten in Kharran ;" 
that is, the servants whom he had acquired by purchase ; 
and especially in the solemn transaction for "the possession 
of a burying-place " with Ephron the son of Zohar the 


The Semitic people were the great agents in these trans- 
actions of commerce, as the descendants of Abraham in par- 
ticular have been ever since. 

In a religious aspect we must mark these judicial deter- 
minations as taking place in the temple, and being confirmed 
by oaths on the gods and the king. 

Among the striking analogies between Babylonia and irrigation. 
Egypt, it must not be forgotten that the annual rise and 
overflow of the rivers Euphrates and Tigris (Hiddekel), was 
a matter of the most serious and vital importance. The Tigris 
begins to rise in the early part of March, and reaches its 
highest level about the beginning of May. 

The Euphrates, which starts from the northern and oppo- 
site side of the same mountain range, begins to rise in the 
middle of March, is at its height in the beginning of June, 
and sinks from the middle of July till September. 

The one condition of successful cultivation was the careful 
observance, and skilful application of these natural provisions 
of the great fertiliser, water. And, accordingly, to this work 
the master-minds of Babylonia applied themselves, perhaps 
from the time of Peleg in whose " days the earth was divided," 
which Mr. Cyril Graham considers to refer to " the first 
cutting of some of those canals which are found in such 
numbers between the Tigris and the Euphrates." * However 
this may be, the work of irrigation can be traced to the 
remotest antiquity. 

The observation of the varying water-level was a solemn 
act of religious duty, like that of the Nilometer in Egypt, 
and seems at Babylon to have been entrusted to a special 

* Cambridge Essays, 1858. 3?2 means river or watercourse ; Ass. pidugu ; of. 
the name of Phalga, on Euphrates. 


Mr. George Smith, in his work on Assyrian Discoveries* 
gives a translation from a tablet belonging to the temple 
of Bel, written in the Turanian and Semitic Babylonian 
languages : — 

" In the month Nisan (the first month, mostly in March) on the 

second day, one kaspu (2 hours) in the night : 
The amil-urgal draws near, and the water of the river he 

To the presence of Bel he enters and measures, 
And in the presence of Bel 
He marks it, and to Bel this prayer he prays : 
' Lord, who in his might has no equal ; 
O Lord, good sovereign, lord of the world ; 
Executor of the judgment of the great gods ; 
Lord, who in his might is clothed with strength ; 
Lord, king of mankind, establisher of glory ; 
Lord, thy throne is Babylon. Borsippa is thy crown ; 
The wide heaven is the expanse of thy liver, 

(Lines 12 and 13 of doubtful meaning) 

Thy might thou f 

t l° r( l powerful, + 

Returning reward f 

To those cast down, do thou give to them favour, 

Answer to the man who praises thy might. 

Lord of the earth, of mankind and spirits, speak good. 

Who is there whose mouth does not praise thy might, 

And speak of thy law, and glorify thy dominion ? 

Lord of the earth, dwelling in the temple of the Sun, 

Take hold of the hands which are lifted to thee, 

To thy city Babylon grant favours. 

To the temple of Saggal, thy temple, incline thy face, 

For the sons of Babylon and Borsippa grant blessings.' " 

" There are," says Mr. Smith, " several of these tablets in 
the new collection, giving directions for similar ceremonies on 
different days of the month Nisan." 

The extreme necessity of these works of hydraulic en- 
gineering is marked mythologically by the fact of Ea, the 
great god of intelligence among the Babylonians, being the 

* P. 395. t Lacunae. 


patron of irrigation ; as Sin, the moon-god, of brick-making 
and building. 

In the records the same lesson is read in the account of 
whole cities destroyed from time to time by floods, as for 
instance Umlias in the time of Khammurabi, in the lifetime 
of Abraham. This great conquering monarch, whose exploits 
we shall have to record, commemorates in an inscription these 
beneficent works. 

" The canal Khammurabi, the joy of men, a stream of abundant waters, 
for the people of Sumir and Accad I excavated. Its banks, all of them, 
I restored to newness : new supporting walls I heaped up : perennial 
waters for the people of Sumir and Accad I provided." * 

At the present time the destruction of dykes and canals 
has resulted in the increasing ruin of the whole country, 
which is either a dusty desert or a mephitic marsh, or both 
by turns ; t and so complete is the subversion of all things 
that Sir A. H. Layard found the bed of a great canal leading 
to Niffer, " whose waters had once been confined between two 
enormous embankments," dry in the midst of the surrounding 
water. " Its solid banks now oppose the further spread of 
the marsh which reaches to their feet." "The greater part 
of the country below ancient Babylon," says this renowned 
explorer, " has now been for centuries one great swamp. It 
is, indeed, what the prophet foretold it should be, a desert of 
the sea." The great marshes, he tells us, " are yearly increas- 
ing, and threaten to cover the whole of southern Mesopo- 

The northern and drier parts of the country are described 
by travellers as intersected by the dry beds and banks of 
innumerable canals, which now present the appearance of 
turnpike roads : and the country after a flush of exquisite 

* Records of the Past, Vol. I., p. 7, Second Edition; see also Trans. Soc. Bib. 
Arch., Vol. I., p. 58, etc. 

t Layard, Nin. and Bab., p. 549, et passim. 


flowery verdure, which " withers afore it be grown up," passes 
again into a hot dusty desert. In the old days, however, of 
which we have to tell, when it was densely populated by 
various industrious races in the state of civilisation we have 
been describing, southern Babylonia must have been a goodly 
spectacle of cultivated beauty, "as the garden of the 

Here and there a few descriptive touches in the narratives 
of our modern travellers will help us to picture this old- 
world beauty. Mr. Loftus, for instance, thus describes the 
rise of the water and the river scenery * : — " A great change 
was taking place in the aspect of the country ; many old 
channels and watercourses, which I had been accustomed to 
see empty and dry, were now rapidly filling with river- 
water." .... 

" Hennayin, as he walked by my side, broke out into 
frequent exclamations of delight at the sight of little runners 
of the vivifying fluid as it trickled along, gradually filling the 
canals. 4 Is not this a beautiful country ? ' he continually 
exclaimed, while he looked up into my face with undoubted 
signs of gratification. While the embarkation was being 
effected, I was in full enjoyment of the scene before me. 
After the dust and barren dreariness of the ruins (of Erech, 
which he had just left) nothing could exceed the beauty and 
luxury of that river side and its now verdant banks .... 
bee-eaters, king-fishers, herons, pigeons, hawks, and other 
birds, in all their bright and varied plumage, were flying about, 
uttering their several cries, and luxuriating in their native 
element, scarcely deigning to notice the presence of human 
beings." Lower down the Euphrates "a thick forest of 
luxuriant date-trees fringe the bank on either side of the noble 

• Chald< and Sus., p. 275. 


river, which supplies innumerable canals for their nourishment, 
and for the cultivation of cereals, which nourish in large 
quantities even beneath the shade of the palms. The ebb and 
flow of the tide is perceptible twenty miles above Korna, quite 
eighty miles from the Persian Gulf." 

This then is the scenery in which we are to picture the 
childhood and rising life of Abram in the house of Terakh 
his father, in a city renowned and venerated with especial 
honour, the sanctuary of a splendid religion, the mart and 
haven of a thriving commerce, the walled fortress of a royal 
military system, of which indeed it was the exposed western 
outpost across the boundary of the great river, and, as we have 
before noticed, open to the pastures and the wild spaces of 
the Arabian deserts. Truly Abram, like his descendant Saul 
of Tarsus, was " a citizen of no mean city." 

"We have given a rough sketch of the general state of Business. 
things civil and religious in the Chaldaea of those days, in 
which Abram was brought up. His father's house must have 
been dignified by eminent station and virtues, and its records 
and traditions became the more dearly cherished by him and 
his after the breaking of tie upon tie which had bound him to 
his kinsmen according to the flesh. Whether these registers 
and family records could have been kept in writing at that 
early time, used to be a matter of vague conjecture. Now, 
however, we know that even the daily transactions of business, 
in which Abram's race were so especially versed, were per- 
petuated with the utmost punctuality and decorum by means of 
those contract, and sale, and even loan tablets of terra cotta 
which are still existing ; and it is now known that in Chaldsea 
among the Akkadians, as in Egypt, papyrus was used as a 
writing material * as well as clay, and more rarely stone. 

* Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. I., p. 343 ; III., 430. 


Signatures were made (as we have seen) familiarly by the 
impress of the finger-nail, and more solemnly by the beautiful 
seal-cylinders of jasper, carnelian, and other hard stones, of 
which the British Museum possesses such a magnificent collec- 
tion, dating from a time before Abraham downwards. 

These cylinders were engraven all round, and being rolled 
across the soft clay of the tablets, set off their impressions in 
the manner of the modern calico-printing. 

The identical name Abram has been found in the Eponym 
Canon as that of a court-officer of Esar-haddon, and it is an 
extremely interesting thing that other Semitic names of the 
same precise type have been found both in Chaldaea and in 
Egypt. In the reign of Abil-Sin, the grandfather of Kham- 
murabi, one of the witnesses to a deed is " the Amorite the 
son of Abiramu," as we have seen. Hommel, Oes. des Alt. 
Morgenhmdes, 62. The very name Abram was older in Chaldsea 
than our patriarch. 

For information on the cuneiform system of writing we 
must refer to the excellent handbook of Ancient History of 
the East by Mr. Philip Smith ; * the work so often quoted in 
these pages by M. Lenormant ; f and the more extended 
volumes of Prof. Pawlinson, on the Ancient Monarchies of 
the East.J The student will use the Assyrian Grammars of 
Prof. Sayce and Delitzsch, and the Assyrian Manual of Lyon 
(Chicago, 1880) ; and an excellent vindication of cuneiform 
research is given by the Eev. William Turner, in his volume 
entitled, Studies Biblical and Oriental. § 

Of the domestic architecture little has as yet been re- 
covered. The better kind of houses were built of brick, 
plastered and ornamented in a very singular way by cones of 

* Murray, 1871. t Manual of Anc. Hist, of the Hast. Asher. 1869. 

% Five Gnat Monarchies. Second Edition, Murray, 1871. 
§ Edin. : A. and C. Black, 187G. 


coloured clay thrust into the plaster in varied patterns of 
lozenges, squares, and zigzags, with much the effect of Norman 
ornamentation in our early churches. The leading architec- 
tural forms appear to have been derived from wooden buildings 
constructed of palm-trunks. 

The houses were probably covered with vaults of brick 
and terraced roofs, and very likely may have included some 
subterranean chambers for retreat in the hot seasons, such as 
are still used in the towns on the Euphrates and Tigris, where 
in the extreme heat the days are spent in the cellars, and the 
nights on the roofs. 

The graves of the departed were most carefully constructed Burial. 
vaults of brick, not arched, but closed by gradually approach- 
ing courses meeting at the top ; or the body was laid beneath 
a very large and strongly constructed covering of baked clay 
of oval ground-plan and arched form, or enclosed in two 
very large jars whose open mouths were carefully joined 

Ur and Erech were the great sacred burial-cities, where the 
dead were gathered in innumerable multitudes around the walls 
for many ages, as at xlbydos in Egypt, and as at the present 
day they are brought on camels from great distances to the 
Mohammedan cities of Nedjef and Kerbela. The deceased 
were interred with great care and devotion, and most ingenious 
means used to secure the best drainage of the vast sepulchral 
mounds. The body was generally laid on its left side, in the 
left hand was deposited a copper bowl with some small pro- 
vision of dates or other food, on which the right hand was 
trained to rest as if in the act of taking food. The seal- 
cylinder was worn in the usual manner round the wrist, and 
drinking vessels were deposited in the tomb. The usual metals 
for all instruments and weapons were copper and bronze. 
Gold was used for ornaments, and silver as current metal in 


traffic ; iron seems to have been so rare as to be accounted a 
precious metal.* 
ining. It is clear from subsequent events that Abram was trained 

to military exercise, "his hands to Avar and his fingers to 
fight," probably first in the dangerous warfare of the chase, to 
wield the bow, the spear, and the sling : -and like his great 
descendant David, to slay the lion, still in Chaldaea a powerful 
beast and held in sore dread, and the more terrible lioness in 
her wrath. He must also have learned the use of the boat 
and the craft of fishing on that " great river " Avhose ample 
stream was the one grand feature of his fatherland : and in 
the harbour he would grow familiar with the " ships of Ur," 
and the seafaring people of other races. The days of the years 
of his life were divided into twelve hours of day and twelve 
of night, as by us at present, and seem to have been marked 
on dials. 

¥ Rawlinson, Anc. Monartfiies, Vol. I., p. 167. 

( 61 ) 



TTTE have now seen something of the land and city in 
* ▼ which Abram was born and grew up in his father's 
house : a man of rank surrounded by all the conditions and 
influences of civilized life ; in the centre of the world's inte- 
rests and rivalries ; the hive which had thrown off the strong 
swarms of Assur, of Canaan, and it may be, before that, of 
Mizraim ; a land thick with conflicting powers, where his own 
kindred the sons of Shem had been in the ascendant, but were 
now for a while once more thrust down by the Cushite lords 
of Susa, who in their turn were perhaps troubled on their 
eastern frontier, where the Aryan race may have been feeling- 
its way into India, as Prof. C. E. de Ujfaivy dates the arrival 
of the Aryans in the Panjab about the year 2000 B.C.* 

We have spoken of the social conditions of mingled good 
and harm ; of the religious life in its strong and rank growth, 
where the ill weeds were springing up on all sides, and choking 
the good seed of pure primaeval faith in the Living God. 
There is not only presumptive evidence that a staunch up- 
holder of the primal uncorrupted creed would be on all sides 
beset by danger as well as temptation, but the power appears 
to have been asserted to compel a private citizen by order of 
the judge to build a heathen sanctuary on his own property. 
Thus there is nothing unlikely in the general sense of Jewish 
tradition that Abram was persecuted by the ruler of Chaldaaa, 

* Aperqu general sur les Migrations, etc., p. 19, 1874. 


and that he and his father were expatriated on account of 
their faith ; * which is the story told by Achior to Holofernes 
in the Book of Judith. f 

Josephus mentions as a motive for their quitting Ur that 
Terakh hated Ohaldaea on account of his sorrow for his lost 
son Haran,J without, however, omitting the paramount cause, 
Abram's faithful obedience to the divine command, when "the 
God of glory appeared unto ' him ' when he was in Mesopo- 
tamia before he dwelt in Charran," 

It is worthy of notice that the Hebrew Chronology gives 
us all the ten generations from Shem to Abram as living 
together, with the one exception of the short-lived Peleg. 
That some patriarchal names are still found near Kharran, 
such as the well-known Seriej, perhaps *!!$?, in Kheber-Keui, 
not far off, and perhaps Peleg in Phalga on the Upper 
Euphrates, would indicate that the forefathers of Terakh had 
come into Chaldasa through that line of migration, and that 
he and his clan were returning to old quarters. The lifetimes 
of the patriarchs overlapped in manifold parallels ; so that 
family life was a many-stranded cord compared with the 
slender line of these latter days ; and tradition in every sense 
must have been correspondingly ample, strong, and accurate. 

At the time of his migration Abram was a married man, 
but not a father. His wife Sarai is identified by Josephus 
and other Jewish writers with Iskah a daughter of Haran, and 
sister of Lot and Milkah. The same syllabic sign will read 
Mil and is, as Dr. Haigh long ago pointed out in a letter to 
me, and Prof. Sayce would identify Iskah with Milkah. Thus 
she would be Abram's niece still. 

If this were so, when Abram said to Abimelech, " Indeed 
she is my sister ; she is the daughter of my father, but not the 

* Malan, Phil, or Truth, p. 93. t Judith 5. 8. % Antiq., Lib. I. c. VI. 5. 


daughter of my mother," he must have used the word "sister" 
in that larger acceptance in which the term "brother" is 
applied to Lot,* and " daughter " in the very usual sense of 
descendant; and in this case we also learn that Haran's 
mother was a previous wife of Terakh, and not the mother of 

Sarai was ten years younger than her husband. The name 
*")£> (Sri) is much contested as to its etymology and forma- 
tion. Long ago the Rev. D. R. Haigh proposed as explana- 
tion Sar-I, (the god) I is king. But it was objected that no 
god I had been met with {Trans. Vict. Inst, xn. 151). I 
have always fancied since that the name was a theophorous 
name of such construction, and might contain the title of 
some one of the " other gods " which her fathers worshipped 
in Chaldaaa. The researches of Mr. Pinches have given addi- 
tional countenance to this explanation (B. & 0. Rec., n. 1U ; 
Trans. Vict. Inst, xxviii. 11, &c). 

In Trans. Vict Inst, p. 13, Mr. Pinches gives the Baby- 
lonian name " Ser-Aa " (Ser being a variant of Sin, the Moon- 
god, whose head-quarters of worship was Ur). This name 
seems to me very near to «H£>. But Sharru-Ai (Ai is king) 
is still nearer, if not identical (See Hommel, Am. Heb. 
Trad., 1U). Mr. Pinches' paper should be well studied, as 
shewing, in his opinion, " a tendency to monotheism, or to 
the idea that all the gods were but mere manifestations of one 
supreme deity." The name Sarrat = Sarah, he has also found. 

As to Abram's own name, I suggested in 1882 that it 
might be classed with Abi-ram, Akhi-ram, etc., and be ex- 
plained by the name of the god Ramu. Hesychius gives 
c P^a ? , o fyio-Toq 6eos (the Most High God), but this is held 
to be Rammanu. The name Abramu would thus mean 

* Gen. 14. 16. 


"Eamn is father" (see Trans. Vict. Inst., xvi. 134). Now 
we know thafc in the time of the grandfather of Kham- 
murabi a witness to a contract was " son of Abi-ramn," a 
"son of Martu," or Syrian (P. S. B. A., xvi. 212). We go 
back in Babylonia two generations before Abrain, as Prof. 
Hommel says, and have no longer need to refer to the Ab- 
ramu who was an officer of Esar-haddon. That Eamu has 
not the determinative prefix does not prove that it is not 
the name of the god. The name of the god is found on the 
bronze plates of the gates of Balawat in the British Museum 
(P. S. B. A., vit. 90). 

Mr. Pinches has found names of a distinctly Hebrew cast 
in documents of the time of which we are treating. " Among 
other names which remind us of those of the Old Testament," 
says Prof. Sayce, " he has found in contract tablets dated in 
the reign of Khammurabi and other kings of the dynasty the 
names Yakub-ili and Yasup-ili, or Jacob-el and Joseph-el. 
The names are distinctly Hebrew, and prove that in the very 
century to which the Bible assigns the lifetime of Abraham, 
Hebrews with Hebretv names must have been Jiving in Baby- 
lonia " (Norivich Oh. Congress. See also Hommel, Anc. Heb. 
Trad., 96, 143). 

On the names Jacob-el and Joseph-el as names of localities 
in the Palestine list of Thothmes III., I have treated in The 
Life and Times of Joseph, p. 93. See also Hommel (Anc. Heb. 
Trad., 112, 296). 

We will now consider some indications of a westward drift 
of races, apart from the divine and separate destiny of Abram 
and his seed. 

" This age," says Sir H. C. Eawlinson,* " seems to have 
been in a peculiar sense the active period of Semitic colon iza- 

* Herod., Vol. I., p. 365 ; see also Anc. Mon., Vol. I., p. 54. 


tion. The Phoenicians removing from the Persian Gulf to 
the shores of the Mediterranean, and the Hebrew patriarch 
marching with his household from Chaldaea to Palestine, 
merely followed the direction of the great tide of emigration 
which was at this time setting in from the east westward. 
Semitic tribes were, during the period in question, gradually 
displacing the old Cushite inhabitants of the Arabian penin- 
sula. Assyria was being occupied by colonists of the same 
Semitic race from Babylonia, while the Aramaeans were 
ascending the course of the Euphrates and forming settlements 
on the eastern frontier of Syria." 

In thus writing of Abram we are certain that this eminent 
scholar did not intend to derogate from the supreme and 
unique import of the call which summoned him forth. 
Among all the strangers who passed through the borders of 
the king of Salem, among all the patriarchal clans who " went 
down into Egypt," whether pressed by famine or led by 
ambition of conquest, yea, among all the sons of Adam, there 
was but one Abraham, " the father of the faithful." 

The general aspect of the great races is sketched by Prof. 
C. E. de Ujfalvy in his Apergu general sur Us Migrations des 
PeupUs. "The Aryans, the Semites, and the Chamites re- 
mained much longer neighbours (than other races before men- 
tioned), as the intimate relationship which exists between their 
religious and national traditions proves. Even after a first 
separation of the Aryans, the Semites and Chamites dwelt 
contiguous and lived in the strictest union. This union 
existed during the development of their language, and ceased 
not till the moment when a new shock from the hordes of 
higher Asia threw the Aryans a second time on them, and 
finally separated them ; the one extended themselves in the 
valley of the Tigris and the Euphrates, the other turned 
away constrained to invade Africa by the isthmus of Suez. 

S 6517. E 


"Throughout where the Semites appear, we see them 
succeed the Chamites who had preceded them in these dif- 
ferent countries ; thus in Mesopotamia, in Palestine, in 
northern Africa, and probably also in Arabia, and even in 
Abyssinia, where they arrived by crossing the Red Sea. Al- 
most everywhere the Chamites mingled themselves with the 
Semites, ethnologically speaking, they left some traces of their 
influence only in the character of the peoples ; thus in Europe 
(in Spain for example), in Mesopotamia, in Palestine, in Abys- 
sinia, the Phoenicians were Semitized Chamites. It is only 
when one knows that the inhabitants of Mesopotamia were 
Chamites who had become Semites, that one can explain to 
oneself the agreement existing between the Assyrio-Babylonian 
(Semitic) civilization and that of Egypt (Chamitic)." 

This very suggestive quotation must be borne in mind 
when we consider in a subsequent study the Egypt which 
met the eyes of Abram. " From the history of Egypt we 
learn," writes Mr. Kenrick,* " that about B.C. 2000 a great 
western migration of Palestinian and Arabian nomad tribes 
took place, in consequence of which all lower Egypt was 
subject to them for a long succession of years." Movers, 
B. /., Chap, viii., thinks "there are traces of a conquest of 
Syria and Palestine by Assyria first, B.C. 2000."| But we go 
much further back, as we have seen. 

In surveying the swarming fields of history, as we see the 
highway cast up, and the stumblingblocks removed, and the 
bounds of their habitation marked out for the sons of men 
by an unseen hand, we must fairly take into our account all 
that meets our view ; and so shall we enter into the noble 
confession of Joseph : " So now it was not you sent me hither, 
but God." 

* Phoen., p. 141. + Ibid., p. 310, note. 


We read a more instructive lesson than that of simple shep- 
herd-life, or the doubtful dignity of the " Bedouin Sheikh," 
in the life of Abram which now emerges to our sight from 
the busy haunts of men along the great roads of commerce 
and of war, and jostling with the hordes of keen seekers of 
some new city, whether Damascus, or Sidon, or Hebron, or 
Zoan, swarming westward to the " sea of the setting sun," and 
then southward to the land of Ham. 

When the God of glory appeared to Abram, and called 
him to his new destiny, the first migration of Terakh and his 
house was about 600 miles in length to Kharran. It is clear 
that Nakhor and his family followed him so far, for Kharran 
was afterwards called " the city of Nakhor " ; and Nakhor 
called on Abram's God, as we learn incidentally from the lips 
of Laban.* The obedience of Terakh himself is evident from 
the position assigned to him : " Terakh took Abram his son, 
and Lot the son of Haran his son's son, and Sarai his daughter 
in law, his son Abram's wife ; and they went forth with them 
from Ur of the Chaldees to go into the land of Canaan ; and 
they came unto Kharran and dwelt there." f 

At Ur they left Nakhor and the sepulchre of the departed 
elder brother Haran, who had " died before the face of Terakh 
his father," and " whose monument," says Josephus, " is shewn 
to this day." 

And now began that great migration which for ever de- 
tached the pilgrims from their mother country. The early 
part of their way led through the rich warm Chaldaean levels ; 
and having, as we suppose, crossed the great river and passed 
by Larsa and ancient Erech, and seen the ruins of great Babel, 
they would come to the twin cities of Sippara : and by and 
by rising near the great place of bitumen -pits, Hit, to the 

Gen. 31. 53. t Gen. 11. 31. 

E 2 


higher undulating country already occupied by tribes who had 
gone northwards to found the great dominion of Assnr, they 
would leave behind the more advanced cultivation of their 
native plains, and begin to encounter greater difficulties and 
untried dangers. But through whatever vicissitudes, in due 
time passiug up the fertile valley of the Belikh, the caravan, 
ascending towards the highlands, entered the resting-place of 
many years, a second home which became so familiar and dear 
to Abram, that we find him in his old age calling it "my 
country ; the house of my kindred." The region was called 
Padan-Aram, the plain of the highlands, or simply Padan, as 
in Gen. 48. 7. 
Description Kharran (not to be confounded with Haran, the name of 

of Kliarran. 

Terakh's son) is well known in secular history as a very ancient 
and important place — " the key of the highway from the east 
to the west," as Prof. Sayce calls it, # explaining the name as 
an Akkadian word meaning " road " — and was familiar with the 
march of armies and the incidents of war. The town, now a 
mere village of houses built, for want of timber, in the peculiar 
fashion represented in Assyrian reliefs,! with courses of stone 
gradually contracted so as to form a domed roof, lies on the 
slope of a low hill ending in a rocky vantage ground, on which 
stand the ruins of a fortress of very ancient date built of large 
blocks of basaltic rock. There is a careful description given, 
with a plan, by Dr. Sachau (Reise in Syrien, etc., 217, etc.), 
and some account is also to be found in P.S.B.A. 1891, 385, by 
Mr. Ains worth. 

There is an interesting sketch of the place by the late 
Dr. Malan in Churton and Jones's New Testament ; and the 
learned traveller has given the fullest description we yet possess 
in his work Philosophy or Truth.% He approached it from 

* Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch. Vol. I., p. 303. 
t Nin. and Bab., p. 112. % P. 93. 


the Highland side, where " the green slopes of the lower hills 
of Armenia " have died away, coming from the ancient Edessa, 
which has claimed itself to be Ur. " At every step from Oorfa 
on the way to Haran," he writes, " which now lies as it did 
of old at about six hours' march from Ur (Oorfa), the 
hills on the right hand and on the left of the plain recede 
farther and farther, until you find yourself fairly launched on 
the desert ocean ; a boundless plain, strewed at times with 
patches of the brightest flowers, at other times with rich and 
green pastures, covered with flocks of sheep and of goats 
feeding together, here and there a few camels, and the son 
or daughter of their owner tending them. One can quite 
understand that the sons of this open country . . . the 
Bedaweens love it, and cannot leave it : no other soil would 
suit them. The air is so fresh, the horizon is so far, and man 
feels so free, that it seems made for those whose life is to roam 
at pleasure, and who own allegiance to none but to themselves. 
. . . The village of Haran itself consists of a few conical 
houses, in shape like beehives, built of stones laid in courses, 
one over the other without either mud or mortar ; these houses 
let in the light at the top, and are clustered together at the 
foot of the ruined castle built on the mound, that makes 
Haran a landmark plainly visible from the whole plain around. 
That same day I walked at even to the well I had passed in 
the afternoon coming from Oorfa ; the well of this the city of 
Xahor, ' at the time of the evening, the time that women go 
out to draw water.' There was a group of them, filling, no 
longer their 'pitchers,' since the steps down which Rebekah 
went to fetch the water are now blocked up, but filling their 
water-skins by drawing water at the well's mouth. Every- 
thing around that well bears signs of age and of the wear of 
time ; for as it is the only well of drinkable water there, it 
is much resorted to. Other wells are only for watering the 


flocks. There we find the troughs of various height for camels, 
for sheep, and for goats, for kids and for lambs : there the 
women wear nose-rings, and bracelets on their arms, some of 
gold, or of silver, and others of brass, or even of glass. One 
of these was seen in the distance bringing to water her flock 
of fine patriarchal sheep ; ere she reached the well, shepherds 
more civil than their brethren of Horeb had filled the troughs 
with water for her sheep. She was the Sheikh's daughter, the 
' beautiful and well-favoured ' Ladheefeh. As the shadows of 
the grass and of the low shrubs around the well lengthened 
and grew dim, and the sun sank below the horizon, the women 
left in small groups ; the shepherds followed them, and I was 
left alone in this vast solitude. Yet not alone : the bright 
evening star in the glowing sky to westward seemed to point 
to the promised land, as when Abraham took it for his guide ; 
the sky overhead, clear and brilliant as when he gazed on it, 
and the earth, the ground on which he trod, all spake a lan- 
guage heard nowhere else. The heavens whispered and the 
earth answered, ' walk by faith,' ' stagger not at the promise 
of God through unbelief,' but do as Abram did, ' be strong in 
faith, giving glory to God,' and ' by thy works make thy faith 
perfect.' There is also for thee a promised land — thy home. 
Keep thine eye thereon, and thou, stranger and pilgrim on the 
earth, believe Him that promised, as Abraham did ; ' seek,' as 
he did, ' a better country, that is an heavenly,' and it shall be 
counted unto thee for righteousness." 

These thoughts of a servant of Christ are veritable living 
proof of the work of faithful Abraham, who rejoiced to see the 
day of the Messiah aforetime as far off as we look back on it. 
It is through the grace of Him who " aforetime made known 
the glad tidings " to Abraham, that this son of the far-distant 
Gentile is thus blessed, according to the very "evangel " : " In 
thee shall all the nations of the earth be blessed." " So then" 


as St. Paul reasons,* " they which be of faith are blessed with 
faithful Abraham ; " " if ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's 
seed, and heirs according to the promise." 

The plain of Kharran was a very early and a very late out- 
post of Chaldean power. Through it Kedor-la'omer and his 
tributaries must have marched to their distant conquests while 
yet Abram and his father were dwelling there, and Abram's 
eyes probably looked upon the long array of Elam, Larsa, 
Shinar, and Goi'm with which thirteen years later he was so 
suddenly to be engaged in conflict. " The Moon-god, Sin, alone 
governed two large fiefs, Uru in the extreme south, and Harran 
towards the extreme north-west. ,, So writes Prof. Maspero 
{Dawn of Civ., 648). And, after quoting the great hymn of 
adoration to Sin, he adds, " Outside Uru and Harran, Sin did 
not obtain this rank of creator and ruler of things ; he was 
simply the Moon-god," etc., etc. "An inscription recently 
discovered at Sinjerli, north of the Gulf of Antioch, shews 
that among the Semites the Moon-god of Kharran bore the 
title of the ' Baal of Kharran ' " (Sayce, Exp. Times, May 
1897, p. 357). "Between Ur and Kharran," as Prof. Sayce 
writes, "the common worship of the Moon-god must have 
formed a special bond of union, and the citizen of Ur would 
have found in Kharran a welcome, and all that he was accus- 
tomed to at home. That Terah should have settled in Kharran, 
therefore, was very natural." Prof. Hommel indeed tells us 
that " Sin," the Moon-god, " had his most ancient fane at 
Kharran " (Anc. Heb. Trad. 73). The plain of Kharran was 
irrigated in the true Chaldsean style, by water-courses from the 
Belikh river, which flows at several miles' distance from the 
hills southward to the Euphrates ; and to the west lies the plain 
of Seruj, fertile and thick with villages of the same kind of 

* 1 Gal 3. 9, 29. 


ancient houses as we may well suppose to have been seen in 
these regions in Abram's time. 

The indications of Chaldaean worship at Kharran reach 
back as far as the days of which we are writing, as Prof. 
Sayce has shown from cuneiform inscriptions : * " Sulpa-uddu 
(the messenger of the rising sun, the blue star Mercury) is 
called i the spirit of the men of Kharran,' a very remarkable 
reference to a city which was closely connected with Accad in 
race and history from very early times, and whose laws are 
conjoined by Sargon with those of Assur, the ancient prse- 
Semitic capital of Assyria. The astronomical lore of the Khar- 
ranians is thus taken back to a remote period." 

Sin, the great tutelary of Kharran, was afterwards known 
to the Aramaeans as Ba'al-Kharran (Sachau, Berlin Acad. 
February 14, 1895. Inscription at Sinjerli). 

Kharran was, in fact, from first to last, bound up with the 
worship of the sidereal pantheon. Its gods are mentioned in 
the Rabshakeh's message to Hezekiah,| among " the gods of 
the nations," with those of " Gozan and Rezeph and the children 
of Eden which were in Thelasar." 

In the British Museum is a seal representing a priest in 
adoration before an altar with a star above it. In the distance 
is a diminutive figure. Behind the priest is inscribed in cunei- 
form " the god of Kharran." Probably the star is the planet 
Mercury, which, as we have seen, was lord of the men of 
Kharran, representing the god Nusku or Xebo. It is a curious 
thing, by the way, that the Talmud gives to the father of 
Terakh's wife the name of Carnebo, as we have before noticed. 

"Here was situated," writes Mr. Boscawen, in a note he 
has kindly sent me, " a famous temple to the Moon-god Sin " 
(the god of Ur), " apparently of very ancient date." " In an 

* T. & B. A., II. 247 ; III. 168. t 2 Kings 19. 


inscription K. 2701 of the British Museum, we have a mention 
of the temple in connection with an omen in the reign of 
Esar-haddon : — 

" When the father of the king my lord (Assur-bani-pal) to the land 
of Egypt went, into the plantations of the land of Kharran, the dwelling 
of the god of cedar-trees he went. The moon over the cornfields was 
fixed, having two crowns on his head (double halo) . . . While 
Nusku (the planet Mercury; stood at its side. The father of the k^.ng 
my lord went down . . . The crown on his head (Assur-bani-pal's) he 
plaoed. To rule the countries he appointed him. Then the road to Egypt 
he took." 

The omen was indeed a very intelligible one. The moon 
was seen from the " high place," the ziggurat or tower of stages 
of his own temple, with two crowns, and the attendant planet 
at his side. The portent suited the aged king's position and 
desire. Immediately the second crown is given to his son, who 
is to him as Nebo to the Moon-god Sin {Records, New 
Series V., 168, 169, 170). Notice that the god Laban was the 
patron of brickmaking, a title of Sin. Compare what we have 
before said on brickmaking. 

In a most important tablet discovered by Dr. Scheil in 1895 
at Babylon we have an inscription of Nabonidus, in which he 
records the destruction of the great temple of Kharran by the 
barbarians in the year 609 B.C., and its restoration by Naboni- 
dus, who recovered the votive memorials of Assur-bani-pal which 
he had dedicated to Sin at his coronation by Esar-haddon. 

In this tablet Nabonidus describes an auspicious dream in 
which Nebuchadnezzar had appeared and conversed with him 
{Times, Jan. 9, 1896). 

So tenacious was this idolatry at Kharran, that in the early 

Christian centuries it remained the metropolis of heathenism, 

while the neighbouring Eclessa was the centre of the true faith. 

In the fifth century," says Sir Henry Rawlinson,* "the 

* Herod., Vol. I., p. 503, n. 


Sabaeans of Harran worshipped the sun as ' Belshamin, the 
lord of heaven,' and at a later period they used the Greek 
name of "H\io$ ; and again Gula under the name of ' Gadlat,' 
and Tar'ata (Atargatis or Derceto), are given by St. James of 
Seruj as the tutelary goddesses of Harran in the fifth century 
of Christ : " and still later are records of the same idolatry, and 
we even find that in this city the Sabians had a chapel which 
was dedicated to Abraham.* 

Thus then the " father's house " was still within an outpost 
of the old Chaldsean rule, a very imperfect approach to the 
land which Jehovah would show them ; still in the highway 
of the caravans and line of march of the armies, still sur- 
rounded by the worship which they had renounced. But 
Terakh was well stricken in years, and here he was minded to 
abide and end his days, without crossing the great river into 
the land of the stranger and the unknown regions of Martu, 
toward the sea of the setting sun. And hither came Nakhor 
and Milcah and their house, and they prospered and became 
great in the fertile and beautiful land, where the tender mercy 
of God allowed Abram to bury his father at the age of 205 
years, perhaps in one of the rock-hewn tombs of Urfah. 

In his careful exposition of St. Stephen's defence (Acts 7) 
Bishop Wordsworth has shewn that, besides the first vision 
which "brought" or "took" Abraham out of Ur of the 
Kasdim, there was a separate and second call from Kharran, 
and that this was so acknowledged by the Rabbis and by 
Philo and Josephus, both of whom he quotes (iV. T., vol. I. G7). 

* Kitto, Bib. Cyc, " Haran." 

( 75 ) 



TT does not appear that the tent-life of the nomad was 
-*- Abram's portion until his departure from Kharran. 
Up to that great decisive point we may seek our example of 
the mode of life in the book of Job, where we find the 
honoured patriarch dwelling in his house and sitting worship- 
fully among his fellow- citizens of dignity in the gate, while 
his flocks and herds were sent afield under the charge of his 
servants and the members of his house, duly accompanied by 
the faithful dogs. And this, I find, was the view of the well- 
informed Dr. Kitto, who writes thus : "In Mesopotamia the 
family had been pastoral, but dwelling in towns and houses, 
and sending out the flocks and herds under the care of shep- 
herds." (Oyc of Bib. Lit, 1851, v. "Abraham"). Mr. 
Boscawen is inclined to read Gen. 4. 20 : " 'All such as dwell 
in the city and have cattle,' which," says he, " exactly describes 
the life of the population of Ur, Erech, Sippara, and other 
cities, who dwelt in the towns and had large quantities of cattle 
feeding in the open country "* {Expos. Times, v. 354). And with 
this view minutely agrees the Greek text of Heb. 11. 9, which 
indicates that Abraham adopted the tent-life as consistent with 
his sojourn as a "stranger and pilgrim" in the land of promise. 
{See Bishop Westcott.) 

We will now try to picture to ourselves the fashion of Tentu/e. 
the new life of the tent. And here we will avail ourselves of 
the accurate judgment of the late Dr. Kitto*: — "There are 

* Bible Illustrations, Vol. I., p. 185, Dr. Porter's edition. 


probably few readers who conceive further of Abraham's estab- 
lishment than that it consisted of one, or at most two or three 
tents, with some half a dozen servants, and flocks of sheep or 
other cattle feeding around. Now this is altogether wrong. His 
encampment must have formed, so to speak, quite a village of 
tents, with inhabitants equal to the population of a large 
village or a small town. 

" Great numbers of women and children were to be seen 
there, and some old men, but not many men in their prime, 
these being for the most part away, from a few to many miles 
off, with the flocks, of which there was probably less display 
immediately around the tents than the lowest of the common 
estimates of Abraham's station would assume. 

u We are told that Abraham was very rich, and it is stated 
of what his riches consisted, but we are not told of the amount 
of these riches which he possessed. However, by putting cir- 
cumstances together we may arrive at some notion not far 
from the truth. We have the strong fact to begin with, that 
Abraham was treated by native princes and chieftains of the 
land as a mighty prince, and equal, if not superior, to them- 
selves. Then we learn that his house-born slaves, able to bear 
arms and to make a rapid march followed by a daring enter- 
prise, were not less than three hundred and eighteen. A body 
of such men can be furnished only by a population four times 
its own number, including women and children. We cannot 
therefore reckon the patriarch's camp as containing less than 
1,272 souls; and this number of people could not well have 
been accommodated in so few as one hundred tents." 

This is further illustrated with regard to the flocks, by the 
statements as to Job, and the present wealth of the Bedouin 
tribes ; and there is no doubt that this estimate is a very 
moderate one. The tents were probably, as they now are, of 
wool or goats' hair dyed black ; or in broad stripes of black 


and white, and made of cloth woven by the women from the 
produce of the flocks, mostly of an oblong shape, and eight or 
nine feet high in the middle. " The principal members of the 
family had each a separate tent, as Sarah, Leah, Rachel, and 
the maidservants." But the greater part of the daily life is 
out of doors, and the tents are but little used except for sleep- 
ing in, and as store places, and for similar purposes. 

" So Abram departed, as Jehovah had spoken unto him ; 
and Lot went with him : and Abram was seventy and five 
years old when he departed out of Kharran. And Abram took 
Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother's son, and all their sub- 
stance that they had gathered, and the souls that they had 
gotten in Kharran ; and they went forth to go into the land of 
Canaan." So he went forth childless, but with a faithful wife, 
and a great retinue, and much wealth, and above all, " rich in 

It is interesting to find in his track twin tells (ruin- 
mounds), whose name Feddan perpetuates the ancient and 
memorable " Padan," or rather Paddan. 

The route by which he and his train were led into the Abmm'. 


promised land cannot perhaps be clearly ascertained. Dean 
Stanley indicates the usual present route of travellers and 
caravans, crossing the Euphrates at Bir, where there is a 
much frequented ferry. But Dr. Malan contests this, and 
argues for a line from Kharran to Thapsacus, the Biblical 
Tiphsakh, some forty-five miles below Balis, where the Eu- 
phrates changes its course from south to south-east by east,* 
and where there is a very celebrated ford westward of the 
junction of the Belikh with the Euphrates. 

If this were his track he would have descended the fertile 
country down the course of the Belikh, have crossed the desert 

* Speak. Comm. 1 Kings 4. 24. 


to the oasis of Tadmor, and thence probably to Damascus. 
And this course I observe Mr. Allen indicates as without doubt 
that of Abram.* But if Abram had flocks of sheep, it does 
not seem likely that he would have crossed the desert ; and the 
easier travelling, and the traditions, make it, I think, more 
probable that this was not his route, nor the way by the ferry 
of Bir. The discovery by Mr. Consul Skene, and the lamented 
George Smith, of the true Carcheniish at the modern Jera- 
bolus, about seventeen miles south of Bir, and on a much 
more fertile track of travel, and straighter line towards Canaan, 
makes it to my mind far most likely that this was Abram's 
way across the Euphrates. The most ancient form of the name 
appears to be " Gargamis." 

This opinion will be found to be confirmed by Prof. 
Maspero's account of Carchemish and the other great cross- 
ing places of the Euphrates (Struggle of the Nations, 144, 
etc.). "For an invader approaching from the east or north, 
it (Carchemish) formed his first station. He had before him, 
in fact, a choice of the three chief fords for crossing the 
Euphrates. That of Thapsacus, at the bend of the river 
where it turns eastward to the Arabian plain, lay too far to 
the south, and it could be reached only after a march through 
a parched and desolate region, where the army would run the 
risk of perishing by thirst." [This of course would apply also 
to caravans.] Prof. Maspero then mentions the northern ford 
at Samosata, which is not here in question, and proceeds: 
" Carchemish, the place of the third ford, was about equally 
distant from Thapsacus and Samosata, and lay in a rich and 
fertile province, which was so well watered that a drought or 
a famine would not be likely to enter into the expectations of 
its inhabitants. Hither pilgrims, merchants, soldiers, and all 
the wandering denizens of the world were accustomed to direct 

* Abraham, p. 3G0. 


their steps, and the habit, once established, was perpetuated for 
centuries." This is written on the supposition that George 
Smith's identification is right, as it is " now generally ac- 
cepted." Prof. Maspero gives a plan of the site, and a sketch 
of the great ruined mound. 

Canon Tristram has drawn a charming picture of the per- 
formance of crossing the broad Euphrates (Ch. Congress 
Report, Carlisle, 1884, 242) : "Standing not very long ago 
on the top of the vast mound of Carchemish, overhanging a 
bend of the Euphrates, I could detect on the south-eastern 
horizon the outline of the vast and rich plains of Harran, 
and while there I saw a party of Bedouins cross the river. 
Even so high up the Euphrates is a mighty river, and I know 
of no spot further down its course where its turbid and eddy- 
ing waters can be crossed as at Carchemish, which completely 
commands the passage. The Arabs crossed from the other 
side (as Abram would have to do) in a primitive style. Their 
goats, asses and cows were tied together in single file. The 
leader mounted on an inflated hide on which he paddled himself, 
with the line of animals attached, down stream, till, taking 
advantage of the bend, he landed his convoy about a mile 
down the river on my side (the west). Other files followed, 
with women sitting astride behind them, or children bound 
round their shoulders. I went to meet them, and, enquiring 
whence they were, was told that they had come away from 
Harran in quest of fresh pasturage. 

" So crossed Abraham from Harran ; so crossed Jacob with 
wives, wealth and cattle, doubtless at this very spot. But no 
one could have made the passage unless on friendly terms with 
the holders of the great Hittite city, then the eastern key of 

A most interesting account of " Kalaat Jerablus " appeared 
in the Times of August 19, 1880. 


" The Ain-el-Bedder joins the Euphrates at the northern 
angle of the enceinte." This has suggested to my mind the 
ancient name of " Pethor" in the Kamak list of Thothmes III., 
viz., Pedri (Xo. 280), which I hold to be identical with 
Pterin, the name of the great Hittite capital Boghaz-Keui in 
Cappadocia. I take Bedder to be the name Pedri as pro- 
nounced by the people on the spot. Now, on examining Rey's 
and Sachau's maps, I see that this streamlet flows from Tas- 
hatan, the very site identified by Mr. Boscawen with the 
ancient Pethor, and called Pitru in the cuneiform records. 

But I must not be beguiled among the striking identifi- 
cations to be found in the neighbourhood of this part of the 
Euphrates (see Tomkins, T.S.B.A., ix., and Bee. of Past, New 
Series, v. 38). 

Here then Abram had fairly " crossed the Rubicon," and 
found himself 

" Among new men, strange faces, other minds." 

It is doubtful whether the ruined city now called Membij, 
a little distance southward, occupies the site of any town so 
ancient as the days of Abram. But Aleppo is a very ancient 
city, and retains a quaint tradition of the patriarch, who is 
said by the inhabitants to have stopped there on his way to 
Palestine, to milk a famous white cow which he had.* This 
is, however, as it seems, to be understood as a figurative story 
of his having taken contribution from Aleppo. Dr. Malan 
quotes from Ibn Batutah the statement that " Haleb, Aleppo, 
takes its name from Abraham's new milk (Haleb in Ar. ; Heb. 
^Spi), the milk of his flocks, which he gave to the poor." f 
This is an Arabian notion of etymology, but it connects 
Abraham with Aleppo, a very ancient city, which lay on his 
probable route from Carchemish to Damascus. 

* Rambles in Syrian Deserts, p. 109. t Phil, or Truth, p. 100. 


" The castle of Aleppo is a tumulus on a large scale, raised 
by enormous labour, like the pyramids," we are told by the 
author of the interesting Bumbles in Syrian Deserts* Here 
George Smith found an inscription in the ancient hiero- 
glyphic commonly named from Hamath ; f and here, alas ! 
his worn-out body found its resting-place, side by side with 

Dr. Sachau gives photographic views of Hamah, Horns, and 
Aleppo in his admirable work Reise in Si/rien, etc. In each 
we see the bold eminence, lording it over the city, which 
marks, and hides within its ruin, the old-world works of so 
many ages. 

Hamath (Hamah) is the next important place on the way Hamath. 
to Damascus, " in the deep glen of the Orontes, whose broad 
rapid stream divides it through the centre. Hamath takes 
rank among the oldest cities in the world, having been founded 
by the youngest son of Canaan some 4,000 years ago." J Here 
have been found some of those important incised stones, in 
a character which is now the subject of close study by Prof. 
Sayce § and others ; and which is supposed to be the writing 
of the great Hittite nation. One of these inscriptions has been 
found by the Rev. E. J. Davis so far west as Ibreez in the 
Taurus, and since others have been added to the list.] The 
Orontes runs through a deep and beautiful ravine, where " you 
see the yellow river shooting along far below between rows of 
willows that stoop to kiss its murmuring waters." 1" At length 
the caravan would reach Horns, the ancient Emesa, where there 
are still huge mounds of ruin after the manner of the Assyrian 
heaps. This place is very near the site of the celebrated 
capital of the Kheta (Hittites), Kadesh, where afterwards the 

* P. 35. t Assyr. Disc. pp. 164, 422. 

% Dr. Porter, Cities of Bashan, p. 306. § Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., V., 22. 

|| Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., IV., 336. T Cities of Bashan, p. 307. 

S 6517. F 


chivalry of Egypt dashed itself against the formidable Syrian 
alliance. The lake westward of Horns, formed by a great dyke 
across the Orontes, is still called Bahr-el-Kades, and on an 
island of this lake, doubly moated and strongly fortified, 
stands the stronghold in the Egyptian picture of the cam- 
paign of Rameses II.* This, however, was not the existing 
island, as appears by M. Gautier's explorations (Academy, 
1895, 150). 

We have soon to say more of the Hittites, and perhaps 
to ascertain whether they were already in possession of these 
northern regions, which Prof. Sayce regards as their cradle, 
or whether, as Prof. Lieblein believes, they were afterwards 
driven by the Egyptians hither from the south, where at least 
some of them were dwelling when Abram was at Hebron. 
Damascus. Following still the great route, Abram would pass on with 

the grand range of Anti-Lebanon rising to his westward 
side, until he descended into the lovely plain of Damascus. 
Nicolaus of Damascus, who was secretary to Herod the 
Great, says : "Abram ruled at Damascus, a foreigner who 
had come with an army out of the land beyond Babylon 
(yTtep BaftuXuvcg), called the land of the Chakheans," | and 
adds, that he migrated to CanaiiEea, and that "the name 
of Abram is well known even to this day in Damascus, and a 
village is pointed out which is still called the house of Abram." 
It is still true that the inhabitants shew a place called the 
Sanctuary of Abraham, " three miles north of Damascus, at 
the opening of a wild ravine which runs far up into the heart 
of Anti-Lebanon. It is a rude mosque built on the side of a 
naked cliff, its inner chamber opening into a deep cleft." J 

There are also traditions associating Abraham with a vil- 
lage called Harran-el-Awamid, that is, Harran of the Pillars, 

* Wilkinson, Anc. Eg., I., 400. t Jos. Ant., lib. I., c. vii. 

X Porter, Cities of Baslian, p. 351. 


sixteen miles eastward from Damascus in the marshy land 
visited by Mr. McGregor, where there are three handsome 
columns of basalt, and a very ancient well called Abraham's 

Without following Dr. Beke, who would identify this place 
with the Kharran of Abram's abode with Terakh, this tradition 
is confirmatory of the Damascene historian's statement, and it 
seems not unlikely that Abraham may have brought the 
familiar name thither. 

Besides the words of Nicolaus, and local traditions as old as 
his time, we have the interesting fact that Abraham's trusty 
servant was " Eliezer of Damascus," as the difficult Hebrew 
expression seems to mean. 

Whether Abraham may have had any temporary power at 
Damascus as ruler (the statement of Nicolaus) may be doubted 
or credited ; but any argument from the fact that the places 
still shown are villages in the neighbourhood really tells in its 
favour, as agreeing with the tent-life which would keep him 
from dwelling within the walls of the city. The people of 
Damascus were, it appears, an Aramaean race, and kindred 
with Abram ; and the arrival of so great and able a "prince " 
might have induced them, exposed as their rich city was to 
attack from Canaanite and other warlike tribes, to invoke his 
power for their protection, as An'er and the other Amorite 
chieftains afterwards did. 

By a short chain of reasoning, Dr. Malan shews * that 
Abram could not long have lingered anywhere on his way to 
Canaan, for Hagar was given by Sarai to Abram " after Abram 
had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan," and he was " four- 
score and six years old when Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram " ; 
and he was " seventy and five years old when he departed out of 

* Phil, or Truth, pp. 98, 143. 

F 2 


Kharran." So there was only about a year from the leaving 
Kharran to the beginning of the " dwelling " or settlement in 
Canaan. Nevertheless, his knowledge of the neighbourhood of 
Damascus must have come into instant request in that hour 
when the fugitive from the lost battle summoned " Abrarn the 
Hebrew " to the one daring feat of arms recorded of him. 

It may not be easy to make out in detail the way by which 
Abram " pastured on from verdant stage to stage," but there 
seems fair reason to believe that he followed in the main the 
line of country which we will now try to sketch. 

Leaving the immediate neighbourhood of the beautiful and 
well-watered city, and with his patriarchal caravan under ex- 
perienced eyes, and doubtless with due precautions in the 
disposal of his trained servants against a sudden attack, he 
would slowly traverse the broad rich land lying for leagues 
around Damascus, crossing the Pharpar stream in its slow 
meandering course, and in due time ascending the stony 
uplands to. the high levels of Bashan, the region which was 
to receive its name from Jetur the son of Ishmael. These 
rugged highlands and far-extended downs sloping away east- 
ward to the desert were even then held by fierce and strong- 
marauders, the Eephaim, whose chief seat of rule and sanc- 
tuary of idolatrous worship was at Ashtaroth Karnaim, or 
Ishtar of the two horns, that is, of the crescent moon, 

" The mooned Ashtaroth, 
Heaven's queen and mother both ; " 

these, with the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in the plain of 
Kiriathaim, and the more southern Khorites in their mount 
Se'ir, had lately been reduced to subjection by Kedor-la'omer. 

In this romantic and beautiful region, shaggy in its western 
glens with the abundant growth of oak and ilex, and with 
park-like glades of rich herbage and lovely flowers, " where 
wood-pigeons rose in clouds from the oaks, and jays and wood- 


peckers screamed in every glade," * a land where the open 
pastures are unrivalled in their depth of herbage, and the 
vines, now so long untended, still bear their clusters among 
the ruins, it was his lot to " ride upon the high places of 
the earth," so swept by cool and healthy breezes, so watered 
by the dews of heaven and by springs and rills of the 
earth, that all things must have tempted him to linger on 
his way. 

Dr. Tristram gives a delightful account of this part of 
Bashan f : — " Though when viewed from an eminence the 
whole country seems a boundless elevated plain, covered with 
forest, it was by no means over a plateau that we had to ride. 
Rising as the country does suddenly from the deep valley of 
the Jordan, it is naturally along its whole western border deeply 
furrowed with many streams which drain the district ; and our 
ride was up and down deep concealed glens which we only 
perceived when on their brink, and, mounting from which on 
the other side, a short canter soon brought us to the edge of 
the next. The country was surpassingly beautiful in its ver- 
dant richness and variety. We first descended the ravine of a 
little streamlet, which soon grew to a respectable size, its banks 
clothed with sparse oaks and rich herbage; the cheery call of 
the cuckoo and the hoopoe greeted us for the first time this 
spring, and resounded from side to side. Then our track 
meandered along the side of the brook with a dense fringe of 
oleanders, ' willows by the water-courses,' shading it from the 
sun, and preventing summer evaporation, while they wasted 
their perfume on the desert air without a human inhabitant 
near. Lovely knolls and dells in their brightest robes of 
spring opened out at every turn, gently rising to the wooded 
plateau above. Then we rose to the higher ground, and 

* Tristram, Land of Israel, p. 473. t Tbid, p. 462. 


cantered through a noble forest of oaks. Perhaps we were 
in the woods of Makanaim." 

Here still from every vantage-ground Abram's eyes must 
kave bekeld tke snowy keigkts of Anti-Lebanon towards the 
north, and the shining summit of Hermon flashing back the 
sunlight like a polished breast-plate, from which it took its 
Amorite name Shenir. Naturally he would keep to the higk 
level, and avoid tke broken and riven ground above described, 
except wkere tke far-reaching glens of tke Yarmuk cleave tke 
kigkland ; and to tke east he would leave the barren and craggy 
fastnesses of the formidable Argob, still the asylum of tke 
fiercest outlaws, and would linger in kis tents at green and 
skady kalting-places in compassion for tke women and ckildren, 
and tke lambs and kids of kis flocks : and would jealously avoid 
tke heathen haunts in groves and on high-places, where smoke 
arose to the foul image, and the frantic dance swept round. 

From some commanding height, he must have gained his 
first thrilling sight of the promised land, and looked down on 
the sweet blue waters of Gennesaret. " It is said," writes Dean 
Stanley,* "by those who have visited those parts, that one 
remarkable effect produced is the changed aspect of the hills of 
Judah and Ephraim. Their monotonous character is lost, and 
the range when seen as a whole is in the highest degree diversi- 
fied and impressive. And the wide openings of the western 
hills as they ascend from the Jordan valley give such extensive 
glimpses into the heart of the country that not merely the 
general range, but particular localities can be discerned with 
ease. From the castle of Rubad, north of the Jabbok, are 
distinctly visible Lebanon, the Sea of Galilee, Esdraelon 
in its full extent, Carmel, the Mediterranean, and the whole 
range of Judah and Ephraim. 'It is the finest view' (con- 

* Sin. and P., p. 320. 


tinues Dean Stanley), to use the words of the traveller from 
whom most of the information contained in this chapter is 
derived, 'that I ever saw in this part of the world.'" The 
same view is thus described by the Rev. A. E. Northey*: — 
" We could clearly discern the north end of the Dead Sea as 
well as part of the Sea of Galilee, with the whole extent of the 
Jordan valley, the river gleaming here and there at its wind- 
ings. In front of us, a little south of west, were Ebal and 
Gerizim, and directly opposite to us we could distinguish 
Mount Tabor, with the ridge of Carmei stretching into the far 
distance, and the wide plain of Esdraelon, narrowing into the 
"VYady Farrah which debouches on the Ghor. Farther north we 
could see Jebel Safed behind the Sea of Galilee, and far away 
in the blue haze we were gladdened at last by the sight of the 
snow-sprinkled peaks of Hermon. It was a glorious panorama, 
embracing many points of interest, and withal most lovely in 
itself. Immediately in front were fine forests of oak covering 
the rounded hills that trend down westwards towards the Ghor. 
Behind us lay the undulating heights of Gilead, the valleys of 
Kefrenjy and Zerka making wide landmarks." 

The greater part of the route to which we have referred is 
noted by the late Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake, in the quarterly state- 
ment of the Palestine Exploration Fund for October 1872. It 
is much frequented by large caravans of camels bearing corn 
and barley to Damascus, and on their return sometimes apples 
or apricots, or rude agricultural implements. It seems to 
be well watered, and from Sunamayn to Mezayrib lies " over a 
monotonous plateau." This village is built in the centre of a 
"lakelet, on a small tell of basaltic boulders." The country 
changes its character with rocky wadys, and hills excavated into 
caves, and passes one of the ancient Arbelas, where there 

* P. E. F., Ap. 1S72. 


remains " the large circular basaltic mound which formed the 
old fortress. It is about 300 yards in diameter, with a de- 
pression in the centre containing several ruins built of old 
materials. On the outside a wall of large unhewn stones is in 
places visible." 

Subsequently the route lay through a woodland country, such 
as we have described, and the view, so wide and lovely, seen 
from the height of Eubad, was in the main the very prospect 
which must have presented itself to the eyes of Abram, Sarai, 
and Lot as they descended from these summits on their way. 
The last descent would bring the long train down into the "fine 
wide valley "* of the Yabbok (now the Zerka) ; " a rapid stream 
only to be waded at certain spots," fringed with oleanders and 
other shrubs, and with " beautiful level meadows" on its banks; 
and at length on the deep green valley of the Jordan, where 
they must have passed the waters of the rushing river probably 
at the ford of Damieh, " just below the junction of the Zerkah 
and Jordan."f 

Once across the stream, Abram stood at length on " the land 
that Jehovah would shew him." 

* P. E. F., Ap. 1872. 
t Maj.-Gen. Sir C. W T arren, R.E. 3 Our work in Palestine, p. 234. 

( 89 ) 



A FTER the halt and muster, and the calling on the name of 
-^- Jehovah, began the exploration of the land of promise. 
"Abram passed through the land unto the place of Sichem, 
unto the oak (not plain) of Moreh."* 

Although the Septuagint version has, "Abram travelled 
through the land in its length unto the place of Sychem," and 
even the English expression might suggest a more extended 
journey than from the Jordan across to Sichem, there is no 
such difficulty in the* Hebrew, which is quite indefinite in its 
purport, and does not suggest any particular direction or extent. 
"We are therefore at liberty to follow the usual opinion that 
Abram travelled from Kharran by the same course, as to the 
latter part of his journey and his entrance of the promised 
land, which was afterwards followed by Jacob. 

His way would now be up the long valley called Wady 
Far'ah, the lower part " a broad plain on the south of which 
rises the block of the Kurn Surtabeh," but straitened in its 
upper course "through two narrow rocky gorges." This 
picturesque and fertile valley, well watered with springs, would 
lead the patriarchal train to the lovely "place of Sichem" ; and 
most interesting it is to think that it was here that the law was 
proclaimed by Joshua, and the tribes stood on Gerizim and on 
Ebal to affirm the blessings and the curses. 

It was hard by in the upper course of the valley, as it would 
seem, that the forerunner John the Baptist received the 

* Gen. 12. 6. 


penitent crowds in " JEnon near to Salim," where still the name 
of Ainun, a few miles from Salim, the " much water " of the 
" copious springs," and the " open valley on one of the main 
lines through the country from Jerusalem to Nazareth," afford 
their testimony to the spot ;* and it was here at Sychar that 
He whose day Abraham rejoiced to see first revealed himself as 
the Messiah. This place is therefore hallowed in association 
with " the covenant that was confirmed before of God in Christ, 
the law which was four hundred and thirty years after," the 
" baptism of John," and " the Seed, which is the Christ." 

These green places must have been the grazing-ground of 
Abram's flocks and herds while he abode in peace under the 
spreading canopy of the "oak of Moreh," where afterwards 
Jacob hid the " gods of the strangers " ; f " its situation," 
writes Major-Gen. Sir C. W. Wilson, " with easy access to the 
Mediterranean on the one hand, and to the Jordan valley and 
Transjordanic district, marking it as a place of importance 
from the earliest period." J 

Shekem is said to have borne the more ancient name 
Mamortha, Mabortha, or Morthia, which I connect with Martu, 
and view as evidence of pre-Semitic occupation of a situation 
which no race of men could possibly overlook or neglect. I 
now find Prof. Sayce writing : " In ' the terebinth of Moreh ' 
we may see Martu, the Sumerian form of the name Amorite 
(see Gen. 58. 22). This would point to the note that the 
'Canaanite' was then in the land" {Exp. Times, May 1897, 
358). It would also quite agree with the names mentioned 

" The situation of Shechem is soon described." I am here 
quoting from Dean Stanley. § " From the hills through which 

* P. E. F., July 1874. + Gen. 35. 2. 

t P. E. F., Ap. 1873, p. 66. § Sinai and Palestine, p. 296. 


the main route of Palestine must always have run . . . the 
traveller descends into a wide plain, the wildest and the most 
beautiful of the plains of the Ephraimite mountains, one mass 
of corn unbroken by boundary or hedge, from the midst of 
which start up olive-trees, themselves unenclosed as the fields in 
which they stand. Over the hills which close the northern end 
of this plain, far away in the distance, is caught the first glimpse 
of the snowy ' hill of Hermon.' Its western side is bounded by 
the abutment of two mountain ranges running from west to 
east.* These ranges are Gerizim and Ebal, and up the opening 
between them, not seen from the plain, lies the modern town of 
Nablous " (the older Shechem probably lay further eastward 
down the valley). " A valley green with grass, gray with olives, 
gardens sloping down on each side, fresh springs rushing down 
in all directions ; at the end a white town embosomed in all this 
verdure, lodged between the two high mountains which extend 
on each side of the valley, that on the south Gerizim, that on 
the north Ebal, this is the aspect of Nablous, the most beautiful, 
perhaps it might be said, the only beautiful spot in central 
Palestine. The general situation of the place must have been 
determined then, as now, by the mighty burst of waters from 
the flank of Gerizim. Thirty-two springs can be traced in 
different parts. Here the bilbul delights to sit and sing, and 
thousands of other birds delight to swell the chorus. The 
inhabitants maintain that theirs is the most musical vale in 
Palestine." f 

Major-Gen. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E., gives the actual width 
of the valley as only about 500 yards between the bases of the 
mountains ; the height of Ebal above the sea as 3,029 feet, or 
1,200 feet above the valley ; Gerizim 2,898 feet above the sea. 
It is at the watershed point that the mountains are recessed on 

* See a contour-map in Recovery of Jerusalem. 
t Thomson, Land and the Book, p. 470. 


either side into a grand natural amphitheatre, the scene in all 
probability of the ratification of the law.* 

It seems clear that " the place of Sichem " means the city : 
the word being used as equivalent to city in other passages,! 
and the place was in the possession of " the Canaanite," as we 
are expressly told. Strange to say, the name of Shekem does 
not occur, I believe, in any Egyptian list of places ; but Dr. W. 
Max Miiller appears to have read it at last in the celebrated 
Travels of a Mohar, "the mount of Sa-ka-ma," that is, Shekem 
(Asien u. Europe^ 394). 

"At the foot of the northern slope of Gerizim," says 
Sir C. W. Wilson, " is one of the prettiest cemeteries in the 
country : consisting of a courtyard, with a well, and several 
masonry tombs, one of which was said to be that of Sheykh 
Yusuf (Joseph)4 The place is called El 'Amud (the column), 
and the Rev. George Williams has with much probability 
identified it with 'the pillar that was in Shechem,' where 
Abimelech was made king ; and with the ' oak of Moreh,' near 
which Abraham built his first altar to the Lord after entering 
the promised land, and Joshua set up a great stone." 

From the rocky platform on the summit of Gerizim, more 
than a thousand feet above his encampment, Abram could com- 
mand " a prospect unique in the Holy Land. That from the 
summit of Nebo surpasses it in extent, that from mount Gilead 
perhaps in grandeur of effect, but for distinctness and variety 
of detail Gerizim has no superior." 

"We thought," writes Canon Tristram, § whom we are 
quoting, " we had bid adieu to Hermon, but once more it rose 
before us in spotless purity far beyond and above Tabor, Gilboa, 
and the lesser hills of Galilee. On our right we could trace the 

* P. E. F.. Ap. 1873. 

s t Smith, Diet, of Bible, " Shechem " ; and see Gesen. Lex., p. 503. Bagster, 1847. 
t Tomkins, Life of Joseph, p. 169. 
§ Land of Israel, p. 151. 


Trans jordanic range from the sea of Galilee, Bashan, Ajlun, 
Gilead, down to Moab. On the left the Mediterranean formed 
the horizon from Carmel perhaps to Gaza ; while Joppa and 
Caesarea could be distinctly recognized." 

" The southern view was more limited, being shut in by the 
hills of Benjamin. At our feet was spread the long plain of 
Mokhna, into which the vale of Shechem debouches, where 
Jacob pastured his flocks, and where there was ample space for 
the tents of Israel when gathered thither by Joshua. All 
central Palestine could be taken in at a glance." * 

Hither, then, into the midst of the land of Canaan, Jehovah 
had led that faithful servant whom He condescended to call his 
friend, and here began fresh trials of Abram's faith. Here, 
indeed, was the land, but the Canaanite was already in it. 

Sturdy Amorites held the fastnesses, roving Perizzites were 
scattered afield, Zidonians and Arvadites colonized the coast, 
the powerful sons of Kheth, rivals of the Egyptians, were 
strengthening their hold. Beyond the rushing Jordan lay 
robust Rephaim, terrible Emim, uncouth Zamzummim, barbaric 
Khorites in their dens and caves of the earth ; and Abram still 
was childless among men. 

Yet the Lord had said :f " I will make of thee a great 
nation, .... and in thee shall all the families of the earth be 
blessed " ; and now again in this first resting-place at goodly 
Sichem J Jehovah appeared unto Abram, and said, " Unto thy 
seed will I give this land : and there builded he an altar unto 
Jehovah, who appeared unto him." 

" This is," says Franz Delitzsch, " apart from 3. 8, the first 
Theophany related in Holy Scripture. Here for the first time 
is the revelation of God accompanied by His rendering Himself 

* See the admirable treatment of Shekem in Prof. G. A. Smith's Hist. Geog. of 
the Holy Land, chap. V., and again chap. XVI., p. 333. 

t Gen. 12. 2. X Gen. 12. 7. 

( 94 ) 



PALESTINE is called by no other name in the Book of 
Genesis than "The Land of Canaan." We are told "the 
Canaanite was in the land" ;* and again, "the Canaanite and 
the Perizzite dwelled (were settled) then in the land," by which 
it seems we must understand that they were not the original 
inhabitants, bat had already colonized the land before the time 
of Abram's arrival. The Perizzite is generally understood to 
mean the villager or agriculturist. In the Tel-el-Amarna 
tablets Duisratta, king of Mitani in Northern Syria, sends to 
the Pharaoh a messenger named Pirizzi. 

The Canaanites came from the shores of the Persian Gulf, 
bringing with them the names Arvad and Tyre (Zur) from 
their old settlements on islands near the western coast. f- Prof. 
Franz Delitzsch writes on Gen. 10. 6, "The name of Ham's 
fourth son, 1^33 [Knlm], sounds as though it denoted a people 
of the low country, and a people inhabiting the low lands on 
the Mediterranean coast between Rhino-colura and Berytus are 
actually so called ; then also those in the low land on western 
Jordan, as far up as the lake of Gennesaret, and hence in a wider 
sense the land west of Jordan and its Phoenician population. 
The Phoenicians themselves called their eponymous hero, who 
was regarded as the brother of Osiris ("To-*^) {see Sanchoniathon 
in Ens. Prmp* i. 10, 26) Xva, and themselves Xrao*, or, as 

* Sayce, Races of O. T., 102. 
t Rawlinson, Herod, Vol. I., p. 121 ; Lenormant, Man, Vol. II., p. 144. 


Augustine heard it from the mouths of Punic peasants, 

Ghanani The immigration of the Canaanites from 

the Erythraean Sea (the Indian Ocean, and especially the 
Persian Gulf), that home of the Hamitic nations, is testified to 
by Herodotus (i. 1, vii. 89), Strabo, and Dionysius Periegetes ; 
Justin (xviii. 3) adds that after leaving their native place they 
first inhabited Assgrium stagnant (perhaps the marsh land on 
the Lower Euphrates) before turning towards the Mediterranean 
coasts and founding Sidon. The credibility of this testimony 
is acknowledged by Bertheau, Ewald, Knobel, Lassen, von 

Gutschmid, Dillman, Konig (Lehrgeb. sec. 4) During 

their progress from east to west the Canaanites would find time 
and opportunity for appropriating the Semitic language." 

Whatever the derivation, the name was known in Palestine, 
both to the Egyptians and Assyrians, as Kanana. Cloth of 
Kanana is mentioned,* with cloth of Martu (Syria), in an As- 
syrian tablet ; and Kanana occurs as the personal name of an 
Egyptian on a heart-shaped amulet in the British Museum,f 
but is better known as a local name in the representations of 
the conquests of Seti I. at Karnak,J where a fortified place 
bears the name of Kanana. This has been well identified by 
Col. Conder with Khurbet Kan'an, 1^ miles below Hebron. 
See Tomkins, Life of Joseph (R.T.S.), 114, where some remarks 
are made on the special local occurrence of the name in this 
neighbourhood. It is curious to find the name also located on 
the east of Jordan, near the ancient Ashteroth-Karnaim, Tellul 
Kan'aan, the mounds of Kan'aan, with ruins (Schumacher, 
Across the Jordan, 199 and map). Maspero agrees as to the 
site of the fortress taken by Seti (see The Struggle of the Nations, 
370, note). "It seems to me," he sums up, "that this name 

* Tran. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. III., p. 524. £^j | J ^| i.e. Kan-a-na. 
t Birch, Cat. Eg. Rooms, p. 78. 
t Mariette-Bey, Itineraire,^. 173. 


should be Pa-Kanana, and that the town bore the same name 
as the country." 

Lenormant writes (Les Orig. cle VHist., in. 321), "Between 
this last town (Hamath) and Tunep (which is now identified 
with Tennib) a fortress of Kanana on the banks of the river 
Arantu (Orontes) seems to have marked the extreme limit of 
the north of the territory of the Canaanite tribes, just as the 
fortress of Pa-Kanana their extreme limit south, on the side 
towards Egypt." This northern Kanana seems to have been 
the present Tell-Kounana, marked in Rey's map of North Syria 
not on the Orontes but on the Afrin, near it, and a long way 
south of Tennib (Tunipa). The indications of Egyptian lore 
on the subject of Canaan are given by Dr. W. Max Miiller in 
his Asien und Eurojja, 206, &c, in a very interesting manner. 

Prof. Sayce observes : " A Babylonian would have said ' the 
land of the Amorites ' ; an Assyrian ' the land of the Hittites.' 
It is only in the Tel el-Amarna tablets that we find ' the land 
of Canaan,' as here. In these even the king of Babylonia 
speaks of the land of Canaan." 

In the genealogy of the sons of Noah, in the tenth chapter 
of Genesis, we are told that " Canaan begat Zidon his first-born, 
and Kheth, and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Gerga- 
site, and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, and the 
Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite." 

Of these the sons of Kheth (Hittites) and the Amorite are 
especially important, both in the life of Abraham and in the 
history of Egypt. 

It would seem that several old-world races of earlier date 
were vanishing away on the east of Jordan, such as Rephaim, 
Zuzim, Zamznmmim, Emim, of whom we shall have more to 
write. The many circles and dolmens of rough stone which 
have been found by travellers and surveying officers may be 
memorials of these early races. 


The earliest of all records of Palestine hitherto found among 
the historic documents of Egypt deserves still more minute 
attention than it has yet received, since it carries us back to 
times much more remote than those of Abraham. This is the 
inscription of Una, an officer of high rank under the Pharaohs 
Teta and Pepi Merira of the sixth dynasty.* This important 
tablet, found at Abydos, and now in the Museum at Grizeh, 
reports among other services the repeated reduction of tribes 
of the Amu and Herusha. 

Am-u is the usual Egyptian word for the Semitic races of 
Asia (from DP, people), and Heru-sha signifies the Lords of 
the Sand, and appears to designate those tribes (the Amalekites 
for instance) who led mainly a nomad life, as the Bedouin 
hordes do now. 

Five times in the reign of Pepi did these lords of the desert 
require chastisement. On the last occasion it is said that the 
barbarians of the land of Khetam (§^ ^ ^) had revolted. 
This, according to Brugsch,t would be the desert to the east of 
the Delta, which agrees well with the passage cited by Chabas 
from an inscription of Ptameses III., in which the Herusha-u 
inhabit the red land (to-tesher), which is the designation of the 
same tract. 

But in Una's time this people possessed a very rich region 
to the north with corn-crops, figs, and vineyards, and bordering 
on the sea, and the region thus fertile may be identified, by 
data to be mentioned presently, in accordance with the views 
of M. Chabas, as the southern country to the south and west 
of Hebron. 

This celebrated record has been elaborately examined and 
discussed by the best Egyptologists. A translation is given 

* De Rcug6, Six prem. dyn. p. 122 ; Brugsch, Hist. d'Eg., p. 71 ; Chabas, Etudes, 
etc., p. 114, Second Edition, Records of the Past, Vol. II., p. 1, New Series, 
t L'Exode, p. 27, and map. 

S 6517. G 


by Maspero in the new series of Records of the Past, vol. v., 
and in The Dawn of Civilization, p. 420, he has given ns his 
mature judgment as to the route of the ravaging Egyptian 
forces under their general Una : " He advanced, probably, 
by Gebel Magharah and Gebel Helal, as far as the Wady- 
el-Arish, into the rich and populous country which lay be- 
tween the southern slopes of Gebel Tih and the south of the 
Dead Sea. Once there he acted with all the rigour permitted 
by the articles of war, and paid back with interest the ill- 
usage which the Bedouin had inflicted on Egypt." " This army 
came in peace, it completely destroyed the country of the 
Lords of the Sands. This army came in peace, it pulverized 
the country of the Lords of the Sands. This army came in 
peace, it demolished their ' douars ' (oval or circular intrenched 
posts). This army came in peace, it cut down their fig-trees 
and their vines .... it burnt the houses of all their people 
.... it slaughtered their troops to the number of many 
myriads," etc., etc. In fact, Prof. Maspero is speaking of the 
great range of country which, as we shall see, was swept long- 
after Una's time by Kedorla'omer's forces when " he came 
to En-mishpat, which is Kadesh (Barnea), and smote all the 
country of the Amalekites " before he passed up the west coast 
of the Dead Sea and fell upon " the Amorites that dwelt in 
Hazezon-Tamar " (Engeddi). 

And those Amalekites were to the Egyptians " Heru-shau," 
Lords of the Sands. And the route which Maspero describes 
is the same by which the Eev. F. W. Holland believed (as he 
told me) that Abraham came into Egypt. This will be more 
fully described in a future chapter. 

Here, then, we find long before Abraham's time the in- 
habitants and the products of Southern Palestine and the 
desert brought before us in a lively and graphic manner, and 
the power of Egypt already lording it over these tribes, 


occupying outlying fortresses and laying these lands under 

Another most interesting point is that the history of the 
great Asiatic colony of Zoan (Tanis, and now San), which, as 
Scripture tells us, was built seven years after Hebron, is 
carried back to the same era by a monument found among its 
ruins, bearing the name of Pepi Merira, on which occurs the 
name of the god Set or Sutekh, identical with the ill-omened 
Baal, the especial object of worship among the sons of Kheth,* 
to whom, however, there was a temple in Memphis even in the 
times of the fifth dynasty.f Egyptian cylindrical seals of 
stone, of the Babylonian shape and style, have been found 
among the remains of the old empire. After the age of the 
sixth dynasty they disappeared, and in the age of the twelfth 
dynasty long thin cylinders of ivory were used in place of 
them.J The early reigns of this dynasty are marked by the 
next important mention of Palestine, in the story of Sineh (or 
Saneha, or Saneham as read by Dr. Haigh). A translation 
of this romantic story, from the papyrus at Berlin, is given 
by Mr. C. W. Goodwin in Records of the Past, vol. vi. 

We are still before the date of Abraham, as I believe, and 
now we find significant changes. A strong fortified wall had 
just before been constructed by Amenemhat L, the founder of the 
twelfth dynasty, to secure his eastern frontier against aggres- 
sive Asiatic neighbours. 

The hero, a prince of the blood-royal of Egypt, heard of 
the sudden death of the Pharaoh, whom we have just men- 
tioned, on the Libyan side of the Delta. Led apparently by 
panic, he ran away, and after exciting adventures he was 
brought on his way to Atima,§ that is Edom, and was invited 

* Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. III., p. 113. 
t Meyer, Set-TypJion, p. 47. 
% Birch, Cat. Eg. Booms, B. M., p. 74. 
§ Adema, or Aduma. Chabas. 

G 2 


by Ammu-Anshi, king of Upper Tennu, who had fugitive 
Egyptians at his court, to enter his service. This he did, 
preserving still a strong feeling of allegiance to Egypt ; and 
received to wife a daughter of the king. 

Prof. Maspero now reads the name Kaduma or Kaclima, 
" a word which in Semitic denotes the East," as he remarks. 
Saneha (Sinuhit, as Maspero reads) was given in charge a 
choice and fruitful district called Aia, which Maspero compares 
with Aian (iEan), " given by the geographers of the classical 
epoch to the cantons bordering on the gulf of Akabah." 

The romantic story is given by the same accomplished 
author in the New Series of Records of the Past, vol. ii., and 
the reader should also refer to The Dawn of Civilization, 
p. 470, etc. 

Now we gain traces of the land of the Heru-sha some 
centuries later than Una's campaigns, for the country of the 
Upper Tennu seems nearly identical with the scene of that 
old warfare, and I am apt to think the name the same as that 
of the Biblical Zin. 

The roving tribes are called by the generic name of Sakti 
or Sati, before mentioned, of whom Amenemhat I. boasted 
that he could " make them come to him like a whelp." * 
The name of the king Ammu-Anshi in part resembles that 
of a king of Keclar in the time of Assur-bani-pal, Ammu-ladi.t 
We do not here encounter the Heru-sha by name, although 
they are mentioned in an inscription of the eleventh dynasty,! 
and recur in a triumphal tablet of Thothmes III. at Gizeh, 
and afterward ; but the Nemmasha, whose name Maspero 
regards as meaning, like Heru-sha, Lords of the Sand, are 

* Records of the Past, Vol. II., p, 14. 

t See also Sayce, Patriarchal Palestine, 63. The name Ammu-Anshi is South 
Arabian and of high interest in its historic connections. (Hommel, Anc. Heb. 
Trad., etc. 51). 

% Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. IV., pp. 192, 193. 


mentioned here in much the same connection as the celebrated 
thirty-seven Amu at Beni-hassan, who brought "mestem 
(stibium, or black paint for the eyes) from the barbarous Petti- 
shu " ; for these Nemma-sha brought rich garments, unguents, 
and cosmetics " from the country of clothes " to the court of 
Egypt. This may remind us of the "cloth of Martu, and 
cloth of Kanana," before mentioned, and this country of 
clothes may well have been Palestine. Indeed, the package 
borne on the ass in the procession of the Amu appears to 
consist of ornamental stuffs intended for clothing. " The 
Nemma-sha always have appeared to me," wrote Dr. Birch in 
a letter to the author, " to be possibly the nomades of Hero- 
dotus." In this case they might be the ancestors of the 
Numidians, their descendants having drifted farther west, 
like other inhabitants of Canaan ; " No/>caS^, wandering tribes 
of Asiatic origin." * 

In these ancient records we find settled inhabitants with 
an advanced cultivation beset, as in all ages, by wandering 
tribes, Heru-sha, Shasu, Petti, and the like ; but we do not 
find mention, among the spoils, of golden vessels, or treasures, 
and objects of luxury. These appear to have been rare, as 
M. Chabas has remarked, in those days. 

It has been noticed that these early records of Egyptian 
doings in Palestine give no hint of Canaanites. "The only 
inhabitants of this country were then," says M. Lenormant,t 
" the Sati, a remnant of whom we find mentioned during the 
eighteenth dynasty, as also are the remnants of the Rephairn 
in the Book of Joshua. Now the Sati, on all the Egyptian 
monuments where they are represented, have a perfectly re- 
cognisable Semitic character. Other texts, also dated during 
the old empire and the twelfth dynasty, expressly state that 

* Smith, Class. Diet., " Numidians." 
t Manual, &c, Vol. II., p. 148. 


the only neighbours the Egyptians had at this time on the 
Syrian side were the nations of the race of the Aamu, that is 
Semites, whom the sons of Mizraim generically designated by 
this name, derived from the Semitic word am, ' people.' On 
the other hand, the Book of Genesis gives us a fixed date ; 
a time at which the Canaanites were already established in 
the land. This date is that of the arrival of Abram in 

Perhaps this should be received with caution. At any 
rate, the shepherd-kings are called Sati in the inscription of 
Ahmes, as M. Chabas has remarked.* In a paper on Prof. 
Flinders Petrie's " Ethnographic Types from Egypt " (Journ . 
Anthrap. Inst, June 12, 1888, p. 222), I said : "I have some- 
times thought it worth inquiry whether these Sati-u are to be 
connected with the Suti, the bow-bearing desert-folk of whom 
Fried. Delitzsch writes {Wo lag das Parodies? 235)." Lately 
I have been glad to find Prof. Sayce taking the identification 
as established {Pat. Palest., 40). " The Tel el-Amarna tablets," 
says he, " shew that it is the case." 

I will add a few words from the late Prof. Eeginald Stuart 
Poole.f "A comparison of all the passages referring to the 
primitive history of Palestine and Idumaea shows that there was 
an earlier population expelled by the Hamite and Abrahamite 
settlers. This population was important in the time of the 
war of Kedor-la'omer ; but at the Exodus, more than four 
hundred years afterwards, there was but a remnant of it. It 
is most natural, therefore, to infer that the passages under 
consideration (viz., those referring to the Canaanites, as then 
in the land) mean that the Canaanite settlers were already in 
the land, not that they were still there." This may well be 
received as the summing-up of the evidence on the matter. 

* Les Pasteurs, p. 21. f Smith's Diet, of Bible, " Ham." 


The chief races of Canaan with whom Abraham had 
dealings were the Amorites and the sons of Kheth. Both 
the one and the other hold important places in the Egyp- 
tian records. The Amorites occupy the foreground in Holy 
Scripture, although the Hittites were the great rivals of the 
Egyptians, the Kheta of their annals, the Khati of Assyrian 
history. But this is natural, since the great shock of decisive 
attack brought the Israelites against the fortresses and legions 
of the south, while the head-quarters of Kheth lay far away 
on the Orontes. And in Abram's time it is clear that the 
advanced posts of Canaanite military power were held by the 
Amorite, while the sons of Kheth were as yet quietly occupied, 
as it would seem, in the pursuits of traffic, to which they 
remained ever faithful, even in the days of their warlike 

TTe will, then, beo-in with the Amorite. OlftK- The race The 
is called in Egyptian \\ ^ ^ , ^ Amar.) 

A broad new light has of late been cast by Chaldean lore 
on the Amorite. For kings before the time of Abraham 
claim rule over " the land of the Amorites," and the Semitic 
equivalent of Martu, viz. Amurru, is now known to be the 
real value of the name before read as Akharru. " It is only 
quite recently," says Prof. Sayce, " that the true reading of 
the name has been discovered, though it was suspected long 
ago by Norris" (Higher Crit, etc., 163). Still more remark- 
able is it that Mr. Pinches has found evidence of Amorite 
occupation in Babylonia itself, and Prof. Sayce has shewn that 
a suburban portion, "just outside the gate of Sippara, now 
called Abu-Habba," was given to Amorite settlers in the time 
of the father of Khammurabi, that is, in the very times of 
Abraham (Academy, Nov. 2 and Nov. 12, 1895). Is it, then, 
surprising that Abraham should be in alliance with An'er, 
Eshkol, and Mamre, at Kiriath-Arba' ? It is surely worthy of 


attention that as Amuru was equivalent to West in early 
Chaldsean records, so no less is the West expressed in Egyptian 
hieroglyphic by the word Amur, as, for instance, in the Booh 
of the Dead (Pierret, Vocab\, 31 ; Renouf, Proc. Soc. Bib. 
Arch, xix., 111). 

The principal early seat of the Amorites in the South was 
the mountainous country east and west of the Dead Sea, # a 
part of thein, by name Jebusite, holding the fortified post 
afterwards taken by David. This region contained, at any 
rate, two chief fortified cities, both depicted in relief among 
the tableaux of the conquests of Seti I. and Eameses II. 
Dapur is identified by M. Chabas with the ancient city of 
Debir, or Kiriath Sepher of the Anakim, but now generally 
with Tabor ; and the other, called " Kodesh of the country of 
Amaor," he considers identical with Kadesh-Barnea. This 
place, represented as standing on a hill side with a stream on 
one side, and surrounded by trees, is most plainly distinguished 
from the Kodesh of the Kheta (Hittites) on the Orontes, which 
is in a flat country on a recess of a lake, girdled by a double 
moat with bridges. This water is generally considered to be 
the Bahr-el-Kades near Horns, the ancient Emesa. I am now 
persuaded that Dr. Trumbull, in his excellent work, Kadeah 
Barnea (p. 163), is quite right in arguing that the hill-side 
Kadesh is that of the hill-country of Naphtali. It is defended 
by Amorites and pig-tailed Hittites allied together in their 
usual fashion. 

The Amorites extended their ground by the conquest of 
two large and most fertile provinces on the east of Jordan ; 
but their old seat in South Palestine was known as the 
" mountain country of the Amorites," still bearing, as Prof. 
Palmer tells us, the old name 'Amarin ;t and other probable 

* Chabas, Etudes, p. 264. 

t Hist. Jewish Nat., where a sketch is given, p. 34. 


traces are cited in the statements of the Palestine Explora- 
tion Fund,* as 'Amurieh, applied to several places in the hills, 
Wady el 'Amary, on the east of Jordan, etc. 

The Amorites are represented by the Egyptian artists as 
long-haired and bearded, with fair and fresh complexion, " the 
eyes bine (says Mr. Osbnrn), the eye-brows and beard red, the 
hair so much darker from exposure and other causes, as to be 
painted black." f 

Among the beautiful reliefs in a kind of porcelain on 
panels, brought by the Kev. Greville J. Chester from the 
palace of Barneses III. at Tell el Yahudieh in Lower Egypt, 
and now in the British Museum, is a fragment containing the 
head of an Amorite king. This is very interesting, not only as 
a specimen of excellent modelling in relief, but as shewing that 
the Egyptian artists carefully studied the features of captive 
chiefs. For there are two portraits of this king. Besides this 
small profile he figures in the representation of the same 
triumph at Medinet Habu, some three hundred and fifty miles 
away, in a different style of art, and doubtless by another hand. 
Yet the identity of the strongly marked face cannot be mis- 
taken if we restore the beard (of which the indications yet 
remain where it was broken off). For comparison we give 
the outline from Medinet Habu in Brugsch's Geographical 
Inscriptions. The eye in the porcelain relief was originally 
enamelled or coloured with a vitreous glaze. 

The hair of the Amorites was bound by a fillet, sometimes 
ornamented with small disks. Their dress was a long close 
tunic with short sleeves, bound round the waist by a girdle, 
with falling ends. They were armed with the bow and oblong 
shield, and used chariots of solid construction fit for rough 
ground. From a comparison of the passages of the Pentateuch 

* P. E. F., July 1872, 1876. t Egypt's Test, p. 129. 


in which the Amorites and the Anakim are mentioned, I am 
inclined to the conclusion that the sons of Anak were a dis- 
tinguished clan among the Amorites, and not a distinct people. 

In the representation of the assault of Dapur by Rameses II. 
the standard of the Amorites appears hoisted on the highest 
tower of its citadel. It is a shield pierced by three arrows, and 
surmounted by another arrow fastened across the top of the 

The fine series of casts from the bas-reliefs of Egypt and 
photographs from the mural paintings of the tombs, which 
Prof. Petrie made public in 1887 at the meeting of the British 
Association at Manchester, has put us in possession of a verit- 
able gallery of ethnic types, in which we depend on the skill of 
no artist, since the hand of the faithful Egyptian sculptor was 
withdrawn from his chisel on those high walls which my friend 
climbed at the risk of his neck on rope ladders. He not only 
thus reproduced the forms, but most carefully also recorded the 
colours as well, and the memoranda he wrote are published in 
the Report of that Meeting of the British Association {Report 
of Special Committee, p. 439, etc., Remarks ly Rev. H. G. 
TomJcins on the Collection, p. 450, etc). Afterwards the latter 
paper was made by the author the basis of a communication 
to the Anthropological Institute (June 12th, 1888), from which, 
as it is buried in Transactions, I do not hesitate to quote 
at some little length : — 

" The Amorites came, I have always believed, from the plain of the 
Euphrates, whatever their original seat, and Prof. Sayce has well pointed 
to Beth-ammaris and Ap-ammaris, west of the Euphrates, as preserving 
their name, which had a chief halting place at Gar-emeri-su, the region of 
Damascus. [This, by the way, should be remembered in connection with 
Abraham's reported stay there, as well as his alliance at Hebron and depen- 
dence on his faithful henchman ' Damascus-El iezer '] ." " A tribe of them 
were called Yebusi, and had their stronghold where David drove them out, 

* Wilkinson, Anc. Egyptians, Vol. I., p. 389. 


or at least put them down ; and here, as elsewhere, they were dove-tailed 
with the ' Khethi ' (Hittite) in a very remarkable way. This was true at 
Hebron, Yebus, Tabor, Megiddo, Kadesh-on-Orontes, and doubtless these 
are merely examples ; and this fact is as clear in the Bible as out of it. 
The Gribeonites were also Amorites (2 Sam. 21.2) and Khivvites [Hivites]. 
I believe the Anakim were a ruling clan of the Amorites. This opinion 
results from a careful study of all the references in Scripture, and I have 
pointed out that Arb'a appears to be a numerical symbol of a Chaldaean 
god" {Times of Abraham, 102). "Mr. Petrie has given us a good series of 
Amorites (photos, 146-9, 157, &c.) of different dates, but all of the same 
type, shewing a handsome and regular profile of sub-aquiline cast, the nose 
continuing the line of the sloping forehead (146-8 are very good). The 
cheek-bones are high, the faces have a decided and martial expression, and 
look like those of tall strong men, as we know them to have been. They 
wear long robes and capes, like most Syrians of those times." 

Prof. Sayce has since given ample information, with beau- 
tiful photo-gravures, in his book on The Races of the Old 
Testament, R.T.S., and has explained his views clearly in a 
most interesting paper on "The White Eace of Palestine" 
{Expositor, vol. viii., 48, etc.). Also we have a very learned 
and thoughtful memoir by M. de Lantsheere of Brussels {Revue 
des questions scientifiques, April 1887). 

Prof. Sayce {White Race) has noticed the likeness of the 
Kabyles of northern Africa to the Amorites, and also to the 
Lebu (Libyans) of the Egyptian monuments, and their pro- 
bable consanguinity. Now the Libyans claimed Arba' as their 
founder, after whom Kiriath-Arba' was named, as I shall 
notice shortly, and this agrees with the other indications. 

The so-called " New Race," whose remains and handy-work 
Prof. Petrie has found in Upper Egypt, seem clearly, I think, to 
be of this Libyan stock, as he believes {Nagada and Ball as, 
62), and he has not failed to point out the connecting links 
with Syria as shewn by the pottery of the Amorite fortified 
town of Lachish, discovered by him and Mr. Bliss {Tell el- 
Hesy). This ancient stronghold is the only site where we are 
sure of being on the actual work of the Amorites (Flinders 


Petrie, Tell el-Hesy ; A Mound of Many Cities, F. J. Bliss ; 
" The Story of a Tell " in The City and the Land, P.E.F.). 

In Pal. Exp. F. Quarterly, 1886, p. 200, I have shewn 
cause for believing that the " sons of Anak " were Amorites of 
great stature and brought their gods and names and ways of 
life into Southern Palestine from Babylonia or wherever their 
primaeval cradle-land may have been. This paper I commend 
to the serious student, but it is too elaborate for anything more 
than reference here. 

M. de Morgan claims the "New Race" as the primitive 
inhabitants of Egypt (Recherches sur les Origines de VEgypte, 
Paris, 1896). 

The close alliance of Abraham with the Amorites gives a 
special interest to their history, and it is recorded that the 
land was spared till the fourth generation, because their iniquity 
was not yet full ;" as if in contrast with the guilt of the men 
of the Jordan-plain, which was already running over. 

" The gods of the Amorites " are distinguished in the Book 
of Joshua,* from " the gods which your fathers served on the 
other side of the flood, and in Egypt." What those gods may 
have been we cannot certainly tell, but the Canaanite idolatry 
in general may be clearly distinguished in the light of modern 
research both from the religion of Babylonia and from that 
of Egypt, although there are threads of connection, running 
through from east to west, as w T e shall have occasion 
to shew. 

There is, however, one important passage in which the 
Amorite religion is expressly identified with the Phoenician 
Baal-worship, which Ahab learned from Jezebel, " according 
to all (things) as did the Amorites, whom Jehovah cast out 
before the children of Israel." f 

* Chap. 24. 15. 1 1 Kings 21. 26. 


It has been remarked that the name Senir given to Hermon, 
the grandest height of Lebanon, is the only word of the Amorite 
language expressly so identified in Scripture. It has also been 
preserved to us in the Assyrian annals, in the identical form 
Saniru, as the scene of the great defeat of Hazael, king of Syria, 
by Shalmaneser. On the language of the Amorites the reader 
is referred to the valuable remarks of Prof. Sayce in The Higher 
Criticism, etc., p. 356. I am strongly impressed with the belief 
that they must have brought a large importation of cultus aud 
place-names and tradition with them from, the plains of the 
lower Euphrates. The local names appear to me to have 
travelled like thistle-down, and taken root from point to point 
on their way. 

Next we must treat of " the sons of Kheth : " HH, f D |X] »»««■ 
Here we encounter the early development of a great, civilized, 
and warlike nation.* It is likely that the most ancient notices 
of the sons of Kheth are those which occur in the records of 
Sargon I.,| who attacked and conquered them on the upper 
Euphrates. The tables of portents given by Mr. G. Smith, 
and by Prof. Sayce in his important paper on Babylonian 
Astronomy, bear witness to relations of hostile rivalry between 
Akkad on the one hand and the kings (Sar is the royal title 
used) of the Hittites (Khati) of Syria (Amurri), and of Phoe- 
nicia (Martu), which cannot be represented by a single expe- 
dition of conquest, but rather indicates an established system of 
warlike reprisals. " Prosperity to Akkad " seems familiarly to 
involve "adversity to Martu," and repeated notices of the 
kings of Elam and of Gutiuni or Guti (the Goim of Scripture) 
remind us of the state of things which we shall have to examine 
in our study of the campaign of Kedorla'omer. The Khati, 
or Kheta, as written in Egypt, fill a n eminent place in the 

* De Lantsheere, He la Race et de la Langue des Hittites, Bruxelles, 1891. 
t Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. III., p. 215, Ac. ; G. Smith, Hist. Bab., p. 78 ; 
Sayce, Bab. Lit., p. 11. 


annals of the Pharaohs, and Ephron the Hittite was one of 
the fathers of a race whose history may possibly yet see the 
light of day in their own long-forgotten records. Even the 
contemptuous scribes of Egypt cannot hide their grandeur and 
their valour in the field. 

And here we find in the story of Abram almost the earliest 
historic mention of the race, since the name of Kheta does not 
emerge in the Egyptian annals until the time of the great con- 
queror Thothmes III., of the eighteenth dynasty. In his reign 
Ave find the " Chief of the great Kheta " distinguished by his 
tribute of gold, slaves, and cattle.* Thus in a few centuries 
after Abram had bought the cave of Makpelah from the sons 
of Kheth, they were a great and powerful people. This was 
the time when the descendants of Jacob were settled and in- 
creasing in Lower Egypt, and before the Exodus the Kheta had 
become the terrible rivals of Egypt, and had mingled their 
genealogy with that of the renowned Pharaohs of the nine- 
teenth dynasty, and their gods had reared their heads above 
the ancient divinities of the land of Ham. 

The history of the Kheta in connection with their personal 
and local names has been elaborately studied by the learned 
Dr. Haigh,| and Prof. Sayce has more recently treated the in- 
dications of philological affinity,:]: concluding from the names 
given in Egyptian and Assyrian records that their language 
could not have been Semitic. The Hittite names in the Bible, 
as it has been remarked, may generally be explained from 
Semitic sources, but it is possible that they may have been 
either conformed to Hebrew names (as the name Uriah is 
slightly different from IMyaikki king of Que, a Hittite of 
the north, mentioned by Tiglath-pileser II.), or translated from 
the Hittite tongue. 

* Records of the Past, Vol. II., p. 45, Second Edition, 
t Zeitschriftfih' JEgyptische Sprache, 1874. 
t Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. V. 


It is remarked by Dr. Haigk in connection with the kindred 
of Kheth and Mizraim, that one of the chiefs who fell in 
the celebrated battle at Kadesh on the Orontes bore the 
name of Matsrima ; the name is given by Prof. Maspero as 

The last achievement of the lamented George Smith, on the 
suggestion of Mr. Consul Skene, was the recovery of the real 
Carchemish of the Hittites in the ruins of Jerabolus on the 
western bank of the Euphrates, whose mounds await the ex- 
ploration which is so earnestly to be desired. 

Some authors hold the opinion, expressed by M. Lieblein, 
that the Kheta had their earliest abode in Palestine, to the 
south, in the neighbourhood of Hebron, but were driven thence 
to the Orontes. It seems, however, much more credible that 
they were among the tribes who came down by the way of 
northern Syria, and that the kinsmen of Ephron were the ad- 
vanced portion of the migration. 

There is every inducement to the thorough scientific ex- 
amination of the mounds of long extinct cities in northern 
Syria, which should be well supported at home. The Duke of 
York, speaking in the chair at a lecture by Col. Conder in 
May 1894, at Westminster, said : " The work that lies before 
us in the immediate future, as you will hear directly, is nothing 
less than the systematic excavation, as far as may be possible, 
of the chief historic sites of Syria." 

The long list of places engraved by Thothmes III. on his 
temple-walls at Karnak shews how very many sites may yet be 
identified in these regions,! and the German archaeologists have 
shewn us at Samalla what reward we may expect. 

* Hist. Anc, p. 221. 

t See my paper on the Northern Syrian list in Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. IX., 
part 2, and in Records of the Past, 2nd series, Vol. V., 25, etc. : also my Notes 
on the Geog. from the Nile to the Euphrates, etc., Trans, of Br. Assoc, Bath 
Meeting, 1888, sec. E, and Bab. and Or. Records, Vol. III., 92, etc. 


This accords with the westward drift of races in the earliest 
times, of which perhaps the first great wave brought the domi- 
nant and historic race of the Egyptians to the Lower Nile, for 
from its origin Egypt was rather Asiatic than African. 

Hereafter in writing of the Hyksos we shall have to men- 
tion the Khati in connection with the great alien conquest of 
Egypt, and I quite believe that Maspero has truly stated that 
in Abraham's time " the bulk of the Khati had not yet de- 
parted from the Taurus region, but some stray bands of them, 
carried away by the movement which led to the invasion of 
the Hyksos, had settled around Hebron " (Struggle, etc., 148). 

Within the last nineteen years most earnest attention has 
been fastened on this long-forgotten people, the Hittites. It 
would be out of place in this volume to enter at large on the 
elaborate, and often controversial, literature that has arisen. 
The whole subject may be studied in Dr. Wright's Empire of 
the Hittites, Prof. Sayce's small volume The Hittites (R. T. S.), 
and also in his Races of the Old Testament, one of the same 
series (R. T. S.), in the very clear and able treatise of M. de 
Lantsheere, of Brussels, on the Hittites, and in elaborate and 
learned disquisitions of Dr. de Cara, of Rome, in which he has 
followed out affinities which have been suggested in different 
directions. It ought never to be forgotten that almost the 
earliest pioneering work in this quest and " restitution of de- 
cayed intelligence" was done by the learned and courteous 
D. H. Haigh as long ago as 1874, in the Zeitschrift fiir JEg. 
Spr,, and with singular enterprise and sagacity. But it would 
be an utterly " disproportioned thought" to detain the reader 
of these pages, which are concerned merely with the settlement 
of Ephron the Hittite and his neighbours at Kiriath-Arba'. 

The " Khethi " (Khati) people now appear clearly to have 
been a Mongolian (or Mongoloid) race, as Prof. Sayce says. 
Dr. Birch said to me : " they seem to me to be pig-tailed 


Tartars," and his few words, spoken with much consideration, 
gave me the first lively impression of the type, which seems 
now to have emerged from a hazy sort of dissolving view into 
a well-focussed picture. I may perhaps reproduce a few words 
again from my paper on Prof. Petrie's casts : " The facial 
characteristics of the Kheta are very marked and interesting. 
They have a great protrusiveness of the central part of the 
countenance, which is most marked in the king ' taken alive ' 
by Rameses III., and figured in the row of royal captives at 
Medinet Habu." 

" Our cast gives us a far better notion than the drawing in 
Lepsius or Brugsch, where the face is much tamed and refined. 
Happily two Hittite reliefs at Merash, photographed by my 
friend Dr. Gwyther, give an excellent comparison, shewing in 
two faces out of three a very coarse version of this profile." 

" The relief -panel of a Hittite prince, and another of a 
Hittite princess, in the British Museum, from Tel-el- Yehu- 
dieh, engraved in my Studies on the Times of Abraham [and 
given in this volume], shew the same formation of the 
face in a more agreeable version. In Barker's Lares and 
Penates, p. 203, is a very interesting wood-cut of a terra- 
cotta head found at Tarsus, which is surely that of a 
Hittite, as Dr. Birch remarked. The comparison with the 
Huns may be very appropriate, and the whole context is well 
worthy of attention. . . . The intention of the Egyptian 
artists seems to have been to give them as people of yellowish 
complexion, and the Hittite lady from Tel-el- Yehudieh is fair. 
The chief of Kadesh on Orontes in Tomb 34, Thebes, is white. 
Their mode of wearing their hair, which was dark and straight, 
was this : it was trained into three divisions or tails, one over 
each shoulder and one down the back, and each, when carefully 
arranged, ended in a spiral turn. The savages of Huleh-water 
who captured "Rob Roy" have three plaited pig-tails in a 

S 6517. H 


similar style (woodcut, Rob Roy on the Jordan, 241), and one 
face is of the same general cast. I will also mention that the 
high head-dress of the Hittite king Khita-sar, whose daughter 
Rameses II. married, is to be seen on the head of a Kurdish 
shepherd in the frontispiece of Capt. Cameron's interesting 
book, Our Future Highway" 

It is to be noticed that the double-eagle of the Hittites is 
now found as the emblem used by the very early Chaldsean 
kings of Lagash (Maspero, Dawn, &c, 604). I have often 
fancied that the name Lakish (^^7) may have travelled 
from Lagash. 

Col. Conder has expounded the Turanian affinities of the 
Hittites in an elaborate paper read to the Royal Historical 
Society in June 1887, on their " Historical Connections." 

Surely the relief-sculpture brought from Moab by M. de 
Saulcy and engraved by Maspero (Struggle, etc., 685) is a 
Hittite with just such a pig-tail curled up at the end as the 
Hittite king wears at Medinet Habu. 

In the reign of Amenhotep I. (the successor of Ahmes 
who drove out the Shepherds), the only war in the north was 
directed against some tribe called Amu-Kehak, but his suc- 
cessor Thothmes I., came into conflict with the Rutennu. 
This name requires some explanation, as it affects the whole 
question of the races of Canaan. 

a _ Ruten, or Rutennu. " The ethnic name of 

Rutennu, given in the hieroglyphic portion of the text of 
Tanis (before cited) as a translation of the name of Syria- 
Ashur, is adopted in preference to designate in quite a general 
way the great nation which, to the east of Egypt, inhabited 
the regions of Palestine as far as the plains of Mesopotamia.' 1 
Thus writes Brugsch,* adding that the lists of Thothmes III., 

* Hist. cVEg. p. 157, 1875. 


at Karnak, discovered by Mariette, prove incontestably that the 
name Ruten (or Luten) was applied not only to the peoples 
who inhabited the country north of Palestine, but also to all 
the races who occupied Palestine proper as far as Arabia 
Petreea. But the Southern Ruten were specially designated 
" the people of Upper Ruten," whilst the same nation towards 
the side of the Mesopotamian plains were called " the people 
of Loiver Ruten." The name is now read Lotanu by Maspero ; 
see The Struggle, etc., 120, and by Sayce, Pat Palestine, 95, 
etc. ; but by Petrie still Ruten {Hist Eg.). (The same sign in 
Egyptian hieroglyphics stands for R and L.) 

Now the invaluable lists of Karnak * give a vast number 
of names, many of which are certainly identified ; and the land 
of the Upper Ruten extends as far south as Gerar, Kiriath 
Sannah, and Rehoboth, and includes the mountain region of 
the Amorites, and the country occupied by the sons of Kheth 
about Hebron in the time of Abraham. It is clear, therefore, 
that these peoples were included among the Ruten before they 
were distinguished by name (as far as we yet know) in the 
Egyptian annals. 

The Upper or Southern Ruten are mentioned in the title 
above the group of prisoners at Karnak as " Chiefs of Ruten, 
of all the unknown races, of all the lands of the Fenekh-n." f 
This would suggest that the word had some collective meaning 
distinct from an ethnic purport. 

It is surely not unnatural that the Phoenicians should have Canaanite 


adopted a Semitic language as fitted to their purposes of com- civilization. 
merce. The sons of Kheth, and the Amorites, may also have religion. 
been able generally to converse and bargain in such a tongue, 
although remote from their own native language. Thus there 
may have been no difficulty to Abraham and his family in 

* Tomkins, Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. IX., and Records, New Series, Vol. V. 
t Mariette's Listes, &c, p. 3. 

H 2 


holding necessary intercourse with them. The Tel el-Amarna 
tablets have made this certain. 

Some two or three centuries (probably) after Abraham, 
the Syrians gave tribute to Thothmes III. of golden manu- 
factures, the vessels proceeding from their country being most 
artistic in form and elaborate in design. 

In fact, it is clear that the ruling races of Syria and Pales- 
tine were in a high state of civilization and wealth by this 
time, although their glory has so faded from the face of the 
earth that in their own land scarcely the smallest relic had 
been found until those recent explorations of which Prof. Sayce 
and MM. Perrot and Chipiez in their splendid work on Eastern 
Art have given so interesting an account ; and it is on the 
temple walls of their enemies that the memory of their prowess, 
refinement, and luxury is perpetuated. 

The extremely graceful vases and tazze of the Canaanites 
bear witness to the objects of their idolatry in the figures and 
heads of the heifer (often with the horns surmounted by a 
disk), which doubtless represents their Astarte (Ashtoreth, 
called in Egyptian Astarata), and the ibex, and the crested 
head of the hawk, bird of the Sun-god to them as well as to 
the Egyptians. 

The greatest god of the Hittites was Sutekh, identical with 
Ba'al, whose cultus, supreme during the rule of the Hyksos in 
Lower Egypt, was revived by the lords of the nineteenth 
dynasty, as we shall explain in treating of a later episode in 
the life of the patriarch. The same god was localised as tutelary 
of this and that city : " Sutekh of the city of Ta-aranta, Sutekh 
of the city of Pa-iraka, Sutekh of the city of Khisa-sap," etc. 
In South Palestine the name lingers, it seems, in the Jordan 
valley, as " Sat-h el-Ghuleh " (Sat-h the Demon), P. E. F. 
Thanett, 243. 

An account of the Canaanite religions will be found in 


Lenorinant's Manual of the Ancient History of the Fast* The 
conclusion is equally applicable to the whole group, although 
written with regard to the religious system of the Phoenicians. 
" It will be understood how well it has been defined by the 
learned Movers, who has scientifically studied the subject : ' an 
apotheosis of the forces and laws of nature, an adoration of 
the objects in which these forces were seen, and where they 
appeared most active.' Around this religious system gathered, 
in the external and public worship, a host of frightful debau- 
cheries, orgies, and prostitutions, in honour of the deities, such 
as Ave have already described at Babylon, and which accom- 
panied all the naturalistic religions of antiquity. The Ca- 
naanites were remarkable for the atrocious cruelty that stamped 
all the ceremonies of their worship, and the precepts of their 

"No other people ever rivalled them in the mixture of 
bloodshed and debauchery with which they thought to honour 
the deity. 

" As the celebrated Creuzer has said : ' Terror was the in- 
herent principle of this religion ; all its rites were blood- 
stained, and all its ceremonies were surrounded by gloomy 
images. When we consider the abstinences, the voluntary tor- 
tures, and, above all, the horrible sacrifices imposed as a duty 
on the living, we no longer wonder that they envied the repose 
of the dead. This religion silenced all the best feelings of 
human nature, degraded men's minds by a superstition alter- 
nately cruel and profligate, and we may seek in vain for any 
influence for good it could have exercised on the nation.' " 

The personal appearance of the Kheta, their clothing, arms, 
and equipment in the field, military formation, and style of 
war, may be gathered from the broad battle-pieces which 

* Vol. II., p. 219. 


celebrate the achievements of Seti I. and Rameses II. They 
brought into action chariots of a light and graceful construc- 
tion in considerable numbers, and had mounted warriors as 
disciplined cavalry, and to carry orders on the field. The horses 
and chariots of the Egyptian armies were evidently introduced 
from Syria, and were unknown under the ancient empire. 

The dress of the Kheta was a short kilt, and over this a 
long and rather close tunic ; and, in* full dress, a mantle or 
kind of cape covering the shoulders, and worn by many races 
of Syria. They had oblong shields, or else of convex outline at 
the top and bottom and inwardly curved at the sides. Their 
arms were the spear, bows and arrows, and a short sword. 
For the most part they wore a close-fitting skull-cap, which 
perhaps was quilted in squares, or diamonds. From the beau- 
tiful panels in relief of the palace of Rameses III., before 
mentioned, we give two very interesting, although broken, 
representations of a Kheta chief, and, as it appears, a lady of 
the same nation : she is represented as of fresh and fair com- 
plexion, and wearing a full robe. The warrior has the close 
tunic, the skull-cap, and dirk, and his hair appears conven- 
tionally to represent rows of curls. The countenances are 
worthy of attentive study, as most faithfully portrayed by 
Egyptian artists, strongly confirmed by their own relief -sculp- 
tures (see Prof. Sayce, The Hittites). The Egyptians were, 
through their religious beliefs, educated in the art of por- 
traiture to the highest point. 

It has long been thought by travellers that some of the 
tribes of the Lebanon are descendants of the Canaanites of old 
time, and that their strange and heathenish observances, so 
tenaciously withheld in secrecy, but known to include the 
worship of the sun and moon, are relics of the old-world 
idolatry : but more recent inquiry has led to the conclusion, 
indicated by the late Mr. Consul Finn, that the mass of the 


settled peasantry of Palestine (fellahin) are in reality Ca- 
naanites by descent, and still retain their ancient religion, thinly 
veneered with Mussulman compliances. These points have 
been explained in a most interesting way by M. Clermont- 
Ganneau, and in Col. Conder's article on the Mukams or high 
places of Palestine, in the Quarterly Statement of the Explora- 
tion Fund for April, 1877.* " The peasant dialect proves to 
be much nearer to Aramaic (which Jerome says was the native 
language in his time) than to modern literary Arabic"! That 
the Canaanite population still reaches, as of old, even into 
Lower Egypt, we shall have occasion to shew hereafter. The 
very ethnic names still linger, we are told, in the old haunts of 
Hittite, Amorite, and Phoenician; and legends of Abraham 
may still be heard from the lips of the children of Canaan, 
who shew where he watered his flocks, and tell how his dogs 
wore collars of gold, a very credible tradition to those who 
recall the elaborate adornment of their favourite hounds by the 
lords of Egypt. 

The important treaty between Rameses II. and the prince 
Khetasar was engraven in the Hittite counterpart on a plate of 
silver, " of which," says M. Chabas, " the Egyptian text gives 
us the form V\ : an oblong surmounted by a ring which served 
to suspend it. M. Kenan has met in the Higher Lebanon with 
monuments where may still be distinguished the points of 
attachment of plates of metal on which they wrote the sacred 
records. No doubt the decrees intended to be brought into 
public notice were exposed in the same manner on movable 
tablets of wood or metal, instead of being engraven on monu- 
ments as in Egypt. This explains the extreme rarity of ancient 
inscriptions in Syria and Phoenicia." 

Stopped in their migration by the " great sea of the setting 

* P. E. F., July 1876, p. 136, and July 1S77, p. 138. 
t Ibid.. 1878. P. 2. 



sun," the Zidonians, who had ere while tried their wings over 
the waters of the Persian Gulf, took flight in those adventurous 
voyages which made them the "hardy Norsemen " of the ancient 
world. They built their nests on the narrow ledge of the Phoe- 
nician plain, and took the wide waters for their dominion, and 
the spoils of commerce were their treasure. To them ministered 
the inland- trading sons of Kheth, guarding their traffic by 
their chivalry. The sea gave its splendid Tyrian dye, and the 
sand its crystal for the costly vessels of glass ; good exchange 
for gold, silver, copper, and, most precious of all, the indis- 
pensable tin. 

The Turanian element in these colonies is marked by the 
names of Martu (Marathus, now ximrit) and Usu. These 
names are explained by Mr. Boscawen in the notes to his 
Assyrian Reading Boole. 

Martu means the abode of the setting sun, which (as I have 
before mentioned) was regarded as a god (Tu) by the Akka- 
dians, as also by the Egyptians (Turn). The name Martu 
was given to Palestine, and in an especial locality to the city 

Usu, which also means the sunset, or west,* was a city f in 
Phoenicia. Both Martu and Usu were regarded as divinities 
of the west, J and there is a strange Phoenician fable in San- 
choniathon of Usoiis, a giant who was the first to venture to 
sea on a tree from which he had torn the branches, reminding 
us in its rugged form of the beautiful Egyptian imagination of 
the sacred westward-steering bark of the sun-god, departing to 
the regions of the nether ocean ; which fable, however, was 
itself, I think, brought from the borders of the Persian Gulf. 
For there is a hymn in the magical collection, says M. Lenor- 

* Lenormant, Syllabaires, &c, p. 29. 

t Said to be a suburb of Tyre, Cory, Hodge's edition, Indes. 

X La Magie, p. 110. 


mant, which turns entirely on the ship of Ea (the god of the 
abyss) adorned with " seven times seven lions of the desert," in 
which are voyaging Ea and Davkina, Asari-mulu-dugga, Mun- 
abge, and Ningar, the great pilot of heaven.* 

This hymn is written only in Akkadian, and appears to 
indicate the origin of the sacred arks, or ships, which were 
dedicated to the gods in Chaldrea as well as in Egypt, and of 
which, Mr. Boscawen says, long lists are given in W. A. /., II. 
F. Lenormant has given a most striking description, and sorb 
of explanation, of a mysterious seal-cylinder (which is en- 
graved in photogravure in this work) in his Origines de VHis- 
toire, vol. i., 119, etc. The symbolism of primal antiquity is 
a most alluring subject, and that of cherubim and seraphim 
connects Chaldsea with Egypt in a manner which " finds no 
end, in wandering mazes lost." 

But we must not be enticed into these marvels, or into the 
lore of the Phoenicians, since the destinies of Abraham did not 
lead him across their borders, so far as we know. 

In the Palestine Fund's Quarterly Paper, April 1885, I 
suggested that the name Beth-lekhem may have owed its origin 
to the god Lakhmu. This suggestion has been approved by 
Prof. Sayce, Col. Conder, Mr. Lowy (Trans. Vict. Inst, xxviii. 
30) and Prof. Hcmmel (P. S. B. A., xvm. 19). In the same 
communication I noticed the use of the name Lakhmu in the 
name Lakhmi borne by one of the giants, brother of Goliath. 
It seems to me that this is not at all the only divine name 
brought thither by the Amorites from Chaldaea, as Saph, Anat, 
Tammuz, Ashera, etc. Since these musings the immensely im- 
portant discovery of the Tel el-Amarna tablets has assured us 
of the Babylonian culture so early brought into Canaan, and so 
well explained by Prof. Sayce in his recent book, Patriarchal 

* La Magie, p. 149. 


Palestine (S. P. C. K., 1895). In writing the present work as 
published nearly twenty years ago, little had I dreamed of the 
intercourse between Babylonia and Canaan, extending into 
Egypt in the fashion now so well known. In studying the 
lists of Karnak I had become satisfied that Egypt held great 
military posts east of Jordan and Euphrates, and had tran- 
scribed names of localities from cuneiform sources, but that 
Egypt dominated the whole Babylonian Empire in suzerainty 
was no less amazing as a revelation to me than to all the world. 
The necessary retrospective inferences of this knowledge now 
on our estimate of earlier times must of course be taken into 
account in a reasonable historical survey of the period coeval 
with the Hyksos, and this will become more and more apparent, 
as students of Prof. Maspero's two volumes on the Dawn of 
History and The Struggle of the Nations will understand, and 
has been shewn in a very clear manner by Prof. Hommel in 
The Ancient Hebrew Tradition, etc. 

We have taken a hasty survey of the Canaan which Abram 
found, availing ourselves of the sources of information at our 
disposal apart from the Biblical narrative itself, and leaving 
unnoticed neither the brighter spots nor the deep shadows of 
the scene. 

We mark the westward streaming races, the continuity, the 
variety, the trodden highways down into Egypt, into Sinaitic 
Arabia, for ages an appanage of Egypt although contested by 
Amalekite hordes and by Chaldaean kings ; the busy cities with 
their daughter-villages and settled culture and traffic, as islands 
in the wide untilled pastures of the desert, whither the wander- 
ing clans of marauders come up from the sandy wastes. We 
see the patriarchal clan compact in a common destiny apart 
from all, and above every other characteristic blessed in a pure 
and holy faith, a veritable fellowship with the living and true 

( 1*3 ) 



T71ROM the shady tree of Moreh by Shekem, Abram 
-*- journeyed southwards. It must have been in the 
spring that he "plucked up his tent-pegs" in the green 
valley, and " pastured on " his leisurely way " unto the 
mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent, having 
Bethel on the west, and Hai on the east." It took Canon 
Tristram ten hours * to ride from Shekem to Bethel, but Bethel. 
doubtless Abram must have gone more softly. 

Perhaps the patriarch chose this new post not without 
reference to its defensible character. It is widely different 
from the first camping-ground, being " almost the central 
spot of the ' hill-country of Benjamin,' which, itself a little 
territory bristling with hill-tops, each one a mountain-fast- 
ness or a ' high place ' for worship, was the central heart of 
Palestine." f 

" The hill " seems to have been well identified, and there 
are still ruins of a Christian Church, "as if the primitive 
Christians had been aware of the sacred associations of the 
spot where Abraham raised his altar " ; and from it, the north 
end of the Dead Sea, and the barren tract which extends 
from the oasis of Jericho to it and the Jordan, are distinctly 
visible. That this plain, now covered with salt and brimstone, 
was once well watered and cultivated, we have abundant 

* Land of Israel, p. 159. 

t Tristram, Sunday at Home, 1872, p. 215. 


evidence in the traces of former irrigation and aqueducts. Near 
this hill by Bethel is a circle of large rough stones, possibly 
of earlier date than Abram's altar.* 

Hai, the royal town on the east, was the same as the Ai f 
afterwards destroyed by Joshua, and made into a heap (tell) 
for ever, and the only name of the place once identified with it 
is Et-Tell, the ruin-heap.J Sir H. Kitchener, K.E., has, in- 
deed, met with the name of Khurbet Haiy, one mile east of 
Michmash (Mukhmas), which he considers to mark the site of 
'Ai. This is some distance from Et-Tell, and is mentioned in 
the notes published in January 1878. But Conder and Harper 
give reasons which lead to the decided preference of Khurbet 
Haiyan, two miles east of Bethel. 

Bethel became -a memorable place. But on this first oc- 
casion of Abram's sojourn there he does not seem to have 
lingered long. He "journeyed, going on still toward the 
south," that is, toward the tract between the mountains and 
the sandy desert which was called the Kegel. 

" He moved southward, § leaving the hills over which his 
flocks and herds had fed, and where the pasturage must have 
been exhausted as the summer advanced. The hill country of 
Judaea, south of Jerusalem, and in the Hebron district, even 
now affords pasture for sheep and goats, who browse upon the 
undergrowth of wood and upon the aromatic plants that clothe 
these mountains. 

" Flocks are sent there towards the end of summer, when 
the heats of the dry season have parched up the grass and 
flowering plants. Abraham went on from Bethel (going on 
journeying still toward the south). The rolling plains and 
downs of the south country, or Negeb, so well described by 

* Two similar circles are mentioned by Dean Stanley, Sinai and Palestine, p. 277. 

t With the article, >VF. 

t P.E.F., 1874, p. 62 ; Our Work in Pal., p. 203. 

§ Mrs. Finn, Sunday at Home, 1872, p. 327. 


Messrs. Drake and Palmer, from Beersheba onwards, are 
excellent winter quarters for tents and for cattle, as the 
Tiyahah Bedaween of our own day know by experience. 
Upon the mountains the climate is suitable for summer, for 
there the cool breezes temper the heat ; but in winter shelter 
is needed from the driving blast, the snow, and the rain-storms 
to which the hill-country is exposed. Abraham consulted the 
comfort and the safety of his people, and of his cattle, when he 
took them to the south ; for he had no landed property where- 
on to build houses or stabling for their protection." 

" His journey to Egypt must also have been made in the 
cool season, when the short desert can be comfortably crossed. 
He went because of the famine in Canaan. Now the pressure 
of famine is in this country most felt in winter. We had 
several instances," continues Mrs. Finn, from whose instruc- 
tive pages I am quoting, " when scarcity of the grain-crops 
caused a good deal of distress, almost amounting to actual 
famine. Even though a harvest may be bad, there is sure to 
be some corn produced ; and the summer fruits, the melons, 
figs, grapes, and the different kinds of vegetables, yield a very 
large proportion of the provisions needed for summer con- 
sumption. But it is in winter that the stress comes. What 
little grain can be spared must be reserved for seed, and then 
there are no fruits to take the place of corn. Then is felt the 
want of bread for man, and of fodder, grain, and straw for 
beast. Then do those who are near the south country go down 
into Egypt. We have known this to happen ; and when, two 
years ago (viz., in 1870) the distress was very great, the Philis- 
tine country was almost depopulated, the inhabitants having 
gone into Egypt for food." 

This extract is valuable, bringing, as it does, the light of 
present experience to illustrate the descent of the patriarch into 
the great home of harvests and abundance of food. 


We know, indeed, that evident marks have been lately 
discovered of the ancient fertility of this now comparatively 
barren region of the " south." But then the same explorations 
have shown that in the earliest times a large population de- 
manded these resources for their sustenance. Probably many 
of those cairns, and rude stone circles, and inclosures of the 
primaeval shepherd-folk Qiazeroth) may have been made by the 
Sati, the Herusha, the pras-Canaanite occupants of the land in 
the days of Ammu-anshi the king, or in the still older times of 
Una the Egyptian general of the sixth dynasty, of which we 
have written. 

When Abraham was there, however, the land had been 
already settled by the Amorites. 

South and west of Beersheba (the place afterwards so 
named), the patriarch must have passed through the terri- 
tory of Gerar, with whose ruler, Abimelech, he had afterwards 
so much to do. 

So Abram went down into Egypt, pressed by sore 
famine, although he knew well that his destined lot was 
not in Egypt ; and his purpose was simply to sojourn, not 
to dwell. 

In general, however, it was not likely that any tribe of tLe 
sons of men should stay in Palestine without seeking to go 
down into Egypt. Canaan was a highway to Egypt. The 
Delta was as an antechamber thronged by motley company. 
The strong chain of fortresses built by Amenemhat I., with its 
connecting wall, to keep out the marauding hordes on the 
east, had not been effectual. Whether it were before or after 
Abram's visit that the rule of the Hyksos Pharaohs was es- 
tablished in Lower Egypt, at all events we may be sure that 
the power represented by them had already strongly developed 
itself, and was dominant, perhaps, in fact, if not in form ; for 
the pressure came on Egypt at first, not as an organized mili- 


tary invasion, bnfc as a gradual pacific immigration ; not a 
deluge, but a stealthily -rising tide. 

We will now examine some of the indications of early and 
increasing connection between Western Asia and Egypt in 
their relation to the history of Abraham. 

And first, a strong link is shown in the incidental state- 
ment,* "now Hebron was built seven years before Zoan in 
Egypt." This refers, says Petrie, probably "to the settle- 
ment before the eleventh dynasty " (that is, before 2800 B.C.) 
(Tanis I. 4). 

The builders of Hebron doubtless pressed on, and founded 
their colony in Lower Egypt as an advanced post in their 
progress, probably a commercial settlement established and 
carried on with the goodwill of the strong Pharaohs of the 
old empire. Among the vast ruins of San have been found 
an inscription of Pepi Merira of the sixth dynasty, perhaps 
brought thither, and colossal statues of Amenemhat I., and 
his contemporary Usertesen I., the earliest monarchs of the 
grand twelfth dynasty. In their time, as we have said, the 
great wall of defence was constructed, passing some forty 
miles to the east, of which remains are still existing, " a long 
rampart defending the entrance from the eastward." f 

Zoan appears to be a Semitic name, implying departure for 
a journey. 

The truth is that this eastern country swarms with Asiatic 

To return to Hebron. It was built by the Anakim, who KiHatu. 
called it Kiriath-Arba', after the name of Arba' the father of Hebron. 
Anak (See Pat. Palestine, p. 37 ; Higher Criticism, p. 187). 

The passage (Josh. 14. 15) is very curious: "and the 
name of Khebron before (was) city (Kiriath) of Arba' the 
great man among the Anakim ;" the force of the title "the 

* Num. 13. 22. t Brugsch, Histoire, p. 138. 


great (Adam) man " apparently being " the founder of the race 
of the Anakim." 

Now Arba' simply means " four," and was thus taken by 
the Rabbinical interpreters, who made the four consist of 
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Adam. 

But it seems clear that somehow Arba' was an individual 
founder. How could such a hero be called " Four " ? 

A possible solution has occurred to my mind as at least 
worthy of consideration. 

The Anakim are considered to be a tribe of the Hyksos,* 
and probably came from the regions of Chaldasa. 

Now it was the regular system in Babylonia to give 
numerical symbols to the gods. Thus the numeral of Sin 
the Moon-god was thirty, the number of days (approximately) 
in the month. There were two Ishtars, each fifteen, moon- 
goddesses, making the number of the month between them ; 
and the like. The system had a special example in Syria, 
where Eshmun, eighth and greatest of the Kabirim, simply 
means "eight." Might not Arba' be the god "four," and 
either a deified hero, or a god regarded as a race-father in 
the olden fashion ? (See Rec, New Series, vi. 131, note, for a 
Hittite "Three.") "If K. L. Tallquist is right," says Prof. 
Sayce, " Salas (' Three ') is the mother of the Babylonian 

At first no god appeared answering to the number four, but 
Mr. Boscawen found the number given as that of the ancient 
god Lugal-banda on a tablet in the British Museum. Lugal- 
banda means in Akkadian " strong king." He was worshipped at 
Erech by the now celebrated hero of the cycle of legends made 
so famous by the late Mr. G. Smith, Gisdhubar, or Dhubar (as 
his name is provisionally read), now Gilgames, and had his 
sacred ark ; and in his honour Sin-gasit, a very early king of 

* Speaker's Comm., Vol. III., p. 74. 


Erech, built a temple there. He was also worshipped at Amarda 
or Marad in Chaldaea. 

" His name appears to have been given in Assyrian as 
Sarra-ikdu,"* says M. Lenormant. I fancy that traces of the 
name Arba may be found, as for instance, in Arba-ki (Arba- 
land) in the north of Mesopotamia conquered by Assur-nazirpal, 
with its " strong cities,"! as well as in " Kiriath-arba', which is 
Hebron." There is now an Arba west of the Afrin in North 
Syria, marked in Rey's map in the Giaour-Dagh (Amanus 
range) in the " land of the Amorites." 

But the matter does not end here : for Arba' was claimed as 
the father of the Libyans, as Pleyte has shewn, quoting Movers.J 

This would agree well with the ancient belief that the 
Canaanites were, to a great extent, driven far westward into 
North Africa, as well as with the similarity, or identity, of 
Amorites and Libyans. 

Now these points indicate the track of the great migrations 
from Chaldaea to the borders of Egypt, and even beyond : and 
it would appear that the worshippers of Arba' brought the 
name of their deified founder into these distant settlements. 
Thus, perhaps, the mystery of Arba' may be made clear, quite 
consistently with all that we know of the Hyksos and the 

Dr. Haigh considers the name Khebron (alliance) as prob- 
ably referring to the league between- the three Amorite chief- 
tains Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre, and Abram ; and thinks that 
these constituted the " four." I have given some reasons for 
another conjecture as to " Arba' " ; but it seems possible that 
this memorable confederacy may have originated the other 
name, Hebron, or rather Khebron. 

* Lenormant, Les Dieux de Bab., p. 16. 
t Records of the Past, Vol. III., p. 62. 
% Bel. des pre- Israelites, pp. 63, 212. 

S 6517. I 


We have seen indications that the mixture, and even fusion 
of races, so characteristic of the Chaldasan country, had ex- 
tended itself in the tideway of migration through Mesopotamia, 
Syria, Canaan, and even into the Delta. We shall not be 
surprised to find, if so be, even a Turanian element in Egypt 
when we treat of the " Shepherd-kings." Meanwhile, let us 
well mark the conditions of the life of Abram, when brought at 
last into the land of promise. However his appointed lot, as a 
" stranger and pilgrim," enabled him to keep his house and his 
faith clear of the evil tribes and corrupt religions around him, 
he was still, nay, more than ever, in the way of seeing and 
hearing, and even sharing too, the great movements of prime 
races that should in " the purpose of the ages " all be blessed in 
him ; the strong races that were shaping the world's destinies 
throuo'h the chain of nations, which from Elam was radiating 
its forces into Eastern and Northern Asia at one end, and at the 
other from Egypt into Southern and Western Africa. He was 
soon to be brought into close intercourse with the Pharaoh of 
Egypt, and into sudden battle with the king of Elam : not at 
all the mere simple shepherd swain whose converse was with 
the bleatings of his flocks, and whose sole studies the reveries of 
a mystic piety. Such thoughts have been suggested with good 
warrant by the Rev. G. S. Drew, in his very able and useful 
work on Scripture Lands in Connection with their History r 
Very justly does he remark : " It is surely a great error to con- 
found the patriarchs with the Bedouins as they are now living 

in those parts The true parallel of the modem Bedouins 

was seen in the Amalekites of Abraham's days." The detailed 
inquiry into the conditions of the life led by Abraham, of which 
the results are given in these pages, will surely deepen this 

* London, Henry S. King & Co., p. 18. Stcond Edition, 1871. 

( 131 ) 



WE will try to represent to ourselves the Egypt that met 
the eyes of Abrani, Sarai, and Lot. First, in giving 
entrance through the guarded portals of the great wall built by 
Amenemhat L, the methodical Egyptian officers wrote down 
their names, and the number of their clan, and reported their 
arrival at head-quarters. This was the strict custom of that 
business-like people, literally the inventors of red tape." Then 
they would pass on, well pleased, into the region of Goshen, and 
find pasturage in flat reaches of rich land, which must surely 
have recalled to their memories the broad plains of the Eu- 
phrates, and the w 7 eli-known scenes of childhood. Here were 
the glistening straight lines of the canals from sky to sky ; here 
the flaming sunsets reached down to the flat horizon ; the rosy 
dawn suddenly struck across vast spaces, and woke a thousand 
screaming water-fowl among the marshes. 

And now was opening before Abram the grandest, most 
perfect civilisation of the world, and a religion mysterious, 
elaborate, refined, and of captivating power. 

In the Delta he would, at all events, and with whatever 
latitude we view the chronological problem, be coming once 
more into a mixture of races and influences, of interests and 
views, w 7 hich singularly corresponded with the condition of the 
other great centre of the world's doings in the region where his 
younger days had been passed, on the shores of the Persian 
Gulf. If (as seems most likely) the sojourn in Egypt was 
during the earlier times of the Hyksos domination, then the 

* See Lepsius' Denkm., Vol. II., pp. 20, 22. 

I 2 


interest and excitement of the time would be at a still greater 
height than before. What we have to see hereafter in our study 
of the warfare of Kedor-la'omer will agree very well with the 
threatening aspect of things to the east ; and we may well 
picture to ourselves the defences on the side of the desert as 
perfectly fortified by a strong line of moated wall, with bastions 
at frequent intervals, and thoroughly guarded night and day 
by the well-disciplined Egyptian troops, the great military 
station of Avaris swarming with soldiers of various races and 
arms : the sacred city of Zoan, some forty miles' journey to the 
west, where the worship of Set, or Baal, would be in full force 
and splendour of observance ; about seventy miles from this 
was the city of Turn (the sun -god), An (On, or in Greek, 
Heliopolis). Not thirty miles farther south lay the ancient 
capital Memphis, across the river, with its groups of pyramids 
indenting the sky ; and still further up the Nile on the same 
Libyan, or westward side, the beautiful expanse of highly 
cultivated land * surrounding the great artificial lake with its 
waterworks, enormous labyrinth, and sacred city, the seat of the 
ancient worship of Sebek the crocodile-god. 

We will give some account, then, of the Egypt of the great 
twelfth dynasty as the background, and then endeavour to fill 
in the picture with the personages and court of the conquering 

The lore of Egypt has in all ages had a mysterious influence 
of attraction for inquisitive and reflective minds. But not 
until the present century has any sound critical knowledge been 
reached ; and Egyptology has its crowning victories yet to win. 
Even now great elementary "questions await their solution : and 
especially, notwithstanding all the learning and sagacity devoted 
to the study of the fragmentary records hitherto discovered, 

* See Petrie, Ten Tears' Diggings, and KaJiun etc. 


the framework of chronology has yet to be constructed on some 
indubitable basis. 

Like most of the world's rulers, the Egyptians were a 
mingled race, drawing fresh contributions from very different 
and distant quarters ; but these ethnic accretions did not result 
in the development of a higher form of civilisation from a 
savage beginning : rather the reverse.* 

In his history, Brugsch has expressed a very positive opinion 
that " the ancestors of the Egyptians do not belong to one of 
the races inhabiting Africa, properly so called. The formation 
of the skulls and the proportion of different parts of the bodies, 
studied from a great number of mummies, demonstrate that the 
ancient Egyptians must have belonged to the great Caucasian 
race," — " Du t not of the Pelasgic or Semitic branches, but of a 
third, Cushite. However it may be, it is certain that the 
cradle of the Egyptian nation must be sought in central Asia." 

Petrie considers that the civilised Egyptians came from the 
land of Punt across the Red Sea and by the Coser road, and were 
of kindred race to the Phoenicians and Philistines. At any rate 
the Egyptians looked on Punt as the land of their gods, and the 
Punites are represented at Der-el-Bahri with those curved and 
pointed beards which are given to the gods of Egypt. It is 
not agreed what was the lineage of the early dynastic Egyp- 
tians. Maspero prefers to look to the white race of Africa 
(which we chiefly call Libyans), but allows that there were 
accretions from Asia (Dawn, etc.). They were in different ages 
certainly affected by the various influx of very different human 
elements, and so it is quite right to call them a mingled race, 
but I believe their civilisation first came from the east side, and 
especially their earliest religion and most honoured traditions of 
their golden age, as Prof. Petrie holds (Hist of Eg. I. 12). 

* Birch, Rede Lecture, p. 12, 1876. Bagster. 


The annals of Egypt are broken by strange and dark chasms. 
Such a one succeeds the pristine glory of the old empire, which 
fades suddenly with the sixth dynasty, and from its mist emerges 
the dimly discerned outline of the eleventh, passing on by a 
distinct connection into the "high and palmy" splendour of 
the great twelfth dynasty, a second Egypt ; as if the phoenix 
had arisen from its pyre. 

M. Lenormant has noted a very remarkable point of differ- 
ence.* " If you study the precious collection in which M. Mari- 
ette has brought together five hundred skulls of mummies, all 
belonging to ascertained periods, you prove to your surprise 
that the heads of Egyptians, earlier than the sixth dynasty — 
which we find, by the way, in the state of skeletons, in their 
sarcophagi, and which appear not to have been mummified, — 
belong to another ethnographic type than those of Egyptians 
later than the eleventh dynasty. The former are dolichocephalic 
(long-headed), the latter brachycephalic (short-headed)." 
M. Lenormant suggests that an influx of population from above 
the cataracts may have descended on Egypt, whose original 
inhabitants were purely Asiatic, and that the Theban princes of 
the eleventh dynasty, the Entefs and Mentuhoteps, had an 
Ethiopian origin. 

After this long time of interruption Egypt recovered itself, 
but " the ancient traditions," writes Mariette,f " are forgotten. 
The proper names used in families, the titles given to function- 
aries, the writing itself, and even the religion, all would seem 
new. Thinis, Elephantine, Memphis, are no longer the favour- 
ite capitals : it is Thebes which for the first time becomes the 
seat of sovereign power." 

But after the obscure reigns of the eleventh dynasty, in the 
Thebaid blossoms at once the glory of the second great Egypt, 

* Les prem. Civ.. Vol. I., p. 280. t Aperqu de I' Hist., p. 21. 


from the Mediterranean and the Sinaitic peninsula to the new 
fortresses of Kummeh and Senineh, higher than the second 

Singularly enough, the memorials of this period no longer 
exist above ground like the pyramids of the earlier age (with 
the exception of some ancient buildings at Karnak, a few 
scattered pyramids, and an obelisk or two), but in the un- 
rivalled subterranean chambers and galleries of Beni-hassan, 
covered with the beautiful pictures of agricultural and domestic 
life : of field-sports, fishing, and marsh-fowling ; of festivals, 
games, processions, and the endless humours and conceits of 
daily doings, which afford us in the pages of Wilkinson almost 
a cyclopaedia of Egyptian manners. Beni-hassan is not far from 
midway up the river between Memphis and Thebes. 

It is in one of these tombs that the ever- memorable proces- fff^ r8 
sion, at first identified with the sons of Jacob, is still seen.* 
This will always deserve the closest attention, especially from 
those who study early Semitic life. For it is the oldest group 
which can be identified as clearly representing a Semitic race. 
The lord of the tomb is Khnum-hotep, an officer of rank under 
Pharaoh Usertesen II. He stands, colossal and majestic, staff 
in hand ; an attendant behind him bears a pair of sandals, the 
prince, however, wearing his own ; and around his feet wait 
three favourite dogs. 

To him approach two scribes bare-footed, of whom the fore- 
most holds out a tablet inscribed in true official style : — 

" Sixth year of the reign of king Osortasen II : report of the Amu brought 
by the son of the prince Khnum-hotep, bringing mestem from the bar- 
barian Petti-Shu ; their number is thirty-seven." 

* See Chabas, Etudes, p. 110 ; Brunch, Hist. d'Eg., p. 99, etc. The whole scene is 
given in Bible Educator, Vol. I., p. 105; in a coloured plate, see Wilkinson by 
Birch, Vol. I., 481 ; and lastly in the Archceol. Survsy, Eg. Exp. Fund, Beni Hasan, 
Yol. I., with principal figure in colours. 


Above the group is written : — 

" Come to bring mestem, he brings thirty-seven Amu." 

The second court-scribe has his office and name also 
written : — 

" The inspector of these, Khiti by name." 

He approaches empty-handed, but ushering in the chief of 
the Amu, who bends with outspread hands in an attitude of 
Oriental courtesy, holding in his left hand a curved throwing- 
stick which was used by the Egyptians themselves in the fashion 
of the Australian boomerang. It was also familiar to the 
Assyrians, and is still in use by the tribes of Central Africa, 
and by the Bisharin of Sinaitic Arabia near the Red Sea, 
descendants doubtless of the Amu of old.* 

The great richness of the garments worn by these Amu 
would suggest that they were brought (as we have before 
hinted) from " the country of clothes," especially if contrasted 
with the light and simple white linen of the Egyptian courtiers. 
The chief is distinguished by a magnificent coat, elaborately 
bordered and fringed, and covered with ornamental stripes 
in designs of zigzags, reversed chevrons, and circular spots, 
recalling the curious ornamentation of the old Chaldean build- 
ings at Erech by coloured cones, in patterns resembling Norman 
mural decoration. Doubtless the chieftain wears beneath his 
robe of state a kilt from the waist to the knees, as do three of 
his followers who have no such upper garment. 

He leads a large and handsome ibex from the Sinaitic 
mountains, whence the barbarous Petti-Shu had procured the 
stibium (mestem) or black antimonial paint for the eyelids. 
The ibex is muzzled and collared, and over and under his head 
is the title of the chief, "Jiaq (chieftain or sheikh) of the 
foreign land Absha."| 

* Bonomi, Xineveh, p. 136. t Brugsch, Diet. Geog., p. 13. 1877. 


It is clear that these Ainu are received with signal marks of 
honour, for they come into the presence of the monarch vari- 
ously armed, with music playing. The chief and his immediate 
attendant only are unshod, the other men wear strapped shoes, 
and the women red boots. 

The Jiaq, whose splendid robe is wrought chiefly in red, blue, 
and white, is followed by a kilted attendant leading by its collar 
and horn an antelope. Then come a group of four men clad in 
long tunics reaching midway down their legs ; two of them 
white, the other two with stripes and cross-bars and zigzags and 
spots, red and blue and white. They are variously armed with 
spear and bow and throw-sticks. Then solemnly paces an ass, 
unled, loaded with bales or panniers, apparently of brightly 
patterned cloth, above which quaintly protrude the heads of 
two children ; and between them rises some object difficult to 
identify, of shape rather like a shuttle, but apparently as much 
as two feet long, which curiously reminds me of the form of 
the remarkable block of tin discovered at Falmouth, and 
described by Sir Henry James.* A similar object, but longer, 
is carefully tied on the back of the second ass in this procession, 
and a third appears in profile below. These objects seem to be 
coloured brown, but they may have been wrapped in some 
covering. The form is this ^"b^ , while that of the block 

of tin is in the main quite similar, §__3> although not 
bulging so much in the sides. The Cornish block is two feet 
eleven inches long, by eleven inches wide. 

Sir R. Burton has discovered tin-workings in the ancient 
land of Midian, on the east of the Red Sea ; while in Num. 31. 
22 this precious metal is mentioned among the riches of the 
Midianites. This would bring it quite into the region of Petti- 
Shu ; and it might well have been brought with the mestem by 

* Arch. Journal, p. 196, 1871 ; also p. 39, 1359 : and Rawlinson, Her., Vol. II., p. 418, 


the Amu. And if (as has been supposed) the shape of the 
block is that adopted by the Phoenicians, the subject may 
deserve further inquiry. 

Behind the ass come four women clad in garments of similar 
style and pattern to those of the men, but rather longer. Their 
hair is abundant and long, bound round with fillets. They 
wear red ankle-boots bordered with white round the tops. 
With them in front marches a young boy holding a spear, and 
clad in a short frock. Behind the women paces the second ass 
laden with bales or panniers, and on its back, bound tightly by 
crossed straps, a spear, with the before-mentioned shuttle-shaped 
object, and another sideways beneath, which is apparently as 
much as three feet in length. Then follows a kilted man play- 
ing with a plectrum a lyre of simple and antique form, and 
having a shield slung on his back ; and lastly, another man 
similarly clad, but armed with a curved club of red wood tipped 
with black, in his right hand ; in his left a bow of elegant 
curvature, and a quiver slung on his shoulders. 

The persons of the whole party are of a strongly-marked 
Semitic type, their complexion light and sallow, their hair 
black : that of the men bushy, and their beards pointed, their 
features prominent, noses aquiline, distinctly contrasted with 
the countenances of the Egyptians. We give the head of the 
first man of the procession as a specimen of the type of these 

The importance of this scene can scarcely be overrated. It 
shews distinctly the honourable reception accorded to these 
eastern clans, even in the highest ascendant of the great 
twelfth dynasty. Indeed, Brugsch considers that we should 
perhaps even except from the limits of the government of 
these sovereigns the parts of the Delta situate on the eastern 
side, on the shores of the lake Menzaleh, and inhabited by a 
nation of mingled Egyptians and Semitic immigrants, whose 


influence prevailed soon after in a manner so disastrous to the 
Pharaohs and their country. 

The picture in the tomb is about eight feet long, and one 
and a half high, says Dr. Lepsius ; * and the same high 
authority concludes : " I view them as a migrating Hyksos 
family, who pray to be received into the blessed land ; and 
whose descendants, perhaps, opened the gates of Egypt to the 
Semitic conquerors, allied to them by race." 

In comparing the variegated patterns of the dress of these 
Semitics with the mural designs of the coloured walls produced 
in Chalda^a by polychromatic work in cones (as at Erech, etc.), 
I have the approval of Maspero (Dawn, etc., 7 and 9 note). 

" The shape of their arms, the magnificence and good taste 
of the fringed and patterned stuffs with which they are clothed, 
the elegance of most of the objects which they have brought 
with them, testify to a high standard of civilization, equal at 
least to that of Egypt." So says Prof. Maspero (Dawn, etc., 
p. 470). It is very interesting to compare minutely this group 
with the procession represented on a beautiful cylinder, of 
which we give a photogravure in one of the plates of this 
volume. It is the same style of dress, the right shoulder 
and arm exposed, with stripes and fringes, the armed figure 
with bow and quiver leading the file. But I do not think our 
seal represents prisoners of war, but rather some procession as 
in the case of the thirty-seven of Beni-Hasan. To compare a 
Chaldean engraved cylinder with a very remote wall-painting 
in Egypt adds to the interest of the study. May not both 
belong to the race called Sati or Suti, the people of the " Land 
of the Bow," so widely comprehensive and far-spread in their 
roving hordes ? The cylinder-seal is reproduced by Maspero 
in The Struggle of the Nations, p. 723 (also by Layard, JYiu. 

* Letters from Egypt, p. 112. Eng. trans., Bohn. 


and Balyl., p. 538 ; Smith, Chakl Gen,, p. 188 ; Rawlinson, 
Anc. Mori., Vol. i. p. 264.) It " came from Erech, and origi- 
nally belonged to a member of the royal family of that city," 
says George Smith, and " presents us with a curious picture of 
a rude nomad tribe apparently arriving in Babylonia. The 
chief marches in front armed with bow and arrows, and wear- 
ing the same kind of boots, with turned-up ends, as dis- 
tinguished the Hifctites in ancient times, and are still" worn 
in Asia Minor and Greece." The owner of the cylinder was 
" the brother of the king of Erech, the librarian." " The 
office of librarian was considered honourable enough to be 
borne by a brother of the reigning monarch." 

In Mr. Eeady's cast, now under my eyes, it appears to me 
that the third and fifth figures are carrying weapons which 
have each a transverse head of spiky form, and are some kind 
of axes. The second figure, next to the warrior, holds a staff 
of honour, and the fourth, in a curved and fringed gown, is a 

"With regard to Asiatic culture and experiment in the arts 
in Syria, and their influence on Egypt in the time of the 
eighteenth dynasty, the very interesting remarks of Prof. 
Petrie in the second volume of his History should be carefully 
considered, and the reflex inferences on earlier ages (backward 
light) observed ; as in the literary matter of the Tel el-Amarna 
records. Such reasonable consequences of reflection will more 
and more prevail in our historic criticism (Petrie, Hist. Eg., 
Vol. ii. p. 145, etc.). 

It is manifest that the tableau at Beni-Hasan represents a 
parallel case with that of Abraham. The wives are admitted 
with their husbands, unveiled, and seen by the "princes of 

The same formal and business-like reception of Shasu and 
other Asiatics, with their cattle, was observed as a regular 


custom, and is found (for instance) in the time of Meneptah 
the son of Rameses II., usually identified with the Pharaoh of 
the Exodus ; the actual certificate of such a case still being 
extant in Papyrus Anastasi VI., of which M. Chabas gives a 
translation.* If this were so under the truly Egyptian rule of 
the twelfth dynasty, then we may be sure of it under the 
Asiatic Hyksds. 

Since it is believed and argued by some writers, as, for gfgjjj^ 
instance, by Canon Cook, in his very able excursus on Egypt dynasty. 
and the Pentateuch,! that Abraham was in Egypt during the 
dominion of the twelfth dynasty, it will be best to sketch the 
Egypt of that epoch before treating of the Hyksos. 

Under the Amenemhats and Usertesens Egypt was in full 
activity. Not only were the frontiers vigorously protected, 
but the land was admirably cultivated, the administration of 
public affairs organized with perfection of detail, gigantic 
engineering works carried out for the storage and distribution 
of the all-fertilising Nile water by the formation of a vast 
artificial lake, as a reservoir to equalize the effects of the 
annual floods, and provide irrigation for the district to the 
west of the river, still called Fayiun (E. Pi-dm, the sea). 

Pastures and fields were channelled, and innumerable trick- 
ling rills drew the water pumped by the shadoof over all the 
thirsty land. The plough was drawn by oxen, which also 
threshed the corn to the music of the cheery song which still 
remains to us.} The abundant harvests were stored in long 
ranges of vaulted granaries. Orchards, vineyards, gardens, 
were exquisitely cultivated. Flowers were everywhere, in- 
doors and out : in the hand, on the head, on the altar of 
offerings, wreathed round the sacred vessels ; above all, the 

* Nineteenth dyn., p. 107. 

t Speaker's Comm., Vol. I. 

X Wilkinson, Anc. Eg., VoL II. p. 43. 


exquisite lotus, which has almost disappeared with the papyrus 
from the waters. Grand cattle were carefully tended and 
housed in majestic ranks ; large flocks of sheep were among 
the ample possessions, of which the inventories were duly 
presented to the lords of the soil. 

Asses of fine breed were used for riding and burden, and in 
litters of state, but the horse seems as yet unknown. Dogs of 
various kinds, for the chase, the flock, the house, were petted 
and depicted with their masters. The cat, first honoured in 
Egypt, and from which even ladies were named, was whim- 
sically trained as a retriever of wild fowl in the marshes, where 
whole families were wont to glide about in their light skiffs of 
papyrus to enjoy their beloved sport. The crocodile and hippo- 
potamus afforded more formidable prey. The love of animals 
equalled that of flowers. Solemn apes, nimble ichneumons, 
and quaint creatures from foreign regions, were among the 
pets of the family. In their paintings all kinds of animals 
are depicted with a spirit and fidelity worthy of Bewick. As 
a curious contrast, it is well worthy of notice that, as Sir 
Samuel Baker has remarked, a negro has never been known 
to tame a wild animal. The African tribes never make pets. 
The Egyptians, on the other hand, were probably more ad- 
dicted than any other ancient people to this kindly and 
pleasant practice. The Rev. Henry Rowley has confirmed to 
me the observation of Sir Samuel Baker. The inference as to 
the different origin of the Egyptian race is as interesting as it 
is legitimate, and corresponds with a previous notice in these 
pages as to their religion. 

The people were hospitable, cheerful, fond of music, sing- 
ing, and dancing ; and games of every kind enlivened their 
festive hours. Captives, dwarfs and deformed persons, made 
sport in their presence. They were clad mostly in linen, 
shaved their heads and faces, and wore wigs, and ornaments 


many and beautiful. It is worthy of note that in that very 
important personal adjunct, the private seal, the form of the 
Babylonian seal-cylinder went out of fashion during this 
period,* an interesting token of connection. The precious 
lapis-lazuli, always so highly valued, was brought from 

" Cylinders are often met with in early times," says Petrie, 
"but died out of use almost entirely by the eighteenth 
dynasty" (Ten Years, etc., p. 145). " This points to a con- 
nection with Babylonia in early times," he continues. In 
reality we now know that the use of these cylinder-seals in 
Egypt was much earlier than I had believed ; " in the very 
earliest days of their history, long before the epoch of the 
fourth dynasty, it may be of Menes himself, the founder of 
the Egyptian monarchy," as Prof. Sayce now says. 

The " learning of the Egyptians " was caref ally cultivated, 
and the education of the scribe was the high-road to all de- 
partments of state-employment alike. 

The British Museum possesses a curious relic of the schools 
in a wooden tablet or lesson-board (prototype of the modern 
slate) still covered with successive inscriptions in grammar and 
rhetoric. It dates from the period of which we are treating. 
For portable documents papyrus was the common material, but 
leather was also used.j For more formal and durable records 
the Egyptians resorted to the walls of their temples and 
tombs, and erected stela? or stone-tablets beautifully carved 
in relief. 

Although, as Brugsch notices, " the ancient ground on the 
two shores of the Nile is covered with debris belonging to this 
time," % so great has been the devastation of successive ages, 
that the monuments remaining above ground are very few. 

* Birch, Cat. Eg. Rooms, p. 74, B.M. ; Petrie, Ttn Years' Diggings, p. 145. 
t Dr. Birch, Zeitschrift, 1871. t Hist. cl'Eg., p. 84. 


Aii ancient part of the vast temples of Karnak, the celebrated 
obelisk of Usertesen I. at Heliopolis, marking the site of the 
great temple which has utterly perished, another fallen obelisk 
at Begig in the Fayum, and some pyramids, especially the 
brick pyramid of one of the Usertesens at Dashur, with fine 
colossi, more or less broken, from Thebes, Abydos, and San 
(Zoan), are the principal remaining monuments of the grand 
twelfth dynasty, the glories of whose separate reigns are well 
recounted by Brugsch in his history. 

To these Prof. Petrie has now added the extremely valuable 
discovery of domestic buildings and other remains at Kahun in 
the Fayum (see Ten Years' Diggings in Egypt and Kahun, 
Ulahun, etc.). 

We will now turn to the religion of Egypt. We will try to 

draw near this great and mysterious subject with a fair and 

earnest mind, and with that deep fellow-feeling due to the 

faith in which the generations of the highest of primeval 

nations lived and died, and trusted to live for evermore. 

For they were the very contrary of fastidious sceptics, and 

however remote, unimaginable, grotesque and despicable may 

be the details of their religious life, it was at least earnest ; 

it swayed the whole being under the sceptre of the world to 

come, and we shall find them, amidst the absurdities of their 

own " many inventions," holding some of the supreme truths 

of revelation, truths that strike like beams from heaven across 

the lonely spaces, and on the fantastic imagery of their painted 

tombs : — 

" At which high spirits of old would start, 

Even in their pagan sleep." 
" Such thoughts, the wreck of paradise, 
Through many a dreary age, 
Upbore whate'er of good and wise 
Yet lived in bard or sage." * 

* Christian Year, Fourth Sunday after Trinity, 


The results of our inquiry into the religions of Chaldaea 
will suggest the question : " Is the Egyptian religious system 
homogeneous and consistent, or compound and incongruous ? 
If the latter, can we disentangle the various elements which 
were woven into it ? " I think a partial answer to such 
reasonable questions is attainable ; but better results may be 
expected from the labours of M. Naville in collating the texts 
of the great Ritual, or Book of the Dead* 

We have seen in studying the religions of Babylonia that 
the ideas of the Akkadians attributed a living spirit (Zi) to 
the elements and objects of nature, and that thus a very 
ancient cultus arose of invocations and deprecations of these 
potent spirits. Now M. Lenormant expressly asserts that 
these elemental spirits were utterly unknown to the Egyp- 
tians, although that profound and subtle race were devoted 
to the study and practice of magic, using spells, exorcisms, 
magical amulets, and an endless apparatus of the "curious 
arts." | 

This is a most important contrast, and would lead to the 
conclusion that the pristine Turanian religion of Chaldrea, in 
respect at least of the worship of elemental spirits, had not 
formed any portion of the complicated system which grew up 
in Egypt. This is the more remarkable, since the barbarous 
African tribes of the present day seem generally given over 
to a devouring dread of elemental spirits.^ It is, I think, to 
be doubted whether, as some have supposed, the substratum of 
the old Egyptian faith was derived in any appreciable degree 
from Nigritic sources. 

* A new translation of the Ritual by Sir P. Le Page Renouf is in preparation. 

t La Magie, p. 97. Vet Mariette-Bey mentions Ren, "one of the spirits of the 
earth," whose bronze figure, represented as adoring the Sun, is in the Museum of 
Boulak. He does not give the date. Princip. Monuments, etc., p. 124 ; and see 
Pierret, Diet, a" Arch. Eg. p. 235, " Genies." 

X See (for example) Rowley, Bel. of Africans, p. 55. 

S 6517. K 


The magical usages of the Egyptians arose, says M. 
Lenormant, from the corruption of a higher religion and 
more pure in its tendencies than the naturalistic system of 

It was a theurgic system, intended to invoke or even 
compel divine assistance, in however unworthy and super- 
stitious a manner. This distinction is, I believe, as well- 
founded as it is important. 

Setting aside, then, the notion that Egypt derived its 
oldest germs of religion from any such imagination of ele- 
mental spirits, we come to the great question whether the 
belief of the One God was the real fountain of faith. 

The ever marvellous Prisse Papyrus has been commented on 
in an excellent spirit by Prof. Osgood in the Bibliotheca Sacra 
of 1888 under the head of " The Oldest Boole in the World; 
Society, Ethics, Religion, in Egypt before 2000 B.C." In thus 
explaining the value of the fragment of Kakimna, and the 
Avisdom of Ptah-hotep, as translated by M. Yirey (see also 
Records, New Series, Yol. III.), Dr. Osgood most righteously 
repudiates the notion that independently of God's revelation 
men have beaten out their true religion on their own anvil 
jiroprio Marte. " All a priori theories of development are frail 
craft," he writes, " among the reefs of hard facts, and, to avoid 
shipwreck, the study of the monuments of Egypt and Chaldeea 
is now an indispensable requisite for those who would instruct 
others about the development of religious thought and morality 
among men." 

Well may some theorists remind themselves in St. James's 
words that : " Every good gift and every perfect gift is from 
above, and cometh down from the Father of lights." 

After summing up the religious principles of the princely 
sage of the fifth dynasty, Prof. Osgood pronounces his verdict : 
"All this is as far removed from a ' nature god ' as it is from 


pantheism," although he cannot attribute to him " monotheism 
in our understanding of the term." 

Still, that such "sweetness and light" originated in a 
primal fountain of God's revealed truth, and a fundamental 
faith in One God, is as much to be believed as that " they 
sought out many inventions," Eccl. 7. 29 (Vulg., "ipse se 
infinitis miscuerit qucestionilnis") 

That this was indeed the case is strongly affirmed by 
writers who have deeply studied the subject. 

" The fundamental doctrine was the unity of the Deity, 
but this unity was not represented ; and he was known by a 
sentence, or an idea, being, as Jamblichus says, ' worshipped in 
silence.' But the attributes of this being were represented 
under positive forms ; and hence arose a multiplicity of gods 
that engendered idolatry, and caused a total misconception of 
the real nature of the deity, in the minds of all who were not 
admitted to a knowledge of the truth through the mysteries." 
So writes Sir Gardner Wilkinson ; * and to the same effect 
M. Lenormant.f M. Pierret expresses himself with remark- 
able precision : " that which is out of doubt, that which to 
every one is clearly disclosed by the texts, is the belief in 
one only God. The polytheism which the monuments seem 
to argue is only apparent ; the numberless gods of the pan- 
theon are only the disguise of the one being in his different 
characters (rflfes)."J And M. Maspero declares: "AH the 
divine types interpenetrated and absorbed themselves in the 
supreme God. Their division, pursued even ad infinitum, in 
no way broke the primitive unity of the divine substance : 
they might multiply at will the names and the forms of God ; 
they never multiplied God." § 

* Anc. Fr/., Vol. I., p. 327. iAnc. Hist., Vol. I., p. 318 ; La Magie, p. 71. 

% Diet. d'Arch. Eg., " Religion." § Hist. Anc, p. 29. 

K 2 


Some of the most ancient texts on this topic have been 
treated by M. Robiou in his interesting lecture on the transi- 
tion from monotheism to polytheism ; * and the great theme 
has been eloquently expounded by the late M. l'Abbe Ancessi.j 

I need not linger on this point. But next emerges a 
question not less significant. Was the one " self -existent 
God, -who had no second," such as we find Him in Holy 
Scripture, a true Creator of all ? or was the complex of all 
the visible manifestations of his power regarded as a part, 
or identical extension, of his own being ; the god of the 
pantheist ? 

The solution may be easily confused by a regard to the 
innumerable derivative gods, triads, and couples ; but these 
must all be excluded from the true line of inquiry, as not 
creatures (although the terms used in Egyptian texts may 
appear literally to bear the sense), but manifestations, as 
above explained. When, however, we come to the creation 
properly so called, the aspect of things is very different. Let 
us hear M. Maspero.J After speaking (as above cited) on 
the real unity of the godhead, he continues :— " His action, 
reaching over the primordial chaos, reduced it to order without 
effort. He says to the sun, ' Come to me/ and the sun, coming 
to him, began to shine. At his command Shu, the luminous, 
levels the land, and divides the waters into two distinct masses. 
The one, spread on the surface of the ground, gave birth to 
rivers and ocean ; the other, hung in the air, formed the vault 
of heaven, the ' waters on high,' on which the stars and the 
gods, swayed by an eternal current, behold themselves floating. 
But in establishing the laws which regulate the harmony of 
the world, the Ordainer of all things had, by that very work, 
excited against himself the maleficent forces of nature." 

* Croyances de VEg.; Paris, Vieweg., 1870. 
t Job et VEgypte; Paris, Leroux, 1877. X Hist. Anc. p. 29. 


Then arose the protracted struggle between the Creator and 
the " sons of rebellion " under their chief, the long twisting- 
serpent Apap. 

This account of the Egyptian cosmogony will, I think, 
sustain the opinion that the works of God were viewed as 
proper creations, having an existence given to them separate 
from their Maker ; although ever dependent on his supporting 

Indeed the last passage stirs up the quite contrary doubt : 
" Have we here a system of original dualism „« an independent 
eternal creator and master of evil, parallel with the eternal 
Creator and lord of good ? " 

This must, I believe, be answered in the negative. There 
can be no reasonable doubt that the great serpent Apap was 
viewed as one of the works of God. 

The retractation of M. Mariette, published in 1872,* in 
which he intimates that the true view is not that of Jam- 
blichus, but that of Eusebius, is, I am aware, quite contra- 
dictory to the views here cited, and would lead to the 
conclusion that the Egyptians acknowledged that "the uni- 
verse is God, formed of many gods who compose his parts." 
But the Ptolemaic temples of Dendera and Edfou, to which 
M. Mariette refers, set forth a late and debased form of the- 
osophy. The terms implying self-existence and unique deity 
applied to Ammon at Thebes, Ptah at Memphis, and the like, 
are explained to us when we regard them as expressing in 
various manifestations the being of the One God ; and we 
adhere after all to the exposition of Jamblichus, and the 
original views of Mariette. 

But we need to attend to the caution of Prof. Erman : 
" The Egyptian religion seemed intelligibly and systematically 

* Itimraire, p. 54. 


rounded off when each god was held to be the incarna- 
tion of some power of nature. Now we comprehend that 
we had better reserve our verdict on the matter until we 
know the facts and the history of the religion ; and how 
far we are from knowing them is proved to us by every 
text." (E.E.F. Arch. Rep., 1894-5, p. 48.) 

It seems to my mind that " henotheism " presupposes an 
original basis of revelation as monotheism. Most likely 
St. Paul knew from earthly and heavenly instruction all that 
need be known when he wrote the first part of his letter to 
the Romans, in which he deals in so assured a spirit with 
the early history of idolatry. 

Although the fresh fountain-head of Egyptian faith may 
have been never so pure, long before the time when Abram 
went down to sojourn and found himself at Zoan, and per- 
haps at Memphis, the city of Ptah the great Creator and 
Father-god, the system of religion had become in many ways 
as complicated and corrupt as that which he had left behind 
by the great river in the plain of Shinar. 

The local worship of the different characters and phases 
of the godhead, as tutelaries of the various nomes, had 
ripened into the strange system of separate and almost rival 

The gods stood wrought in stone, or painted on the walls, 
quaint and monstrous, with their symbolic beast and bird, 
frog and serpent-heads, and weird equipments. Worse than 
this, the degrading worship of the pampered brute (which, 
we happily know, was not older than a king of the second 
dynasty, and may have been adopted from some Xigritic 
tribes), and the divine honours paid to the living or departed 
Pharaoh, with multiplied worshipping and serving of the 
creature more than the Creator, had fearfully blocked up 
the way of access to the living and true God. 


If, as we have before explained, the sidereal pantheon had 
been fully developed in Chaldsea, no less in Egypt was the 
elaborate system of solar worship exalted to its full lordship. Sun-gods. 
Tum, the nocturnal sun, giving himself fresh birth as Har- 
em-khu (symbolised by the sphinx), and culminating in his 
course as Ra, may well have recalled to Abram's mind the 
Xindar, the Duzi, the Tutu, of his native skies. 

Memphis was, however, devoted to the supreme worship of 
Ptah the creator. An (Heliopolis) was the grand seat of the 
sun-god, whose priest in a later age gave his daughter in 
marriage to Joseph. 

There was one god who had the distinguished honour 
of being venerated with peculiar affection throughout the 
whole land, and whose name was the golden key to the most 
hallowed recesses of the Egyptian heart. This was Osiris, 
kindred to the gracious helper of mortals Asari-mulu-dugga of 
the Akkadians, and to Marduk of Babylon, mediator and 
raiser of the dead. 

" The peculiar character of Osiris," writes Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson,* " his coming upon earth for the benefit of man- 
kind, 'with the titles of manifester of good and truth,' his 
being put to death by the malice of the evil one ; his burial 
and resurrection, and his becoming the judge of the dead, are 
the most interesting features of the Egyptian religion. This 
was the great mystery ; and this myth and his worship were of 
the earliest times, and universal in Egypt. He was to every 
Egyptian the great judge of the dead ; and it is evident that 
Moses abstained from making any very pointed allusion to the 
future state of man, because it would have recalled the well- 
known judge of the dead, and all the funeral ceremonies of 
Egypt, and have brought back the thoughts of the 'mixed 

* Anc. Eg., Vol. I., p. 331. 


multitude,' and of all whose minds were not entirely uncon- 
taminated by Egyptian habits, to the very superstitions from 
which it was his object to purify them." 

Osiris was from the first the local god of Thinis and 
Abydos. The spot where his body (dismembered of his 
limbs) was buried became the centre of such an immense 
stratified mass of sepulture as that which still marks the 
site of ancient Erech. The Kom-es-sultan is a tumulus of 
the most rare interest, which has been partly examined, but 
still awaits more perfect exploration.* M. de Rouge has 
noticed the promise of resurrection implied in the title of a 
pyramid of the fifth dynasty, which means "the soul arises, 
or appears." The force of the word ba (soul) will be ex- 
plained hereafter. It is interesting also to find that the tomb 
(pyramid) of Pepi's queen, of the sixth dynasty, bore the name 
of Men-ankh, abode of life ; and at the same time the sar- 
cophagus is designated the "coffer of the living." f "The 
true sanctuaries of Egypt," says Pressense, " are its tombs." 

It appears to me that common sense refuses to believe the 
theory which would derive these mysteries of human destiny, 
united essentially with the name, and work, and even the 
person of Osiris, from any observation of the phenomena 
of the mere visible luminary. How could the immortality 
of man, and the resurrection of the flesh, and judgment of 
the dead, and retribution for the deeds done in the body, 
have been learned from the most intense and superstitious 
contemplation of the sinking, the rising, the blazing sun ? 
Thus very reasonably argues M. Ancessi.J The idea could 
not arise from the natural imagery, but might well clothe 
itself in such investiture, if previously revealed to mankind. 

* See Mariette, Itineraire, p. 147, Alexandria, 1372 ; and the excellent descrip- 
tion of Miss Amelia B. Edwards, A Tlwusand Miles on the Nile, 1876. 

t De Rouge, it'.r prem. Dyn., pp. 81, 131, 136. 1 Job et UEgypte, p. 113. 


In the times of the twelfth dynasty, the weird and mon- 
strous forms which cover the chamber-walls of royal sepulchres 
of the later empire had not yet taken possession. The scenery 
of the subterranean chamber was still that of " the warm 
precincts of the cheerful day," and the tombs of Beni-hassan 
have the same character as those of Gizeh, where the homely 
and out-of-door doings of the fourth dynasty are so "lively 
set forth." 

Nevertheless the coffins of the eleventh dynasty are covered 
with wings,* symbolizing the protecting care of Isis over the 
Osiris within ; for the mystic identification of the deceased 
with the beneficent god was already established even in the 
time of Men-ka-ra (Mycerinus), whose cedar coffin in the 
British Museum contains a touching apostrophe to him in 
that character.! "Before the time of Menkaura," says Dr. 
Birch, "the god Anubis is mentioned in the tomb as the 
special deity of the dead, to the exclusion of Osiris ; but 
the coffin of Menkaura marks a new religious development 
in the annals of Egypt." 

The custom of preserving the body as a mummy, the abun- 
dant use of amulets, the identification of the deceased with 
Osiris, the deposit of portions of the ritual, and engraving them 
on the stone sarcophagus which contained the coffin, the con- 
tinual offerings of food to the dead, and recital of prayers for 
their happiness, were all long established. 

There was a strange intermixture of revealed truths and Mono- 

° theistic 

wanderings of the imagination. " We have abundant notices basis. 
on the monuments of that (twelfth) dynasty,"! writes the late 
Canon Cook, " which agree with the intimations of Genesis ; 
proving, on the one hand, that the forms of worship were purely 
Egyptian ; and, on the other hand, that the fundamental 

* Mariette, Princ. Monum. p. 37. t Birch, Hist. Eg., p. 4j. 

% Speakers Comm., Vol. I., p. 450. 


principles which underlie those forms, and which belong, as we 
may not doubt, to the primeval religion of humanity, were still 
distinctly recognised, although they were blended with specu- 
lation and superstitious errors: they -were moreover associated 
with a system which, on many essential points, inculcated a 
sound, and even delicate, morality." And in a note the same 
learned author adds : " The earliest known text of the seven- 
teenth chapter of the Ritual belongs to the eleventh dynasty. 
It undoubtedly indicates the previous existence of a pure mono- 
theism,* of which it retains the great principles, the unity, 
eternity, and self-existence of the unknown Deity. Each age 
witnessed some corruption and amplification of the ancient 
religion, and corresponding interpolations of the old texts. The 
very earliest has several glosses, and the text taken apart from 
them approaches very nearly to the truth as revealed in the 
Bible." M. Lefebure gives a curious specimen of development. 
He mentions f a theory " that the heavenly soul, or Ba, returned 
every evening to its earthly body, or Osiris, and that in like 
manner the soul of the deceased, rising to heaven with the 
luminary, left and rejoined its body alternately. This doctrine 
appears not very distinctly till after the expulsion of the Shep- 
herds, but on the sarcophagi, and not in the compositions, 
generally earlier, of the Book of the Dead, where it scarcely 
enters." In this interesting essay M. Lefebure has traced the 
advance of fabulous invention in a very instructive way : "First 
of all the deceased, thanks to the efficacy of the ceremonies ful- 
filled by him or on his behalf, of the sacred texts which he 
possesses, and of the judgment which makes him ' veridicive^ 
revives, resumes his organs, and, become immortal, enjoys the 
blessedness of the nether world, where he constructs himself a 
dwelling. But Hades, the abode of the manes in all the 

* See also Mahaffy, Prolegomena to Anc. Hist., 262. 
t Melanges Eg., Vol. II., p. 237. 


primitive mythologies, was also the desolate realm of darkness ; 
and so they end by bringing back the dead on the earth, there 
to begin afresh their daily life with more liberty and power, and 
even with the faculty of taking all possible forms." And more 
strange speculation follows, of a later date. 

A very interesting account of a sepulchral stele of the eleventh 
dynasty, commemorating the artist Iritisen, has been given to 
the Society of Biblical Archaeology by M. Maspero. It is well 
worthy of study as bearing on the view of the subject under con- 
sideration, which was entertained before the time of Abraham.* 

It is exceedingly interesting to notice the keen appreciation 
by the Egyptians of the complex nature of man. The body 

(kha, ^ ))t was animated by the soul (#«)> n °t immediately, 
but through the intervention of the breath of life (nef, £^ I ) 5 
the soul (la) was itself the habitation or vehicle of the spirit 
(Mu, the luminous, '^ ? ^}), a word especially applied to the 
disembodied spirit. It was the soul (ba 'fe*) which was 
brought to judgment for the deeds done in the body, and was 
symbolised by the heart, taken from the body and weighed iti 
the balance in the Hall of Truth, in the presence of Osiris the 
judge. The soul is that part which, inclining towards the 
fleshy nature, is the feeble and needy portion of man, which 
the nobler and divine spirit (Jehu) protects and raises. It 
is the spirit which speaks the pleading word throughout the 
awful transactions beyond the tomb.t 

In view of these things the words rise unbidden to our 
memory : " Keep thy heart above all keeping, for out of it 
are the issues of life."§ These matters, and the lea and its 

* Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. V., p. 555. 

t It is a curious thing that in Akkadian klia means a fish, and Jehu a bird. Com- 
pare the hieroglyphic expressions. 

% See M. Pierret's monograph, Le Dogme de la Resurrection, etc. Paris, Franck. 
§ Prov. 4. 23. 


relation to the man, are explained from Egyptian sources by the 
author of the most exhaustive German History of Egypt, Prof. 
Wiedemann, in a small illustrated volume on The Ancient 
Egyptian Doctrine of Immortality (Grevel, 1895). There was 
also a most interesting discussion on the subject at the Congres 
Provincial des Orientalistes at Lyon. Compte Rendu de la 
3me. Session, Lyon, 1880, 252, &c. 

We must notice that the ever-recurring expression, "the 
Osiris (such an one) justified" as usually translated does not, 
according to M. Pierret, correspond with the true meaning of 
the phrase, which was originally applied to Osiris himself, and 
should be rendered " truth-teller " (veridique). "The Egyptians 
had an especial worship for the truth, which they considered as 
a manifestation of God. Ma-lzherou ^~^ expresses truth of 
speech; it is a sacred privilege given by Thoth to Osiris.* The 
deceased, assimilated to Osiris, is equally gifted with this 
faculty ; he is ma-Wierou, truth-teller, he utters the truth."f 

The record written by Thoth as the result of the judgment 
is another matter. 

We have seen that Abram in Chaldaea must have been 
familiar with the belief of the resurrection of the body, and 
that he found it the great dominant faith in Egypt. Is it then 
unlikely, apart from the words of Scripture, that he should 
have accounted that God was able to raise (Isaac) up even 
from the dead ? J And can we reasonably believe that the 
old fathers looked only for transitory promises ? 

It is laid down for Jewish youth in Religion, Natural and 
Revealed, by N. S. Joseph, 1880, that "the absence from the 
Pentateuch of direct teaching as to the future life is freely ad- 
mitted, but it is argued from such passages as Gen. 5. 24, 
15. 15, 49. 29, 33, Lev. 20. 3, that Moses assumed the belief 
as a postulate." 

* Ritual, c. xviii. + Diet. d'Arch. Eg., p. 316. t Heb. 11. 19. 


But there must be care used in discriminating between the 
Egyptian belief and Christian doctrine. I gladly quote the 
wise and enlightened words of our beloved and lamented 
Prof. E. H. Palmer : — " To embalm a body is to set one's self up 
in direct opposition to the laws of God and nature ; and the 
superstitious adjuncts of an Egyptian entombment shew how 
easily the practice led to idolatrous observances. In this, as in 
every other instance, the law of God, as enunciated in His 
Word, indicates the right coarse to be pursued. The sentence, 
'Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return,' is strictly 
conformable to nature, and points conclusively to interment as 
the proper method of disposing of the dead. To allow the 
gradual dissolution to proceed, without either violently retard- 
ing or hastening the progress of decay, is manifestly more in 
accordance with the sanctity of the human body as the temple 
of the Holy Spirit than to subject it to the indignities of incre- 
mation or embalming." {Hist of the Jewish Nation, 1874, p. 8.) 

However elaborately the body of the departed was preserved 
from its appointed lot by antiseptics and precious spices, this 
very piety was the measure of a shrinking faith in the power of 
God and His " desire toward the work of His own hands" ; and 
at the same time certified the ignorance in those subtle and 
religious minds of the great distinction, " it is sown an animal 
body,* it is raised a spiritual body." They supposed that the 
first animal body must be reconstructed, and its heart restored 
to its place to beat again, " not knowing the Scriptures, nor the 
power of God." 

It is also to be remarked that the Egyptians did not look 
for a general and simultaneous resurrection of the righteous, 
nor for any resurrection of the wicked. It would be private 
and individual in each man's separate history, the judgment pre- 

* crw/aa \pv\tKoy. 


vious to the resurrection ; and that a gradual revival, beginning 
almost from the hour of death, which itself was not perfect and 
absolute, but left a lingering germ which, duly cherished, should 
spring up into future life and perfection. "The hymns and 
funereal prayers do not even name death, but only the second 
life," says M. Chabas.* "The idea of death is veiled in the 
Egyptian doctrine under different images, such as ' the arrival 
in port ' ; 'the happy west ' ; ' the good sepulture,' " etc. 

Surely these sublime beliefs, on which the Egyptians staked 
their lives and spent their substance, this denial of death and 
strong yearning after an entire immortality of body, soul, and 
spirit, may well remind us of our Lord's argument from the 
words of Jehovah to Moses : " I am the God of Abraham, and 
the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. He is not the God of 
the dead, but of the living ; for all live unto Him." Even the 
Egyptians to this extent, and so partially, " knew the power of 
God," although only from the primal revelation. 

We have now given a sketch of the splendid era of the 
twelfth dynasty, as the groundwork of our estimate of the 
Egypt which formed the western wing of the great world in 
Abraham's time. This illustrious dynasty terminates with a 
queen, and a period of obscurity. Short reigns, and probably 
internal trouble, characterize the thirteenth dynasty, of which, 
however, the earlier sovereigns were in possession of both 
kingdoms, and many erected their monuments in the Delta, 
even in Zoan itself.f We must refer the student for detailed 
information to the pages of Maspero or Petrie, and hasten to 
the still more troubled times of the mysterious " Shepherd 
kings," only premising that the distinguished historian Brugsch 
has proved that at least the kings of the thirteenth dynasty, 
down to the twenty-fourth monarch, Sebek-hotep V., who 

* Etudes, p. 331. Second Edition. t Brugsch, Hist. d'Eg., p. 115. 


erected his statue in the Delta, and probably much later, must 
have maintained the sovereignty of Lower Egypt ; and that 
the Hyksos domination consequently cannot have begun till 
towards the end of the thirteenth dynasty, or indeed, as Mariette 
says, after the fourteenth dynasty (Cat. of Alydos). Indeed, 
Zoan is said to have been one of the favourite residences of the 
sovereigns* of the thirteenth dynasty. 

The centre of power was displaced from Thebes to the 
Delta, and this may in itself afford an indication that danger 
was perceived in that quarter. Another portent of harm was 
the abandonment of the important mining stations of Sinaitic 
Arabia. Thus decayed the power of the thirteenth dynasty : 
"As it shrinks," writes Dr. Birch, "the Shasu, and their kings, 
the ever renowned Hykshos of Manetho, come forward."! 

* Maspero, Hist. Anc, p. 129. t Rede Lecture, p. 23. 

( 160 ) 



"VTOTTVTTHSTANDING the great ability with which Canon 
-^ Cook has advocated the opinion that Abraham was in 
Egypt under the twelfth dynasty, a large number of Egypt- 
ologists place his sojourn there during the dominion of the 
Hyksos. It is, therefore, very necessary to give the most 
careful attention to the data which at present enable ns in some 
sort to estimate the character of these conquerors, and the effect 
of their rule in modifying the condition of the country and 
people as we have described it. 

The approximate dates assigned to the beginning of the 
Hyksos domination by some chief authorities are these : Lepsius 
(quoted by Chabas), B.C. 2101;* Mariette, 2214 ;f Brugsch, 
2200 ;t Naville, cir. 2200 ; § R. S. Poole, cir. 2081 ;|| Lenor- 
mant, 2214 ;% Lauth, 2185.** Now since all the ordinary 
systems of Biblical Chronology make Abram's entrance into 
Canaan occur between B.C. 2078 (Hales) and B.C. 1921 (Ussher) 
we must surely be right, without attempting to dogmatize in so 
difficult a matter, in the course we are pursuing by proceeding 
to give a view of the Egypt of the Shepherd kings. 

According to Manetho (Josephus, c. Apion, I. 14) Salatis 
was the foreign conqueror who invaded and ruled the Delta of 
the Nile. But this is rather a title than a proper name, a title 
which was borne by Joseph, Shallit, foijty (Gen. 46. 6). 

Next to this conqueror came Bnon (i3»av), which certainly 
looks like a Canaanitish or Hebrew name, and may well mean 

* Etudes, etc., p. 14. t Itin., p. 44. J Hist. d'Eg., p. 180. 

§ La lift, de VAnc. Eg., p. 8. || Smith, B. Die. E*ypt. 

% Anc. Hist., Vol. I., p. 197. ** Aeg. Chron., p. 129. 1877. 


son of strength or wealth (pX p). The third bore the name 
Pakhnan (na^av), which Lauth thinks involves the name 
Pa-kanana, a guess which, to my mind, is not unlikely. " But 
compare the Abehnas of the Turin Papyrus," says Prof. Sayce. 

Now if this king were a son of Kanaan, we have not only 
the name in its larger import, but specifically the Pa-kanana of 
Seti I., which we believe to be the present Khurbet Kan'an very 
near Hebron, and he may have been one of the southern 
Hittites or Amorites, or (like the later Hyksos king Khiyan) 
an eminent leader of the north of Syria, where we now find a 
Tell Kunana on the Afrin towards the lake of Antioch. If this 
be right, it is not the only instance of an Egyptian called 
Kanana, for in the British Museum is a heart of green basalt, 
which did duty, with an inscription on it from the Ritual, for 
the heart of a deceased " person named Kanana," as the late 
Dr. Birch says {Guide to Egyptian Rooms, 1874, p. 78). 

These things help towards the conclusion of Prof. Maspero 
(Struggle of the Nations, 57) : " The most adventurous among 
them (the Hittites), reinforced by the Canaanites and other 
tribes who had joined them on their southward course " were 
the foreigners, whom Manetho calls Phoenicians, who established 
the Hyksos domination in Egypt. With this also agrees the 
consonance of the name Khiyan with the name Khayanu, borne 
by two princes of North Syria in the later days of Assurnazirpal 
and Shalmaneser II., if Khiyan were one of the Hyksos, as 
Naville believes, and also Maspero (Bubastis, 27 ; The Struggle, 
etc., 60). The throne-name of Khiyan is on the breast of the 
Baghdad lion. While I was drawing this sphinx I noticed to 
Dr. Birch that it had originally been sculptured like those of 
San, with a royal human face, but that the face had been 
marred and " roughed " into that of a lion. It has always, I 
believe, been taken as a lion, and not a royal sphinx, but 
Naville considers it as undoubtedly an original monument of 

S 6517. L 


Khiyan. Here we should have had that king's face, which is 
destroyed, and unhappily the upper part of the statue of 
Bubastis has not yet been found. 

The special subject of the Hyksos has been studied carefully 
by the late M. Chabas (Les Pasteurs), by Dr. Stern (Deutsche 
Revue, Oct. 1882, 75, etc.), and by Dr. de Cara (Gli Hyksos, 
&c), besides occupying much attention in the course of larger 
histories of Egypt. I may refer also to a paper on the subject 
by myself in the Trans, of the Anthrop. Institute, 1889. 

There is a very strange interest in the study to which we 
now apply our minds. If mystery be the atmosphere of Egypt 
in general, it is most of all characteristic of the Delta. If her 
history is a series of enigmas, the reconstruction of the Hyksos 
period is the most puzzling task of all. 

The best picture we can produce must be tessellated with 
fragments from the most various sources. We have already 
brought many together, and arranged them in a rough outline. 
We have seen the western migration of different races, Turanian, 
Hamitic, Semitic ; have traced the line of their smouldering 
camp-fires from the Persian Gulf to the eastern branches of the 
Nile, the names of their stations, the titles of their gods, the 
records of their conquests, and, last of all, their very presence 
with living tradition on their lips from point to point, along 
their old time-honoured highway. We must now add fresh and 
more lively colours to the mosaic. And our first materials 
must come from "the field of Zoan," from Mazor (2 Kings 
19. 24, Heb.), a name still in use : Masr, to wit (the name of 
Cairo), and Mushra, the stream which still waters the ancient 
plain of Zoan, and on which floated the canoe of the adventur- 
ous MacGregor towards the ruin-heaps,* " lying bare and gaunt, 
in stark silent devastation." 

* Rob Roy on the Jordan, p. 74. 

THE HYKSds. 163 

It is here that the monumental evidence has been discovered, 
chiefly by the exploration of Mariette and the scientific excava- 
tions of Petrie. But let us first notice with Meyer that the red 
crown of Lower Egypt, probably, itself bears witness to the 
foreign and eastern character of the population there, the desert 
and eastern lands being called by the same name, Tesher, that 
is, red. The red crown is in reality a throne, like that which 
represents Isis, and figures in the hieroglyphic name of Osiris. 

The earliest royal name and titles found at San are those of 
Pepi-Merira of the sixth dynasty, whose general Una engaged 
in repeated campaigns against the Herusha, as we have before 
narrated. These titles on a block of stone in the midst of the 
ruins of San would be of singular importance, if, as Brugsch 
has said,* they carry back the date of the city to so remote a 
period. " The sanctuary of the Great Temple," we are told by 
Mariette, f " existed from the sixth dynasty (but Petrie doubts 
the proof from blocks of Pepi, see Tanis, I. 4) ; the kings of 
the twelfth and of the thirteenth dynasties vied with each other 
in adorning it. At this epoch Ptah appears to have been its 
principal god," to whom was dedicated a colossal statue of 
Amenemhat I., of which " the face is well preserved, and recalls 
in its type the Ousertasen I., of Abydos ; the nose is short and 
flattened (epate), the lips are thick, the mouth large and smil- 
ing, the cheeks very full." 

The ethnic types of the Pharaohs of various periods form so 
interesting a study, that I quote the description given by Mariette 
of the statue of Usertesen at Abydos just mentioned : " The 
eyes are large, the nose straight and short, the mouth thick 
(epaisse) and good-natured : . . . . Ousertasen is one of the 
few Egyptian princes who betray in their physiognomy an 
origin indisputably Egyptian." 

* Hist. d'Eg., p. 70. t Princ. 3£ons., p. 272. 



I do not doubt that this is the very type of countenance 
exhibited by the sensible, kindly, and unaffected-looking 
"short-faced gentleman," bearing the royal name of Amen- 
emhat, who sits in the northern vestibule of the British Museum, 
and of whose head we give an illustration. 

At San were found also two colossal statues of Usertesen I., 
and a smaller statue of a princess royal, his daughter Xefer-t. 

Next we come to a splendid colossus erected in the great 
temple, representing Ra-smenkh-ka Mer-mesha, whom Brugsch 
places as the eighteenth Pharaoh of the thirteenth dynasty. 
The fellow statue has been found also. His title Mer-mesha 
designates, in the lists of the nomes, the high-priest of the 
principal temple of Mendes. And here we find the handiwork 
of the Hyksos, who, far from destroying these grand monu- 
ments of the legitimate sovereigns, were content in the Egyptian 
manner to set their mark on them. Thus, on the right shoulder 
of Ra-smenkh-ka's statue Apapi inscribed his own royal legend. 
This is not the only memorial of the thirteenth dynasty at 
San. There is also a statue of a Sebek-hotep, and a mutilated 
stone inscribed during the same period. 

Before proceeding to describe the original sculpture of the 
Hyksos, we will mention one or two further instances of their 
adopting previous monuments. 

Again, a sphinx at San and its companion in the Louvre, 
and other sphinxes in the same museum mentioned by Mariette, 
bear the inscriptions of Hyksos monarchs. 

The sculptures which have been taken as memorials of the 
conquerors are not numerous, but they possess in every point of 
view a special power of attraction, and are so precious that 
each deserves to be described : — 

I. A pair of statues on a common base, utterly unlike 
anything Egyptian. Two men standing side by side, in a 
very unheroic attitude, behind two tables of offerings which 


are entirely covered above, in front, and on each side with the 
spoils of the watery wastes. On the flat top are large fish ; a 
similar fish hangs in front. Beneath the fish a close mat of 
parallel depending lotus-stems, with unblown buds, and the 
lovely sculpturesque flowers gracefully disposed in successive 
rows. On each side hang four pairs of the large venerated geese 
of the Nile, the most esteemed of sacrifices. These quaint poten- 
tates rather resemble fishmongers in their bearing than con- 
querors : scantily clad in short kilts of linen, the familiar 
Egyptian shenti, their arms, adorned with plain bracelets, rest- 
ing on the tables, the outspread hands supporting the fish ; 
their heads burdened by the most enormous weight of hair, 
divided by the shoulders and falling in four great rope-like 
tresses over the breast, and in still longer twists down the back. 
Long beards they wear in curly rows, having much the appear- 
ance of the ring-mail hauberks of old crusaders, but with 
shaven upper lips. The visage, sooth to say, is singularly 
plebeian, and as unlike as possible in its type to the pleasant 
ingenuous look of the earliest European-like Egyptians of the 
pyramid-age, or the stately calmness, or the attractive kindli- 
ness, of the courtly twelfth dynasty. The noses are pitifully 
marred ; the cheek bones are high and prominent, the upper 
lips long and drawn downwards, the mouth sad, heavy, and 
anxious, the lower lip projecting beyond the chin, which is 
poor and ignoble, the eyes small, but not near together : the 
whole aspect severe, but not without a sorrowful earnestness 
and force. 

It is affirmed by Mariette that the same race still in- 
habit the country.* "There is not a traveller but is struck 
with the foreign type which characterizes the populace of the 
villages scattered through all the north-east part of the Delta, 
and especially in the borders of the Lake Menzaleh. The 

* Rev. Arch., p. 106, 1861. 


Egyptian fellah (peasant) is tall, slim, light in his step ; he 
has well-opened and lively eyes, short and straight nose, month 
well formed and smiling : the mark of their race among this 
people is above all in the ampleness of the trunk, the leanness 
of the legs, and the slight development of the hips. The in- 
habitants of San, of Matarieh, of Menzaleh, and the other neigh- 
bouring villages, have quite a different look, and from the first 
meeting in some sort make the observer wonder where he is. 

" They are of tall stature, although thickset ; their back 
is always a little bent, and what is remarkable before all is 
the robust build of their legs. 

"As to the head, it betrays a marked Semitic type, and 
not without surprise one recognises here the faces of the four 
sphinxes which Tanis has yielded from amidst its ruins.* The 
inferences from this fact are self-evident : since these Shepherd- 
kings are still in Egypt, it is because the war undertaken by 
Amosis did not end in the radical expulsion of the conquered. 
The Semites, who for more than five centuries inhabited the 
north of Egypt, finished by becoming dwellers on the shores of 
the Nile ; and an agreement consequent on the peace doubtless 
permitted the bulk of the population to abide in the places 
they occupied." Prof. Maspero, however, ascribes these twin 
figures to the late Tanite dynasty, xxi. 

II. Extremely similar to these figures is the invaluable 
fragment (described and figured by M. Lenormant) preserved 
in the Yilla Ludovisi at Rome.f Although the face is injured, 
this is otherwise well enough preserved to give a perfect view 
of the singular head-gear. 

Apart from the monstrous wig, we have a still more quaint 
resemblance to an early crusader's effigy in the regular curved 

* See on this question Wilkinson, 3Iodern Egypt, Egypt and Thebes, Vol. I., 
p. 4fi9 ; Bidletin de Vlnstitut Egyptien, No. 3, pp. 36, 37, 41, 42. 

+ Frammento di Statna di uno dei Pastori di Egitto. Roma, Salviucci, 1877. 


rows of the curly beard, and the hair closely brought down over 
the forehead in similar rows. But on the upper and lower lip 
the mouth is shaven quite clean, so as to expose the face in a 
perfectly regular curve, as if it were shewing through the 
opening of a mail-coif. The wig looks as if superinduced on 
the natural hair, and is most elaborately constructed. From 
the middle parting above, four huge twisted locks on each side 
drop down to the breast. Behind on each side four twists fall 
flatly down the back, and in the midst of these a great gather- 
ing of hair is plaited into a long " pig-tail," which descended 
below the side-locks, till its original length is lost in the frac- 
ture of the statue about as low as the bottom of the shoulder 

The photograph does not, I think, give any indication of 
the royal uraeus-ornament having ever been sculptured on the 
front of the head. Perhaps the earlier Hyksos monarchs may 
not have assumed the Egyptian symbol of royalty. 

As to the countenance, it may have been rather more well- 
favoured than those of the twin statues of San. The eyes, 
appear as if larger and better formed, and the mouth less grim ; 
but in the main the resemblance of the heads is very close and 

III. Thirdly, we must consider the upper part of a broken 
colossal statue of a standing king,* found (not in the Delta, 
but) among the ruins of Crocodilopolis, the sacred city of the 
god Sebek in the Fayum. This shews that the Hyksos had at 
least included this garden of Egypt, with the magnificent works 
of the twelfth dynasty, the great lake, the labyrinth and sepul- 
chral pyramids of the Amenemhats, within their conquest ; and, 
as Mariette has remarked, that Memphis must have been theirs, 
as indeed Manetho informs us. But indeed Upper Egypt was 
really theirs, as is shewn by an inscription of Apepi I., Ra-aa- 

* Mariette, Princ. Mons., p. 56. 


user (Fraser, P. S. B. A., June 1893), at Gebelen above Thebes 
(E. E. F. Annual Rep,, 1892-93, p. 18), as also by a Hyksos 
sphinx at El-Kab (P. S. B. A., xv. pp. 496, 499). 

" We remark the general form of the head," says Mariette, 
"the prominent and bony upper cheeks, the thick lips, the 
wavy beard covering the lower part of the cheeks, the whole 
aspect which gives to the physiognomy of the monument a 
character of individuality so decided. The unusual ornaments 
disposed on the breast should also fix our attention. The king 
was clad in panther-skins ; two heads of these animals appear 
on the shoulders." This dress indicates a full compliance with 
Egyptian customs : for it was the robe worn by the Pharaoh 
as sovereign pontiff, and must, one would think, imply initia- 
tion into the mysteries. 

IY. The next group of statuary gives us the uninjured 
contour of the face. Four sphinxes of unique type were un- 
covered at San, one of which is in the Museum at Gizeh. 
These are sculptured with extreme vigour, but quite different in 
style from the usual Egyptian treatment. Instead of the fully 
developed human head royally adorned, the faces are compassed 
by a vast and shaggy mane, rayed round the visage with a 
hairy fringe, from out of which look the stern features, royally 
distinguished by the Egyptian basilisk-crest above the fillet or 
diadem bound across the hard brow, and by the square-cut 
beard below ; both marking, I imagine, a later Hyksos-date 
than the fish-offerers and the Ludovisi head. And what a 
front is this ! as full of gnarled strength, as the great sphinx 
of Gizeh is instinct with superhuman serenity. The brows are 
knit with anxious care, the full but small eyes seem to know 
no kindly light ; the nose, of fine profile curve, yet broad and 
squared in form, has its strongly-chiselled nostrils depressed in 
accordance with the saddened lines of the lower cheek. The 
lips are thick and prominent, but not with the unmeaning 


fulness of the Negro ; quite the opposite. The curve is fine, 
the " Cupid's bow " perfect which defines so boldly the upper 
outline : the channelled and curved upper lip has even an 
expression of proud sensitiveness, and there is more of sorrow 
than of fierceness in the down-drawn angles of the mouth. 

" To look at these strange forms," writes Mariette, " one 
divines that we have under our eyes the products of an art 
which is not purely Egyptian, but which is not exclusively 
foreign either, and one concludes that the sphinxes of Avaris 
(San) may well offer the immense interest of being of the time 
of the Hyksos themselves. See the inscriptions on the right 
shoulders, erased. Sutekh at the head ; then the title of ' the 
beneficent god '; then the illegible cartouches of the king ; and 
the whole recalls so well by the manner in which the inscrip- 
tions are placed, by the length of the lines, by the style of the 
hieroglyphics which remain, the legend of Apophis on the 
colossus of Ra-smenkh-ka, that I do not hesitate to read the 
same legend on the new monuments. According to the Sallier 
papyrus Apophis raised a temple to Sutekh. I doubt not that 
our sphinxes are due to the piety of this king towards the god 
of his nation." 

This appears the more clear since the papyrus seems to 
refer distinctly to an avenue of sphinxes.* " The king Apepi 
(established) feasts and days for sacrificing daily victims to 
Set ; and statues of the king, with fillets (bandeaux, such as 
these sphinxes wear round the head), as is the case with a 
temple having (statues of) Phra-Harmakhis (that is, sphinxes) 
facing one another/' 

" I stand quite astonished," says Dr. Ebers, " before these 
outlandish features, which in their rough earnestness form the 
sharpest contrast to the smiling heads of the Egyptian Colossi." | 

* Chabas, Les Pasteurs, p. 17. See the footnote, 
t j£g. u. die Bucher Hose's, p. 207. 


The inscriptions incised on the right shoulders have been 
taken to be usurpations and not original. It should, however, 
be noticed that in Chaldaean statues of Gudea in the Museum 
of the Louvre, the royal titles are described as "cartouche on 
the right shoulder," and this reminds one of the symbolic 
expression " the government shall be upon His shoulder." (See 
Records, II. series, 92, etc.). 

M. Grolenischeff would persuade us that these sphinxes are 
.portraits of Amenemhat III., and has given us beautiful photo- 
graphs to confirm his opinion (Rec. cle Tr., xv. 131, etc.), but 
on repeated study of his arguments and inspection of his plates, 
I cannot at all agree with Prof. Maspero in accepting his con- 
clusion. On the other hand it is clear to me that, whether 
a Hyksos monarch or not, the sphinx does not represent 
Amenemhat III. I am of the same opinion as my friend Prof. 
Flinders Petrie has expressed in his Hist of Eg. I., 238 ; and 
so is Prof. Sayce, who has carefully inspected the sculpture at 
St. Petersburg. 

I must not neglect to quote the opinion expressed by the 
late venerable Lepsius in a letter to Miss Amelia B. Edwards, 
4 Sept. 1883. " In the Hyksos statues I see no Semitic features, 
but Hamites of the Puua (Phoenicians) of the Erythraean Sea 
(see my Xuoische GrammatiJc), and I place them in the oldest, 
not the latest, Hyksos period." We must remember, of course, 
that M. NavihVs discovery of the two statues of Bubastis was 
several years subsequent, and would come under a later Hyksos 

Y. There is yet another sphinx, at the Louvre, bearing the 
name of Meneptah, but formerly inscribed by Apepi, whose 
name M. Theodule Deveria has succeeded in deciphering on its 

VI. We have seen that Apepi's sphinxes at San, and the 
statue of Crocodilopolis, bear the insignia of Egyptian royalty. 


This is also the case with a very valuable figure at the Louvre, 
thus described by M. Deveria in a letter to Mariette :*"A 
magnificent fragment of a royal statuette of green basalt, 
which bears the character of the race which you have recog- 
nised in the heads of the four sphinxes. The eyes are small 
compared with the Egyptian type ; the nose vigorous and 
arched, but flat (your own expressions) ; the cheeks bony, and 
the muscles of the mouth strongly marked ; the lips thick, 
and the angles (of the mouth) not raised ; the chin, unhappily 
broken, seems to have been projecting. . . . The character 
of the figure is Egyptian ; and the personage bears the uraaus, 
is vested in the schenti (linen garment round the loins) finely 
plaited, and a dagger with hilt in the form of a hawk's head 
is passed through the girdle." M. Deveria adds, that although 
this statuette has no inscription, it evidently belongs to the 
same art as the figures at San. It has the purely Egyptian 
head-dress commonly called Klaft, formed of a striped cloth in 
the manner so ingeniously shewn by Mr. Sharpe to the Society 
of Biblical Archeology.! It has been however supposed by 
Maspero to be of much later (sa'ite) date. 

TIL It remains to notice the small lion of granite from 
Baghdad, which at last happily rests in the North Vestibule 
among the more ancient Egyptian statues in the British 
Museum. It is figured in Pleyte's Religion des Pre-Israe1ites,% 
and noticed by the late Mr. George Smith (by whom it was 
purchased) in his Assyrian Discoveries.^ Its face looks as if 
it had been anciently re-chiselled and diminished in size. May 
it not have been a human face of the same type as the San 
sphinxes, as, I believe, the face of the king whose name is on its 
breast ? The defaced cartouche has, however, now been read by 
Mr. Griffith, and is accepted, as the throne-name of Khiyan, 

* Rev. Arch., p. 257, 1861. t Trans. Soc. Bib, Arch., Vol. IV., p. 243. 

X PL I., fig. 9. § P- 420. 


Suser-en-Ra, and it is, says M. Naville, decidedly an original 
monument of that king, as we have before noticed in these 
pages. Now this would be a very important king, if he were, 
as formerly supposed, the identical monarch from whom a cele- 
brated stele at Bulak, found at San, dates four hundred years 
to some year in the reign of Rameses II.* This would bring 
the Hyksos king in question to about the year B.C. 1750, as 
Brugsch has remarked-! But it is, I believe with M. Naville, 
a monument of Khiyan. 

Lastly, in Bubastis, M. Naville discovered two fine colossal 
heads of statues, of which the lower parts, needful for comple- 
tion, have unhappily never been found. The one represents a 
man of more advanced years than the other, and more perfect 
head, which is now in the British Museum. It is photo- 
graphed in two positions in Naville's Bubastis, and was found, 
like the other, near the remains of a doorway bearing the titles 
of the Apepi of later date. " I believe," wrote M. Naville to 
me, "that both these statues, which were of the same size, 
represented Apepi, and that it was his cartouche which was 
engraved along the leg, and which has been twice erased." 
Photographs of the older face are given by Prof. Petrie in his 
History, vol. I., pp. 239, 240. It may there be compared with 
the sphinxes of San. Prof. Sayce agrees with me that they 
have " the very same cast of features and expression, though 
1 heightened in all their finer attributes and softened by Egyp- 
tian culture,' and that ' this must practically settle the question 
of the Hyksos origin of the older sphinxes and statues.' " " We 
must accordingly return," he concludes, " to the old view, that 
the very remarkable type of head and face presented by the 
Hyksos monuments was that which characterised the monarchs 
whose names are found upon them. Prof. Flower considers the 

* Records oftlie Past, Vol. IV., p. 33. 
+ Hist. d'Eg., p. 171. 


type to be Mongoloid ; Prof. Virchow expresses himself more 
doubtfully. If, as we have seen, its nearest analogue is to be 
sought in Northern Syria and Mesopotamia within the limits of 
the old kingdom of Mitanni, it is among the inhabitants of this 
region of Asia that ethnologists may expect to discover the 
racial origin of the Hyksos conquerors of Egypt " (Races of the 
Bible, p. 97). M. Naville says : " we recognised directly the 
type of the sphinxes of Tanis." .... "I am brought back 
by my excavations to the opinion of Mariette, and I believe 
that the monuments which he assigned to the Hyksos are 
really the work of foreign kings." .... "I consider that 
the group of monuments to which he gave the name of Hyksos 
really belongs to them " (Bubastis, pp. 26, 27). " The shep- 
herd kings employed native artists for making their portraits," 
p. 28. "Quite recently," adds M. Naville, on July 5, 1889, at 
the Victoria Institute (Trans. Vict. Inst.) "in the first hall, not 
very far from the statues, I discovered the first part of his name, 
what is called his standard. As Apepi was a powerful king, 
though he was one of the last Hyksos, and as we know from the 
inscription that he raised important buildings at Bubastis, it is 
probable that it was he who erected the great statues, and that 
the fine head which is now at the British Museum is the 
portrait of Apepi. This interests us particularly, because the 
Byzantine chronographer George the Syncellus relates that 
Apepi was the king in whose reign Joseph rose to the high 
position described in Genesis. According to the Christian 
tradition Apepi was the Pharaoh of Joseph." 

We are not concerned here to adduce the interesting frag- 
ments which afford some tantalising glimpses of the patriotic 
and strenuous conflict that issued in the final expulsion of 
the enemy. It is more to onr purpose to open our eyes 
to everything which may help us to identify their race and 


The name Hyksos, by which they were known to the 
Egyptian priestly historian Manetho, is generally believed to 
be compounded oiShasu* the usual word for the Arab hordes, 
and hyk king ; and may have been a mere nick-name used 
after their expulsion. But the Egyptians call them in their 
records Menti (Syrians), f Sati, the roving Asiatics armed with 
bows ; or by a word of hatred or contempt. Manetho says 
they were of ignoble race, " some say Arabians " ; and also 
uses the term Phoenicians for the earlier monarchs. Africanus 
calls them Phoenicians. It is clear enough from what quarter 
they came. As we have seen, the few sculptures yet discovered 
shew a type, most strongly marked, common to all the royal 
heads. M. Lenormant has suggested more than once that this 
may display a Turanian element : " a race which is not even 
purely Semitic, and must be pretty strongly mixed with those 
Turanian elements which science reveals to-day as having borne 
so large a part in the population of Chalda^a and Babylonia."J 
" The anthropological type of the statues of the Museum of 
Bulak, and of that of the villa Ludovisi, a type which may yet 
be studied alive on the shores of Lake Menzaleh, differs radically 
as much from the Semitic, as from the Egyptian." § The 
learned Professor then proceeds to indicate a similar suppo- 
sition to that above quoted, and adds that his friend and fellow- 
traveller Dr. Hamy proposes to treat the question from an 
ethnological point of view in a forthcoming publication. 

The continuity of the great movement from Chaldrea iden- 
tified with the names of Kudur-Xakkkhunte, Kudur-Mabuk, 
and Kudur-Lagamar (Kedor-la'omer), streaming downwards 
in the Hyksos conquest of Lower Egypt, is also ably ex- 
pounded by M. Maspero in his historyj and will be treated 

* Birch, Brugsch, Maspero, etc. t Brugsch, Hist. d'Eg., p. 155. 

t Les prem. Civ., Vol. I., p. 208. § Frammento cli Statua. etc., p. 13. 

|| Hist, ancienne, etc., p. 173. 

THE HYKSds. 175 

in a future chapter of this work. It is not difficult to 
discern many minor points of support to this theory, and I 
cannot but think that the Turanian element will become more 
apparent on further inquiry. 

M. Lenormant has pointed out a striking similarity to the 
Hyksos heads in a very rude broken statuette of alabaster, found 
by Sir A. H. Layard at Babylon.* It appears to be extremely 
ancient, and bears some inscriptions containing the name of 
the god Nebo ; its beard and hair are arranged in the same 
fashion as those of the Hyksos, with the remarkable difference 
that the long tresses part behind and come forward, leaving 
the back of the head (as Prof. Sayce has kindly ascertained 
for me) with " no pig-tail ; in fact, no hair at all " : a very 
strange variety of fashion, for which I cannot at present 
account : the ancient Babylonians being remarkably fond of 
ample back-hair and strongly -developed "pig-tails," as the 
seal-cylinders will shew. The same ornamental feature ap- 
pears in the representation of the Kheta king at Medinet 
Habu, among the prisoners of Barneses III. He wears a 
long "pig-tail," curled up at the end. 

The curious little statuettes of metal in the British Museum 
bearing the name of Gudea, a very ancient viceroy of Zergulla, 
should be noticed in this connection (see wood-cut, G-. Smith's 
Hist of Babylonia, S.P.C.K., p. 72). They have high cheek- 
bones, gaunt faces, long peaked beards, and wear pointed head- 
dresses ornamented with horns on the sides. Mr. Boscawen 
has described them in an interesting paper read to the Society 
of Biblical Archaeology on the 4th December 1877. Statues 
of Gudea had the royal cartouche on the right shoulder, as we 
have mentioned, like the titles of the sphinxes of San in the 
inscription of Apepi. 

* Rev. Arch., p. 231. 1868. 


fke^iiyktM. ^ e w ^ now ta ^ e * nfco accounfc tne religion of the Hyksds 
as far as our information may lead us, and here we encounter 
their god Sutekh, which was held to be identified with the old 
Egyptian god Set. To this inquiry a great interest is added 
by the fact that this name equally denotes the god (or local 
gods) of the Khati, and that the same object of worship was 
especially adored by the kings of the great nineteenth Egyptian 
dynasty at the time of the Hebrew Exodus. When we say 
" the Egyptian god Set," however, it is right to remember that 
we cannot go back to the origin of the matter ; that the strife 
of Set and Horus may have had some actual historic foundation 
in the rivalry and fusion of two powers symbolized by the red 
and the white crown of Lower and Upper Egypt respectively. 

Whatever may be the truth of Apepi's attempt to force 
Sutekh worship on the Egyptians, it is certain that the Hyksos 
kings, whose memorials we possess, were ready to take Egyptian 
divine titles compounded with the name of Pa, the Sun -god of 
Heliopolis (On). This agrees well enough with the marriage 
of Joseph, prime minister of a Hyksos king, with the daughter 
of Puti-p-ra, priest of On. 

I fear to enter on the great Set-Sutekh question. It seems 
to me that Set, or Sut, is a fire-god, or a god of solar heat. 
One form of his name has a determinative of flame (Meyer, 
Set-Typlwn, p. 2), and his symbolic creature seems to be 
really a gryphon (eagle-headed lion). If, indeed, we look to 
" Turanian " quarters, Mr. R. Brown has some interesting 
remarks on Seth as the name of the Etruscan Hephaistos, and 
similar Turanian words meaning " fire-place," " baker," etc. 
(Pro. Sod. Bib. Arch,, 1888, p. 348). 

We have at present sacred places of Neby Shit in Syria 
and Palestine, and Deir Seta in Northern Syria, near Edlib. 

In the form Setekh, or Sutekh, we have Setekh -bek (equi- 
valent in form and meaning to Ba'al-Bek) in the North Syrian 

THE HYKSdS. 177 

Karnak list No. 155 ; and Sikhi-satakh, in Assyrian annals, 
Records, Vol. 35 (Shalmaneser), as a place (Prof. Sayce tells 
me) in the Kurdish mountains, .east of Euphrates. 

The places in the Karnak list which I have mentioned may 
help us to trace the name to its early haunts, and thus to trace 
the worshippers as well. The G-nostic Sethians in the second 
century made a wild confusion between the patriarch Seth and 
the heathen god (Les Origims, etc., i., p. 219), and thus 
places of Set worship became burying places of Seth. 

The towns whose Sutekhs are invoked to guard the cele- 
brated treaty between Barneses II. and Kheta-sar, form an 
interesting subject of study. I think I have made out most 
of them as belonging to the land of Kheta or Khati, from 
Euphrates to the Taurus and the Phoenician coast-land, with 
Aleppo as about the centre of the group. Elsewhere {Bab. 
and Or. Record) I have something to say on these places. 

Set was the god of the Hyksos, the especial deity of the 
Kheta, and under their influence his worship was revived in 
great splendour by the Pharaohs of the nineteenth dynasty. 

The history of his cultus is both interesting and difficult, 
and has been treated by many authors : of whom we may 
mention the late Yicomte de Rouge, M. Pleyte, and Dr. 
Ed. Meyer in his monograph. 

The worship of Set dated from the very earliest times in 
Egypt as the god of the mixed population of Lower Egypt 
(see Lenormant, Les. Orig., i., p. 218), as Hathor also was 
introduced, and Besq from Arabia. As early as the fifth 
dynasty a temple was dedicated to him at Memphis.* His 
name occurs on the Turin altar-legends of Pepi Merira (sixth 
dynasty)! in a very interesting way as correlated with Osiris, 
and having for his goddess Xephthys, as Osiris had Isis : 

* Meyer, Set- Typhon, p. 47. 

t Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. III., p. 114. 

S 6517. M 


so also " Set in the city of Pa-neham," the place from which 
(as Dr. Haigh has remarked*) Saneham received his name, 
viz., the modern Ben-ha in the Delta. But still earlier, during 
the fourth dynasty, M. de Rouge has found abundant traces of 
Set.j J ^ ^', Baal, is equivalent to \ q <$, Sutekh, and 

P So 5$> ^ efc > anc * ^ ears ^ ie same determinative sign, of which 
we shall have something to say. "If we will compare these 
early documents," writes M. de Rouge, " we shall convince 
ourselves that the comparative study of the form of the 
language of ancient Egypt, the sacred traditions of a neigh- 
bouring people, and the authentication of one and the same 
religion, common from the first to certain peoples of Syria 
and the Delta, all bring us back towards the primitive 
kindred of Mizraim and Canaan, a kindred which various 
traits equally indicate to us as between these two races and 
their Arabian, Libyan, and ^Ethiopian neighbours." 

To these weighty remarks of the late illustrious Egypto- 
logist, we must now add a still further extension of the 
affinity through Syria and Mesopotamia to Chaldoea, and 
probably Elam. But it is very needful to follow him in his 
admirable caution and discrimination : still, the affinities be- 
tween Babylonia and Egypt must now be carried many cen- 
turies farther back than the time covered by M. Oppert in 
his valuable treatise.J 

M. de Rouge considered that Horus and Set typified 
respectively the monarchies of Upper and Lower Egypt, like 
the vulture of the goddess Nekheb, and the uraeus of the 
goddess Uati, or the bended reed and the bee. 

It seems that the sun above the horizon was regarded as 
Horus, but in his nocturnal course as Set ; § thus identified 

* Trans. Vict. Inst., p. 44 ; 1877. t De Rouge, Six prem. Dyn., p. 9, etc. 

t Rapports de VEgypte et de VAssyrie; Paris, 1869. § 'TNJ 


with the power of darkness, the brother and destroyer of 
Osiris, and himself destroyed by Horus the avenger ; the 
rising sun of the morning slaying the destroyer of his 

If Set was the especial type of the kingdom of Lower 
Egypt, and god of the hostile Asiatics, he would naturally 
become identified by the expelled Egyptian refugees and 
patriots of Upper Egypt with everything evil and oppressive ; 
and moral evil would be associated with what we call physical 
evil. This would lead to the hatred and contempt with which 
after the Hyksos had been driven out, their symbol, the un- 
gainly Set-figure, was chiselled from all the monuments. 

The origin and meaning of this figure have been very 
variously explained. In the later times it was represented 
as an ass ; but nothing could be farther from the first mean- 
ing of the solar symbol, which I believe to have been really 
an eagle-headed lion. 

Such forms are familiar both in Babylonian and Egyptian 
sacred art.* Among the relics of Egyptian origin found by 
Sir A. H. Layard at Arban on the Khabour with archaic 
Assyrian sculptures,! is a scarabseus with a hawk-headed lion 
seated in the usual attitude of the Sutekh-animal, with a flying 
hawk above. May not these be J Horus and Set ? The next 
scarabseus figured has the same hawk-headed lion walking, 
with the uraeus before it. Set and Uati, the god and god- 
dess of Lower Egypt (?). Above the former is inscribed ====>, 

which reads " lord of two worlds," the usual title of the kings 
of Upper and Lower Egypt. 

The horns or ears of the Set-monster may be conventional 
representations of rays of light. The same are found on the 
black bird (eagle) which is used as a hieroglyphic in the name 

* See Wilkinson, Anc. Eg., Vol. I., p. 226. t Nin. and Bab., p. 282. 

X See for the Horus, for instance, the relief of Menkahor ; Six prem. I)yn., p. 98. 

M 2 


of the Negroes,* 1^\, and on the gryphon of Ba'al,f which is 
hawk-headed, the same animal, I think, as that sacred to 
Mentu, if not the same god also. They quite agree with 
the head of Set as an eagle's head. This is evidently the 
case in Pleyte's plate x. fig. 17. Moreover, the Set-monster 
is occasionally represented with wings.J On the whole, 1 
think it is an eagle-headed lion in its origin. 

In the Museum of Leyden is a remarkable statuette of Set, 
having a human figure, seated on a throne. § It has the head 
of the monster (the horns broken off), which seems to have 
terminated in a beak, but unfortunately it is much injured. 
A similar statue was at Bulak.|| The Leyden statue is said 
to be at least as old as the beginning of the eighteenth 
dynasty ; but, if so, surely it would be older. 

The date of the Bulak porcelain statue is not given. 

The eagle-headed lion, crested and winged, is identified 
with Mentu the solar war-god on the blade of the beautiful 
axe of Armies, found with the splendid jewels of queen Aah- 
hotep,^ and photographed in Mariette's Album of the Bulak 
Museum. The same gryphon occurs in the "N.TV. palace at 
Nimrud,** and in the bronze ornaments of the throne from 
Niinrud ; and has been found sculptured on a rock in Phce- 
nicia,ft and it figures among the monsters in the tombs of 
Beni Hassan. We have seen that the Set-animal is sometimes 
figured with wings, more often without ; sometimes the animal 
is seated, sometimes crouched like a sphinx ; sometimes only 
the head is joined (in the Egyptian style) to the human body. J J 
But always the head has the two rays, or crest-feathers, or 

* See Meyer, Set-Typhon, p. 7, note; and Pleyte, Belig. des pre-Isra elites, 
p. 108. 

t Bunsen's Egypt, Vol. I., p. 515. X Pleyte, pi. iv. 

§ Pleyte, pi. III., and p. 91. || Mariette, Boidaq, p. 107. 

1 Prbic. 3fons., p. 260. ** Layard, Nin., Vol. II., p. 459. 

tt Renan, Mission de Phenicie, p. 137. XX See below, and the Leyden statuette. 

THE HYKSdS. 18l 

ears, or horns, as in the black eagle-hieroglyphic before 
noticed, which may, perhaps, be assimilated to the high plumes 
of Mentu and Amun-Ra. The head, however, appears to me 
to be originally the eagle of the Assyrian sculptures (always 
crested) as distinguished from the hawk of the Egyptian 
Horus. The human eagle-headed figure may be seen very 
well in a sculpture from Nimrud, chasing a winged sphinx.* 

The origin of the name Set, or Sut, or Sutekh has been fff^ f 
made the subject of conjecture. Letting alone the Egyptian f^ ama 
Set, it has recently struck me that Sutekh may be the epony- 
mous god of the Suti, or Sati, the archer-hordes of the deserts 
of Western Asia, who were the Shasu of the Egyptians and 
gave the familiar name to the Hyksos. This guess I venture to 
throw out for inquiry. Maspero says : " Sutikhu, Sut KM, 
are lengthened forms of Sutu or Situ" {Struggle, etc. p. 59, 
note 1). Lenormant repudiates any except an artificial con- 
nexion, based on assonance between the Egyptian Set or Sut 
and Sutekh (Les Orig., etc., n., part 2, p. 306). 

It is characteristic of the religion of the Canaanites that 
human sacrifice should be attributed to the Hyksos in Egypt : 
and that Ahmes, who expelled those rulers, should have the 
credit of abolishing it.f We have seen that the Egyptians 
identified Sutekh with the Ba'al of Caanan. 

If it be true that the Hyksos burned human victims in the 
fire, particularly during the dog-days (as Manetho says), J when 
the Solar god would be especially honoured, the intense hatred 
of the Egyptians would be very natural. 

The author of Ps. 106 says that the children of Israel 
" sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto the ' Shedim,' " 
and identifies these with the " idols of Canaan." 

It is interesting to notice the identification of the colour 

* Rawlinson, Anc. Mon., p. 346. 
f Piejte, Rel., p. 140. X Hid., p. 139. 


red throughout with the Canaanite country and worship. As 
we have said, the eastern land was called the " red " by the 
Egyptians, the crown of the lower kingdom was red, and so 
called ; the Set-animal was of red hue, red animals and red- 
haired men were devoted to Set as victims. We may compare 
the connection of the colour with Phoenicia, and with Edom. 

And now we will endeavour to estimate roughly the 
extent and nature of the influence exercised by the Hyksos in 

First, we must set off from the notion of sudden and 
violent change the gradual rising of the tide from the east in 
the Delta. 

Dr. Ebers does not hesitate to say : ~ " at the end of the 
thirteenth dynasty the Delta swarmed with foreigners. . . . 
The fourteenth dynasty is already thrust out of all Lower 
Egypt ; Memphis falls into the hands of the intruders, and 
the proper Hyksos period begins." Some such inference we 
might surely draw from the admission of Manetho himself, 
that the conquerors won the land easily and without fighting. 
Hetep-ab-Ra, a king attributed to the thirteenth dynasty, bears 
the name of Her-nez-atef, son of Aamu, which means "the 
Asiatic," and was applied to the Hyksos, at any rate in the 
eighteenth dynasty. (See Daressy, Rec. cle Trcwcmx, xvi., 133. 
Griffith, E. E. F. Arch. Report, 1894-5.) Whatever cruelty or 
destruction may be laid to the charge of the Hyksos by 
Egyptian chroniclers, we must take into account the evidence 
of the monuments which remain. " The Shepherds possessed 
themselves of Egypt by violence," writes Mariette, "but the 
civilization which they immediately adopted on their con- 
quest was rather Egyptian than Asiatic, and the discoveries of 
. . . (San) prove that they did not even banish from their 
temples the gods of the ancient Egyptian pantheon." f 

* Eg. u. B. Hose's, p. 198. t Rev. Arch., p. 337, 1861. 


"They did not disturb the civilization more than the 
Persians or the Greeks, but simply accepted the higher one 
they had conquered." So our revered scholar Dr. Birch has 
summed up the matter ; * and Prof. Maspero has very happily 
described it thus : f " The popular hatred loaded them with 
ignominious epithets, and treated them as accursed, plague- 
stricken, leprous. Yet they allowed themselves very quickly 
to be domesticated. If they held a higher rank in military 
and political status, they felt themselves lower than their 
subjects in moral and intellectual culture. Their kings soon 
found it more profitable to cultivate than to plunder the 
country, and as none of the invaders, in the perplexity of 
finance, knew where he was, he must needs employ Egyptian 
scribes in the service of the treasury and administration. 
Once admitted to the school of Egypt, the barbarians pro- 
gressed quickly in civilized life. The Pharaonic court re- 
appeared around these Shepherd-kings with all its pomp and 
all its following of functionaries great and small. The royal 
style and title of Cheops and the Amenemhats were fitted 
to the outlandish names of Jannes and Apapi. The Egyptian 
religion, without being officially adopted, was tolerated, and 
the religion of the Canaanites underwent some modifications 
to avoid hurting beyond measure the susceptibility of the 
worshippers of Osiris." Let us recall the invaluable earlier 
story of Joseph, and we can well understand the fusion of 
elements in the Egypt of the Hyksos. 

It is curious to find among the imports of the Hyksos into Horses. 
Egypt, according to M. Lenormant,J the noblest and the 
basest of domesticated animals. The horse, unknown in 
Egypt before, although used in chariots by Chaldaean kings 
long before Abraham, is first mentioned by implication in the 

* Rede Lecture, p. 24. t Hist. Anc, p. 172. 

J Les prem. Civ., Vol. II., p. 327 et seqq.; and Chabas, Etudes, p. 427, etseqq. 


time of Ahmes, the first Pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty, 
who expelled the Hyksos, and who drove his royal war-chariot ; 
from which it is naturally inferred that the horse, which came 
from the east, had been introduced before the war of liberation. 
The same thing is clear from Scripture if Apepi was the 
master of Joseph.* 

The humbler animal is the pig, which was unclean among 
the orthodox Egyptians, but appeared in the train of the bar- 
barians, and was afterwards restricted to Lower Egypt. It 
was viewed as an adherent of Sutekh, who is even symbolized 
in an Egyptian wall-picture as a vermilion-coloured pig. 
The animal brought his name with him, in Egyptian 

J?TtT ^v (I ^o ^?>?> shaau, which in English we spell sow. On 
the other hand, the domestication of some beautiful species of 
gazelles and antelopes, formerly herded with the sheep and 
goats, ceased from the land. 

The coincidence of Holy Scripture with the evidence of 
the monuments is to be observed. No horses are mentioned 
in Abraham's time, but they were common when Joseph was 
in office. On the other hand, asses, given to Abrain, were ex- 
tremely numerous even when the pyramids of Gizeh were built. 

The subject of the camel in Egypt has been treated with 
his usual ability by M. Chabas.f Although unknown as far 
as graphic representation is concerned, it is mentioned in 
several most interesting texts of the nineteenth dynasty, when 
it was well known : and the gift of camels to Abram would 
in all probability be natural to the Shepherd-kings. Sir R. 
Owen remarks J that " if the miraculous incidents of the 
narrative did not exclude it from use in the quest of scientific 
truth, the incidental notice of ' camels ' among the gifts to 
Abraham by the Pharaoh whom he deceived, significantly 

* Gen. 47. 17 ; 50. 9. t Etudes, p. 398, et seqq. 

t J. of Anthrop. Inst, p. 253. 1874. 


indicates the date and other conditions of the incident 
(Gen. 12. 16), and consequently the earliest period of Egyptian 
history to which it can be referred, viz., after the introduction 
into Egypt of that Asiatic ruminant by the nomad invaders." 
The late learned zoologist and Assyriologist, the Rev. W. 
Houghton, came to the same conclusion (P. S. B. A., 1890, 
80, etc.). The bones of dromedaries have been found in 
diggings of great depth in the Delta by Hekekyan Bey. 

It is characteristic of early times that silver is mentioned gST""* 
before gold among Abram's possessions, for it was very much 
more rare in Egypt, and was known as " white gold." I do 
not know what is the earliest date of any silver vessel or 
ornament preserved in the Museums, but among the celebrated 
jewels of queen Aah-hotep at Bulak (of the beginning of the 
eighteenth dynasty) are several beautiful works in silver;* 
and Prof. Ebers mentions a diadem, wrought of gold and 
silver, of one of the several Pharaohs named Entef, of the 
eleventh dynasty, long before the time of Abraham,! which is 
in the Museum of Leyden. 

The subject of marriage in Egypt has been treated by %[™ and 
Prof. Ebers. The wife held a very honourable place in the 
oldest times, as the monuments clearly shew. This agrees 
well with the Pharaoh's view of the matter, which, indeed, 
was quite as characteristic of the old Turanian people of 
Chaldsea, and also guided the conduct of Abimelech, king of 
Gerar. Abram's unworthy misgiving equally beset him when 
about to visit this latter potentate, and does not, therefore, 
bear any especial relation to Egypt, whether under native 
sovereigns or conquerors. In a letter which I received from 
M. Chabas,J that eminent Egyptologist thus writes : " In my 

* Mariette, Princ. 3fons., pp. 261, 263, 264. 

t Eg. u. die B. Mose's, p. 272. 

X Dated Chalons, s.S. April 1, 1877. The letter is written in English. 


opinion, no hieroglyphic record can be surely referred to 
Abraham's times. The peaceful visit of a family of thirty- 
seven Aniou in the reign of an Amenemhat only shews that 
Asiatic tribes could find in Egypt a favourable reception at 
this time. 

" It is, moreover, very likely that the Egyptian officer who 
introduced them had prevailed upon them for that visit to 
the Nile-countries, in the hope to obtain the favour of the 
Pharaoh by this unwonted exhibition. Saneha also seems to 
have been a native Aniou, as was Joseph, and, like him, 
became a high officer of the king. But the presents made to 
Abraham by Pharaoh on account of Sarai (Gen. 12. 16) 
are not such as might be expected from a prince adorning 
with gold and lapis-lazuli the walls of his palace. The respect 
for marriage-ties evinced by the king of Egypt belongs to the 
usual rule of morals of the Egyptians, and does not belong to 
any particular period." 

These opinions, so kindly communicated in reply to ques- 
tions on my part, appear fully accordant with the conclusion 
formerly expressed by M. Chabas, as quoted by the late Eev. 
S. C. Malan : * " Chabas,t a very safe and equally able and 
learned Egyptian scholar, places Abraham under the Hyksos, 
about B.C. 1900, concluding from the similarity of manners at 
the court of Abimelech and at that of Pharaoh, that the two 
kings were of the same race." 

A light is thrown on Abram's dread, however, by a Berlin 
papyrus, which records the seizure of the wife and children of 
a foreigner by a king of the twelfth dynasty. The bearing of 
this text on our subject has been shewn by M. Chabas.f 

The word used in Gen. 12. 15 for the officers of Pharaoh's 
court is the correct Egyptian title (Sar), which is in fact 

* Phil, or Truth, p. 144. t He v. Arch., xve. ann^e, 1 livr., p. 7. 

J Canon Cook's Excursus, Speaker's Comm., Vol. I., p. 445. 

THE HYKSdS. 187 

common to the Turanian and Semitic Babylonian, Egyptian, 
and Hebrew languages. But in Babylonia it was the title of 
the sovereign himself, and not even of his viceroys, whereas in 
Egypt the same word was applied to subordinate functionaries, 
such as those who spoke of Sarai to the Pharaoh. Thus, for 
instance, Una, the distinguished officer of Pepi-Merira, whose 
achievements in Southern Palestine we have before recounted, 
after detailing the ranks and honours bestowed upon him, 
boasts that he had satisfied the heart of his lord more than 
any " Sar " besides.* 

The royal title of the " Pharaoh " is thus explained by M. Pharaoh. 
Pierret.f " Just as the Turks say ' the Porte ' (gate) for the 
court of the Sultan, the Egyptians, instead of speaking of the 
king, said ' the Palace,' the great dwelling, ^^,per-aa, whence 
the Hebrew njHSf" etc - Thus in English we say " the Court," 
meaning the judge. 

The inscriptions mentioned and elucidated by M. de Eouge 
in his work on the six first dynasties, shew in an interesting 
way the transition from the literal sense to the royal title. 
Thus an officer speaks of having been put by Menkaura (My- 
cerinus) among the royal children in the palace (per-aa) of the 
king.J But by the time of the eleventh king of the same 
fourth dynasty (Sahura) the word appears to have been used 
in the sense of the familiar title Pharaoh. § 

With that absolute candour which marks the word of God, 
the mutual behaviour of Abram and the Pharaoh is set be- 
fore us. 

In all points the Pharaoh dealt honourably. Touched by 
the hand of Jehovah, to save himself no less than Sarai and 
Abram, he did not turn in revenge when he knew the truth ; 

* De Roug£, Six prem. Dyn., p. 119. t Vocab. p. 434. 

% P. 66. § Six prem. Dyn., p. 82. 


he did not even in word offend ; but he remonstrated as an 
injured man who knew how to rule his own spirit, and " com- 
manded his men concerning him ; and they sent him away, 
and his wife, and all that he had." 

The Abram of Scripture is certainly no ideal hero. What- 
ever good we might have gained by contemplating the picture 
of a faultless saint we must be content to forego. Far higher 
lessons were in store for the children of faithful Abraham. 

But doubtless he had learned great things in Egypt. It 
was not Egypt with all its wisdom, refinement, luxury, and 
art that should inherit the blessing. Egypt, like Chaldaea, was 
corrupting her way. Those only who have tried to penetrate 
the labyrinth of her religion can appreciate the " sweetness and 
light," the " liberty of the glory," in which Abraham " walked 
with God." Gladly with him we turn our back on goodly 
Goshen, pass out through the garrisoned gateway of the long 
sentinelled eastern wall, plod the weary waste, rise to the breezy 
uplands, rear the unhewn altar, and " call on the name of 

Egypt was on the downward way, multiplying idols and 
drifting away from the living God. But in the person and 
house of Abram the great reformation was being brought to 
pass. All was onward and upward, through many a sorrow, 
but towards the light. Saving, strengthening, cleansing faith 
was the heart of Abram's religion, and he would add to it 
nothing of all the philosophy or ceremonial of dazzling Egypt. 
"Abram believed Jehovah, and it was counted unto him for 

( 180 ) 



" A ND Abram went up out of Egypt, he, and his wife, and 
-£±- all that he had, and Lot with him, into the south."* 

M. Chabas has remarked that the expressions "to go up" to 
Palestine, " to go down into Egypt," were just as much in use 
among the Egyptians as in the mouths of the Hebrews.! He 
cites passages from the papyri. For instance, Seti I., when he 
set out to attack Kodesh and the land of Amaor, made an ascent; 
and in papyrus Sallier I. the officer must " go up into Syria," 
and in the very interesting despatches of papyrus Anastasi III., 
the expression repeatedly used is that this and that officer is 
" gone up." 

" The South " is, as we have said in our last chapter, the 
proper name of the region between the hill-country of Judah 
and the desert. It is the " Negeb," m, and this very name 
occurs (Xegeb) in the record of the conquests of Shishak among 
the Egyptian annals. Doubtless Abram returned as he came, 
by the road which the Rev. F. W. Holland found out, as he 
told me in a letter. It is described and mapped by Dr. Trum- 
bull in his beautiful and complete work on Kadesh Barnea, 
and with all feasible detail by Major-Gen. Sir C. W. Wilson, 
R.E. (P. E. F. Qy. 1884, 4, etc.). It is concisely described in 
Prof. G. A. Smith's Hist. Geog. of the H. Land, 7th ed., 282. 

In Scripture it is " the way of Shur." In the P. E. F. Qy. 
two interesting sketches by Mr. Holland are given, which shew 
the style of country, so mountainous and wild. 

* G"n. 13. 1. t Nineteenth Dyn., p. S*7. 


Here is a little touch of truth in the progress of the family, 
as one after another rises up to man's estate in the separate 
responsibility of his position. When the clan left Ur, " Terakh 
tool: Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran his son's son, 
and Sarai his daughter in law, his son Abram's wife." TThen 
they left Kharran, after Terakh's death,* "Abram departed, 

and Lot with him And Abram tool: Sarai his wife, and 

Lot his brother's son." In going down to Egypt Abram alone 
is mentioned. But while there Lot must have grown into 
separate importance, and doubtless the generous Abram had 
cared for this, for after "all that Abram had" is mentioned 
" Lot with him " ; and soon after came the need of dividing 
their encampments and parting company. 

u Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold." 
Long before this the Egyptian nobles took great pride in the 
rearing of cattle, and in tombs of the fourth dynasty these are 
beautifully depicted. There is, for instance, a servant taking 
away a calf on his back ; the mother-cow stretching out its 
neck and shewing affectionate regret in a most natural way. 
There are also grand specimens of kine like "prize cattle," both 
long-horns and short-horns, and some with no horns at all, and 
the landlord is taking account of his stock with great pride. 
Their colours varied : the most valued being black and tan, 
lifxt white, and lastly red, like the fine cattle of Devon. t TTe 
may be quite sure that no poor specimens were given by the 
Pharaoh to his friend. 

^Ve have spoken of gold and silver. TVhen Abram was 
in Egypt gold was abundantly used, not only solid, molten, 
and graven, and in rings for currency, but beaten into thin 
plates for overlaying bronze, silver, wood, and stone ; and in 
the time of L'sertesen L, fine gold leaf was already employed.J 

* Acts 7. 4. + Osburn, Mon. His. of Eg., Vol. I., p. 456. 

; Wilkinson, Pop. Ace, Vol. EL, p. 145. 


In tombs of this age at Beni- Hassan, the whole process of 
working gold is represented, up to the manufacture of beautiful 
ornaments. How exquisitely wrought and artistic these could 
be by the end of the Hyksos period, many thousands of English 
eyes might see when the splendid jewels of queen Aah-hotep 
were displayed in a gallery of the great Exhibition of 1862. Of 
silver we have before treated. 

So when Abram again passed across the eastern Nile-streams, 
and out through the guarded gates into the " land of Khetam " 
and the sandy wastes of the Shasu-folk, he was a far more 
mighty man in the eyes of the world than when he had come 
down into Egypt. 

In his excellent book entitled Scripture Lands, the Rev. 
G. S. Drew has described the scenery in its relation to the 
patriarchal character and destinies. If, as we may well sup- 
pose, the return took place in spring time, this description 
would picture to us what Abram saw in coming back to his old 
ground.* " Xow (at Beersheba) we came in view, north and 
north-east, of the hills of Judaea ; and as we went on our way 
there was the richest profusion of field flowers I ever beheld. 
Imagine the Sussex Downs enclosed on all sides by gently- 
rising embankments, and cover them with flowers of golden 
and purple, and, above all, of scarlet hues, and you have the 
plain of Beersheba as I saw it. Flocks of sheep and goats, of 
camels and asses, were browsing everywhere, but we saw no 

oxen Through a long winding pass, singularly beautiful 

with its living green, we came to Dhoheriyeh, beyond which we 
were in the hill-country of Judaea. Xaked grey rocks, swelling 
and rounded in their outlines, and here and there covered with 
rich verdure by the terrace cultivation, gardens, vineyards, and 
frequent walls, surrounded us everywhere, while we were still 

* Scripture Lands, p. 6. Second Edition, 1871. 


some distance from Hebron I shall never forget the 

glaring grey of the landscape just before (at 11 a.m.) we rode 
up the hill, whence we had our first view of the old city, April 
15th. For a few weeks late in spring-time a smiling aspect is 
thrown over the broad downs, when the ground is reddened 
with the anemone, in contrast with the soft white of the daisy, 
and the deep yellow of the tulip and marigold. But this flush 
of beauty soon passes, and the permanent aspect of the country 
is not wild indeed, or hideous, or frightfully desolate, but, as we 
may say, austerely plain ; a tame unpleasing aspect, not causing 
absolute discomfort while one is in it, but left without one 
lingering reminiscence of anything lovely, or awful, or sublime." 

But Abram did not linger here ; " he went on his journeys," 
that is, " by his stations," " from verdant stage to stage," as the 
poet Thomson well expresses it, " from the south (Negeb) even 
to Beth-el, unto the place where his tent had been at the begin- 
ning, between Beth-el and Hai ; unto the place of the altar 
which he had made there at the first. And there Abram called 
on the name of Jehovah." We have before given a description 
of the scene. 

Surely Abram must have heartily rejoiced to reach the 
place of the altar once more, in the holy promised land ; to 
breathe the high pure air of the mountains in freedom, and to 
inhale the clearer spiritual atmosphere, rebuild his altar, lay his 
sacrifice, kindle the sacred flame, smell the sweet savour ascend- 
ing, and raise on high the most holy Name with fresh devotion. 
We have not read of the altar and the Name of Jehovah in 
Egypt. Not that Abram would return to the abomination of 
idolatry : but we may reasonably think it fared not so well 
there with his soul's health. Doubtless Dean Stanley is right 
in saying that Egypt represented to him what we call "the 
world."* And Abram had shaken off its dust from his feet, 

* Sermons in the East, p. 2. 


and returned to " a closer walk with God." This is most sir- 
nificantly shewn by what followed. 

His nephew Lot was by this time a great patriarchal chief, 
with flocks and herds and tents ; and in one respect perhaps 
Abram might have envied him, for he had with him, not his 
wife only, but his daughters too. " The land was not able to 
bear them, that they might dwell together ; and there was a strife 
between the herdmen of Abram's cattle, and the herdmen of 
Lot's cattle ; and," it is significantly added, " the Canaanite and 
the Perizzite dwelled then in the land." They dwelled, but Abram 
and Lot only sojourned in their wide-scattered encampments. 

It was most unseemly that this strife should arise before the 
heathen. Now Abram's noble character shines out. 

He was the head ; yea, the whole land was given to him by 
the promise. But in his magnanimity he " said unto Lot, Let 
there be no strife, I pray thee .... for we be brethren. Is 
not the wJioh land before thee ?" Thus he gave his nephew the 
full choice. "And Lot lifted up his eyes, and beheld all the plain 
(circle) of Jordan, that it was well watered everywhere, before 
Jehovah destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, even as the garden 
of Jehovah, like the land of Egypt, as thou comest unto Zoar." 

Dean Stanley, with a few firm touches, has sketched the 
panorama from Abram's tent. " To the east there rises in the 
foreground the jagged range of the hills above Jericho : in the 
distance the dark wall of Moab ; between them lies the wide 
valley of the Jordan, its course marked by the tract of forest in 
which its rushing stream is enveloped ; and down to this valley 
a long and deep ravine, now, as always, the main line of com- 
munication by which it is approached from the Central hills of 
Palestine, a ravine rich with vine, olive, and fig, winding its 

way To the south and the west the view commanded 

the bleak hills of Judaea, varied by the heights crowned by 
what were afterwards the cities of Benjamin, and overhanging 

S 6517. N 


what in a later day was to be Jerusalem, and in the far distance 
the southern range on whose slope is Hebron. Northward are 
the hills which divide Judaea from the rich plains of Samaria."'" 

But woe to Lot ! for what he cared to behold was that low 
valley of the Jordan, widening into its " circle " of deep-lying 
green irrigated country, where the rushing river loses itself in 
the Salt Sea, 1300 feet below the Mediterranean, finding not 
an outlet, but ever steaming up in that hot depth to heaven, 
and still bearing the name of the misguided patriarch, " Bahr 
Lut." " The name of Lot is also connected," says Sir George 
Grove.f " with a small piece of land, sometimes island, some- 
times peninsula, at the north end of the lake." 

" Like the land of Egypt " : this would be a thought of no 
good omen to Abram, but " Lot chose him all the plain of 
Jordan ; and Lot journeyed east : and they separated them- 
selves the one from the other. Abram dwelled in the land of 
Canaan, and Lot dwelled in the cities of the plain, and pitched 
his tent toward Sodom. But the men of Sodom were wicked, 
and sinners before Jehovah exceedingly." 

So for the present we lose sight of Lot. It must have been 
a sad parting ; but when he had gone his way, Jehovah again 
spake to His faithful servant : " Lift up now thine eyes, and 
look from the place where thou art, northward, and southward, 
and eastward, and westward : for all the land which thou seest 
to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for ever. And I will 
make thy seed as the dust of the earth : so that if a man can 
number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed be numbered. 
Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the 
breadth of it, for I will give it unto thee." 

AVe may be sure that this was a great crisis in the life of 
Abram ; and in his noble and unworldly conduct we must 

* Sinai and Pal., p. 218. Fifth edit. ; and see a very beautiful view by D. Roberts, 
t Smith, Die. of Bib. "Salt Sea." 


"glorify the grace of God." It is likely that up to this time 
he had viewed Lot, his departed brother's son, as his heir. The 
first promise : " I will make thee a great nation," may have 
been regarded as consistent with this. 

But now Lot was gone ; and at this very time the blank 
was filled by the direct promise of "seed as the dust of the 
earth " ; and the command to survey the land of their inherit- 
ance. Abram keeps to the uplands, and retraces his steps along 
the mountain range southward to the " oaks " (not plain) of 
Mamre, a chief of the Amorites who became his trusty ally, in 
the near neighbourhood of Kiriath-Arba'. The place was 
always held in honour, and for ages a venerable tree was pre- 
served, and even worshipped. 

"About two miles north of Hebron, just after quitting the 
garden-like vale of Eshcol, with its fair terraced vineyards and 
olive trees," writes Canon Tristram,* " we turned a little to the 
east to visit Rameh, the ancient Mamre, now left without a 
tree, save one or two decrepit old olives, and for the most part 
a heap of undistinguishable ruins, scattered among the barley- 
fields. There is one exception, in the basement of the magnifi- 
cent Basilica erected by Constantine on the spot where Abra- 
ham's oak once stood, and which had become an object of idola- 
trous worship In one corner of the building is an ancient 

drop- well, carefully lined with hard limestone, and still containing 
water ; probably far older than the church, and perhaps reach- 
ing back to the time of Abraham. What memories does this 
bleak desolate spot recall, from the days when the father of the 
faithful sat there in his tent-door, looking out, not on bare stony 
fields, but on green glades beneath the ancient terebinths." 

And it is duly recorded that when Abram "removed his 
tent, and came and dwelt in the oak-grove of Mamre, which is 
in Khebron," he " built there an altar unto Jehovab." 

* Land of Israel, p. 398. 

N 2 

( 196 ) 



ONLY in two places in the Pentateuch does the name Elain 
occur. Then it drops into forgetfulness for some twelve 
centuries, to emerge again in the latest historical books and in 
the prophets. Half a millennium later there are Elamites in 
the upper chamber on the day of Pentecost. 

This word is the key to one of the most curious " restitutions 
of decayed intelligence " ever known in the world of literature. 

In the Book of Genesis we find Elam entered in the great 
record of races as the first-born of Shem. Xext comes Assur. 
Not a word more of Elam until twice in the fourteenth chapter 
we find the same title given to Kedor-la'oiner, "king of Elam." 

Now although the name of Amraphel (^""ON) king of 
Shinar is first mentioned in specifying the "days" in which the 
conquest took place, we soon find that the king of Elam must 
have been his overlord ; for the subjugated kings " served " 
Kedor-la'omer, and it was he, " and the kings that were with 
him," that undertook to reduce them to submission when they 
revolted. These things were very surprising and perplexing to 
thoughtful Bible-readers till very lately. 

Now they are furnishing one of the most striking confirma- 
tions of our faith in the historical record which the wit of man 
could possibly imagine. For this pristine Elam is "rising up," 
with its kindred nation the old Turanian Chalda^a, as if to shew 
that in God's providence there is nothing hidden that shall not 
be revealed when the set day is come. As Prof. Maspero 
says : " From the outset Assyriologists have never doubted the 


historical accuracy of this chapter (Gen. 14), and they have 
connected the facts which it contains with those which seem to 
be revealed by the Assyrian monuments " {Struggle, etc., p. 47, 

It is but a rough patch-work, perhaps, that we can put 
together at the best to represent this old forgotten Eiam. But, 
such as it is, an honest mind will view it with wonder and 
delight, and long for the time when much new material will 
help us, or our children, to a more perfect result. 

Beyond the Tigris in its lower course, to the east lies the £«»* °f 
country which was Elam, the name Elamu being " but a trans- 
lation of the old Accadian name of Susiana, Numma, a word 
connected with the Vogul numan, 'high," ,# or perhaps "the 
East" (Hommel, P.S.B.A. xvn., 200). This region was 
" chiefly composed of the broad and rich flats intervening be- 
tween the mountains and the Tigris, along the courses of the 
Kerkhah, Kuran, and Jerhi rivers,"t but including a; part of 
the highland country, of which a very interesting account is 
given by Mr. Loftus.J "The great range . . . attains an 
elevation of eight or ten thousand feet above the sea, and bears 
in a general direction towards the north-west. Its rocky masses 
belong entirely to the cretaceous and lower tertiary series, rising 
in huge, elongated saddles of compact altered limestone parallel 
to each other. At intervals, where the elevating force which 
produced the present configuration of this region has acted 
with extreme intensity, the continuity of the beds became 
broken, and masses of rock were left standing isolated with 
precipitous escarpments, presenting retreats accessible only to 
the savage inhabitants. ' Diz ' is the name applied to natural 
fortresses of this kind, which frequently bear on their summits 

* Sayce, Trans. Soe. Bib. Arch., Vol. III., p. 468. 
+ Rawlinson, Anc. Mon., p. 26. 
% Chald, and Sus., p. 308. 


acres of rich grass, and springs of delicious water, whither a 
native chief with his adherents can retire in safety in times of 
need, and defend their difficult passes with a handful of men 
against the whole power of the Persian government itself. 

" Superimposed on the harder limestone rocks are beds of a 
softer nature, marls, rivalling the coloured sands of our own 
Isle of Wight in their brilliant and variegated aspect : vast 
piles of amorphous gypsum dazzling the eye with its excessive 
whiteness, and successive layers of red sands alternating with 
gravel. These formations follow the contortions of the harder 
crystalline limestones, lie at extraordinary angles on the slopes 
of the saddles, and fill up the hot, feverish valleys between 
them. Wherever the highlands of Persia are approached from 
the plains of Mesopotamia, the same formidable barrier of 
mountains presents itself. To attain the high level of the 
garden of roses, which the Persian poet loves to descant on, it 
is necessary to climb the successive ridges by roads scarcely 
better than goat tracks, which regular gradation of ascents is 
appropriately described by the Greek historians as Kkipauceq, 
or ladders. All the great rivers which flow from the east into 
the Tigris have their sources in these mountains, crossing 
diagonally through the intricacies of the chain. Instead of 
flowing in a south-east direction along the trough which separ- 
ates two parallel limestone saddles, and by this means working 
out its channel in the soft rocks of the gypsiferous and marly 
series, and rounding the extremity of the saddle where it dips 
under the overlying deposits, each of these rivers takes a direc- 
tion at right angles to its former course, and passes directly 
through the limestone range by means of a ' tang,' or gorge, 
apparently formed for this express purpose. On reaching the 
next succeeding gypsum trough, it follows its original south- 
east course for a short distance, and again crosses the next 
chain in the same maimer, until it attains the verdant plains of 


Assyria or Susiana. Many of these tangs expose a perpendicular 
section of one thousand feet and upwards, and were formed, not 
by the scooping process which attends river action, but by 
natural rents produced by the tension of the crystalline mass at 
the period of its elevation." 

We may easily imagine how this grand defensible high- 
land would nurture a formidable race, who, cultivating their 
own varied country, and having every variety of resource at 
their command, would hang like birds of prey above the 
wealthy warm plains across the Tigris, ever ready to pounce. 
It was in fact from these eastern ranges that the Akkadians 
had descended, taking with them their traditions and a memory 
loyal to the high places where the heavens rested on the pillars 
of the earth. It was on the mountains of Mzir, some three 
hundred and fifty miles, as it seems, to the north-west of Susa, 
that the ark rested, according to the Chaldyean tradition.* It 
was somewhere in the sequestered strongholds of these moun- 
tains of Elam, that Izdubar (or Gilgames) in his valour sought 
out and slew the dreaded tyrant Khumbaba (whose name pro- 
claims him an Elamite, or Susian proper) in his forest of pines 
and cedars.f This old-world story in itself stamps the dread 
with which the early men of Erech looked towards those moun- 
tains of the rising sun. The capital, from the earliest times, 
was Susa, on an open gravel plain about thirty miles from the 
mountains, to which her rulers would retire from the fierce heat 
of summer. This plain was amply watered and of luxuriant 
fertility. " Nowhere have I seen," says Mr. Loftus, " such 
rich vegetation as that which clothes the verdant plains of 
Shush, interspersed with numerous plants of a sweet-scented 
and delicate iris."J The great mound of the citadel rises one 
hundred and twenty feet above the stream of the Shapur, which 

* G. Smith, Assyr. Disc, p. 21 7. 
t Chald. Genesis, pp. 185, 215, 259. % Ibid., p. UG. 


runs close to it on the west, with the " tomb of Daniel " on the 
bank between ; and on the eastward was the ancient course of 
the Euheus, the " river Ulai " of Scripture, the bed of which is 
now forsaken and overgrown with rank vegetation. " The 
numerous remains of irrigating canals with high embankments, 
which diverge from it on either side, proved it to have been a 
main artery. The Arabs of the locality call it ' Shat-atik,' or 
ancient river."* It was the eastern branch of the river Choaspes 
(Kerkhah), whose waters have always been renowned for their 

" It is difficult to conceive," says the same excellent writer, 
" a more imposing site than Susa. ... Its great citadel 
and buildings raising their heads above groves of date, konar, 
and lemon trees, surrounded by rich pastures and golden seal 
of corn ; and backed by the distant snow-clad mountains. 
Neither Babylon nor Persepolis could compare with Susa in 
position, watered by her noble rivers, producing crops without 
irrigation, clothed with grass in spring, and within a moderate 
journey of a delightful summer clime." t 

Shush is some twenty miles south of the latitude of Baby- 
lon. Its neighbourhood is infested by lions and wild boars, 
whose trails intersect the low jungle : also " wolves, lynxes, 
foxes, jackals, porcupines, francolin, and a small species of red- 
legged partridge. "J 

The explorations of Mr. Loftus in the huge mounds laid 
open the remains of magnificent buildings of the Persian 
period, including the stately palace described in the Book of 
Esther. But we are only entitled in this place to notice the 
more ancient objects discovered in the citadel. " There is every 
probability," he says, "that some of the brick inscriptions 
extend as far back as the period of the patriarch Abraham." § 

* Chald. Genesis, p. 424. t Ibid., p. 347. 

X Ibid., p. 346. § Ibid., p. 414. 


M. Lenormant mentions a still more primitive relic : " The 
Anarian cuneiform writing, as science has now proved, was 
originally hieroglyphic, that is, composed of pictures of material 
objects ; and these forms can in some cases be reconstructed. 
An inscription entirely written in these hieroglyphics exists at 
Susa, as is positively known ; but it has not yet been copied, 
and is therefore unfortunately not available for study." * 

The very important archaeology of earliest Elam will, we 
trust, be recovered by researches now undertaken by M. de 
Morgan, who has broken off his great work in Egypt for this 
new exploration. 

In truth this region was the seat of a civilization of the 
most ancient date, while in the back-ground rose the old 
Turanian Media, stretching away towards the Caspian, where 
a kindred but not identical language was spoken. 

There were in Elam very various races living side by side Jjjjjj* 
for ages, whose contrasted types of visage may be easily dis- 
criminated in the Assyrian sculptures. And it has in like 
manner been noticed by Prof. Oppert,| that in the Khorsabad 
inscription of Sargon, "nearly all the names of the Elamite 
towns are Semitic {see Gen. 10. 22), but the Susian ones are 
not." The race of the sons of Shem bear the physiognomy 
which marks their kindred through the world. The keen and 
refined features are set off to great advantage by contrast with 
the blunt outline and thick protruding lips, which have been 
identified with the Kissians or Cossaeans of classic authors, Kassi Kassites. 
of the monuments, the sons of the eastern Gush of the Bible. J 
This race of the Kassi came to the front in later times, and 
became masters of Babylonia. It is important to distinguish 
them from the Turanian Elamites whom M. Lenormant knows as 
" the Susians properly so called." This may partly be done by 

* Manual, Vol. I„ p. 434. t Records, Vol. IX., 5. 

% Rawlinson, Anc. Mon., Vol. II., p. 500. 


marking the variations of the language, as M. Lenormant * and 
Prof. Sayce f have shewn, but most strongly in the names of 
their gods, of which M. Lenormant gives as Kassian the follow- 
ing : — Sakh, Khali, Mnrbe or Urus, Sibarru, Dunyas, Buryas, 
Sikhn or Sipak, Sumu. None of these are found among the 
Susians, who had the following : — "At the summit of the divine 
hierarchy Susinka (meaning ' the Susian'), the national god of 
Susa, and Nakhkhunte, a goddess who (they tell us) had in this 
town her image, unseen by the profane, in the depth of a sacred 
wood. The goddess Nakhkhunte seems to be the same whom they 
identified with the Nana of Chaldaea, after the conquest of the 
famous statue taken away from Erech (which we shall refer to 
hereafter), an episode which has left traces in some mytho- 
logical legends much later. . . . Below these two personages 
come six gods whom Assurbanipal notes as of the first rank, 
and who appear to have been grouped in two triads, correspond- 
ing, perhaps, with the two superior triads of the Chaldseo- 
Babylonian religion : Sumud, Lagamar, and Partikira ; Urn- 
man or Amman, who seems to have been a solar god, Uduran, 
probably lunar, and Sapak. Finally, the annals of Assurbanipal 
mention twelve gods and goddesses of minor importance, whose 
images were also taken away in the sack of Susa ; Ragiba, 
Sungamsara, Karsa, Kirsamas, Sudun, Aipaksina, Bilala, Pani- 
dimri, Silagara, Napsa, Nabirtu, and Kindakarbu. We should 
also add Laguda, whose worship was established at Kisik in 
Chaldaea, and a god whose name, rendered by Khumba in the 
Assyrian transcriptions, is Khumbume in the original Susian 

Now this information is of especial importance to our 
purpose. For instance, the last name, Khumba, stamps the 
old potentate Khumba-ba, whom Gilgames slew in his forest, 
as a true Susian, and marks the ancient date of the god. 

* La Magie. p. 321. t Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. III., 400. 


Nakhkhunte and Lagamar figure in a notable way in our 
history. On the other hand, some of the Kassite gods, as 
Sakh, Dunyas, Buryas, appear in the composition of names in 
Chaldaea, which we must therefore mark accordingly as Kassite.* 

M. Lenormant distinguishes carefully between the Susian FJamite 

, n . . . _ languages. 

language and the more northern old Turanian tongue of 
Media, called proto-Medic to distinguish it from the Aryan 
of a later date. 

These subjects have been treated in a masterly way by 
Profs. Lenormant and Sayce in the now celebrated work 
La Magie, and a paper in the Transactions of the Society of 
Biblical Archaeology, from which we are quoting (T. S. B. A., 
in.) ; and we must refer the student to these high autho- 
rities, contenting ourselves with drawing in strong outline the 
main features. 

The truth is, that from the very oldest times we cannot Mamite 


isolate the history of Babylonia, or Chaldaea, or Assyria. 

The mountaineers of Elam, of Media, of Armenia, of Syria, 
are always on the alert, and even the plains themselves are 
perpetually heaving with the fluctuating tumult of the rival 
races of the sons of men. 

But this is not all. If the historian had a stronger tele- 
scope, or the power of clairvoyance, he would discern in the 
still further distance forces on the outskirts of the great field 
operating with no less effect although so remote. For instance, 
-we have taken no account of the great Aryan races, whose ever 
progressive power was destined to mastery over all others. Yet 
students of ethnology are telling us that, even about the very 
period of our survey, vast movements were finding place which 
could not have been without their influence on the Avestwarcl 
current of conquest and migration. 

* See the dynastic lists in G. Smith's History of Babylonia, and at the end of 
Menant's Bab. et la Chaldee. Also in Records of the Past, New Series, Vol. I. 


" The Dravidian race formerly occupied the whole of India, 
from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin, and along the Indus as 
far as Beloochistan. Driven back by the immigration of the 
Aryans, it had been obliged to withdraw little by little till near 
the southern part of the Indian peninsula, and to-day it is 
circumscribed on the plateau of the Deccan. 

" The commencement of the migration of the Dravidian race 
agrees with the arrival of the Aryans in the Punjab : that is 
to say, that it took place about the year 2,000 before Jesus 
Christ." * 

A very ancient tradition seems to have borne witness to the 
oppression of Babylonia by the Elamites under Khumbaba, 
after whose death at the hands of the hero Gilgames, that 
mighty conqueror, identified conjecturally by Mr. George Smith 
with Mmrod, became overlord of all the principalities as far 
as the Armenian mountains. Gilgames appears to have been 
of the race of Cush, the Kassi, like the Mmrod of Genesis. 
His thick and clustered hair in snaky twists was quite a tra- 
ditional mark of this hero in the seal-cylinders and sculp- 

It is worth notice that Attila the Hun, in the fifth century, 
designated himself " Descendant of the great Mmrod, t . . . 
king of the Huns, the Goths, the Danes, and the Medes. 
Herbert (author of ' Attila,' a poem) states that Attila is repre- 
sented on an old medallion with 'a teraphim, or a head, on 
his breast,' and the same writer adds : ' we know from the 
Hamartigenea of Prudentius that Nimrod, with a snaky-haired 
head, was the object of adoration to the heretical followers of 
Marcion ; and the same head was the palladium set up by 
Antiochus Epiphanes over the gates of Antioch, though it has 

* Apercu general sur les Migrations des Peuples, etc., p. 18, par C. E. de 
Ujfalvy. Paris, 1874. 

t Six- Eel. Creasy, Fifteen decisive Battles. 


been called the visage of Charon. The memory of Nimrod was 
certainly regarded with mystic veneration by many ; and by 
asserting himself to be the heir of that mighty hunter before 
the Lord, he vindicated to himself at least the whole Baby- 
lonian kingdom.' " It is interesting to trace this appalling 
head through its Gorgonian development, so far down the ages, 
from the most ancient Babylonian gems. 

The early kings whose names are recorded in the frag- 
mentary inscription of Agu-kak-rimi, brought home by Mr. Gr. 
Smith, were rulers of Babylonia, but of Cassite race, that is of 
the Cushite race of Elam, and form in that author's History of 
Babylonia the first Cassite dynasty.* 

The overshadowing influence of Elam on Babylonia is 
curiously marked in the old astrological tablets of Sargon I., 
so ably explained by Prof. Sayce, who thus traces the origin 
of those massive stage-pyramids of the Chaldean plains : — 
" The Accadai, or * Highlanders,' who had founded their 
creed in the mountains of Elam, believed that the gods only 
came down to the highest parts of the earth ; and therefore 
raised artificial eminences, like the Tower of Babel, for their 
worship in the plains of Babylonia, f These towers would have 
been admirably adapted for observing the heavens, and their 
sacred character would have harmonized with the astro-theology 
of Chaldasa." An Elamite is among the astronomers who report 
to the king, under whose Semitic rule it is natural to find that 
the prosperity of Elam signifies evil to Akkad ; J and we see 
Sargon ravaging the country of Elam under the propitious 
omen of a suitable moon. § 

And now we approach the most important points of the 
fragmentary story of Elam. In the annals of Assurbanipal, 

* Hist. Bab., Vol. II, 11; Assyr. Dtec, pp. 225, 232; Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., 
Vol. IV., 132. 

t Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. III., 151. X Ibid., 215. § Ibid., Vol. I., 49. 


king of Assyria, son of Esar-haddon (b.c. 668-626), he records 
that when he conquered Elam and took the city of Susa, 
B.C. 645, he brought back an image of Nana which Kudur- 
Nankhundi (or Kudur Nakhkhunte) had taken away on his 
overrunning Babylonia 1,635 years before ; that is in the year 
B.C. 2280.* This gives us an invaluable date some three 
centuries before the time of the king of Elam mentioned in 
Gen. 14. ; thus (as Mr. G. Smith remarks) " confirming the 
statement of Genesis that there was an early conquest of Baby- 
lonia by the Elamites." "He laid his hands on the temples 
of Akkad, and oppressed Akkad." M. Oppert deduces the 
same date in a different manner f in confirmation of this 

Let us not forget that the only hint of this dominant early 
power in the world till very lately was the title, " king of 
Elam," given to Kedor-la'omer in the Biblical sketch of his 

Now, however, was found a name of even earlier date, of 
which the former element Kudur was manifestly identical with 
Kedor (1*0), and the latter is now known to be the name of a 
goddess of the Elamites ; whilst it is equally manifest from the 
same Assyrian annals that Lagamar J was a god of the same 

Thus the conquest of Babylonia by a king of Elam agrees 
with Scripture, but not the date, nor the latter half of the 
name, nor the extended warfare in Palestine. We must seek 
further than Kudur-Nakhkhunte. 

At length, from a totally different quarter, we are enabled 
to reconstruct almost (perhaps quite) the whole history inde- 
pendently of the Bible ; § for in Southern Chaldaea have been 
found some original inscriptions of a later Elamite prince, 

* Assyr. Disc, p. 223. + Records, etc., Vol. VII., 23. 

t Ibid., p. 353. § See Sayce, Expos. Times, Vol. IV , 14. 


whose name is given as Kudar-Mabuk, son of Simti-sil-khak. 
One of these was found at Mugheir (Ur of the Chaldees) and 
in it Kndnr-Mabuk assumes the title adda Martu, " father of 
Phoenicia." Another is graven on a bronze statuette in the 
Louvre representing a goddess, brought from Afadj in Baby- 
lonia. This inscription is given by Mr. G. Smith in a valuable 
paper published in 1872,* and in it the monarch styles himself 
adda Yamutbala, " father of Yamutbal," which was a part of 

Here then is an Elamite prince who is ruler in the land of 
Martu, that is Phoenicia, and one half of whose name agrees 
with that of Kudur-lagamar. " From his Elamite origin and 
Syrian conquests, I have always conjectured Kudur-Mabuk," 
writes the lamented George Smith, " to be the same as the 
Chedor-la'omer of Genesis, ch. 14." 

This supposition was originally put forth, I believe, by Sir 
Henry Rawlinson, who afterwards (in 1861) was disposed to 
doubt the identification.! We will therefore examine the 
matter (see Hommel, P.S.B.A. xviii. 24). 

The remarkable tablet before mentioned, which gives the 
conquests of Sargon I. and his son Naram-Sin in clauses, 
each headed by its favourable omen, gives successive invasions 
of Syria and conquests of the Amorites by that monarch, as 
far as the Mediterranean, and (like the Egyptian and Assyrian 
monarchs of later times) " his image at the setting sun he 
set up." % It appears that Naram-Sin, like Pur-Sin II. before 
him, was worshipped as a god, and probably while yet alive. 
One evidence of this is the inscription on a most interest- 
ing seal-cylinder, found by General di Cesnola at Curium in 

* Notes on the Early Hist, of Assyria and Babylonia, p. 19. Harrison ; see also 
Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. I., 43. 
t Herod., Vol. I., p. 354, note. 
\ Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. I., p. 50 ; Records of the Past, Vol. V., p. 61. 


the isle of Cyprus, and described by Prof. Sayce.* Moreover 
he afterwards conquered Makan and its king. This Makan 
was the name of the Sinaitic peninsula and Midian (still pre- 
served possibly in the MuTma on the east of the gulf of Akaba, 
in the region explored by the late Dr. Beke and by the late 
Sir R. Burton, R.X.). However this may be, it is clear that 
the connection between these aggressions and the troubles at 
the end of the twelfth dynasty of Egypt, the loss of the 
mining stations of Sinai, the dread of " Assyria " on the part 
of Salatis the first Shepherd-king, and the general bearing of 
the east on Egypt, must be carefully held in view in all Baby- 
lonian research regarding this early period. 

Ivudur-Mabuk had a son whose name was Eri-aku. It is 
found in many inscriptions, and signifies in Akkadian, "ser- 
vant of the Moon-god." He was associated with his father, 
and as his especial capital received the city of Larsa (now 
Senkereh), on the east of the Euphrates, between Erech and 
Ur, which has been identified by Sir Henry Rawlinson, Mr. 
Edwin Norris, Mr. George Smith, and M. Lenormant, with the 
Ellasar (ID^frO of Genesis, f and is now generally accepted as 

Now the name Eri-aku is quite identical with the *]V*)^ 
(Ariok) of Gem 14, and if the identification of Larsa be 
correct, of course as to name and title the monarchs are the 
same. The name of the father Ivudur-Mabuk is only half- 
identical with Kudur-Lagamar. Prof. Hommel believes that he 
has found " the same deity as in the well-known name Kudur- 
Mabuk " in an Elamitic proper name, Ma'-uk-titi ; " Mabuk and 
Ma'uk are only variants of spelling" {P. S. B. A. xviii. 23). 

* Trans. Soe. Bib. Arch., Vol. V„ p. 441. 

t La Langue prim., p. 37S. It is a most ancient city, and appears to be the 
Snrippak of which Hasisadra (Noah) was a native. Menant, Bab., p. 85 ; G. Smith, 
Mist. Bab., p. 54, note. 


On the other hand, Lagamar was a most important Elamite 
god. That Kudur-Mabuk might have borne the name of 
this god as a religions title seemed very credible, since a 
much later Elamite monarch, a Kudur-Nakhkkunte, calls 
himself " the servant of Lagamar," and Naram-Sin calls him- 
self, on a seal cylinder, " the servant of the god Martn," which, 
if Mabnk be the Syrian deity whose name was given to 
Bambyke (now called Membij), would seem quite parallel. 
(See Sayce, Pat. Palestine, p. 6G.)* At all events we now 
have the name Kudur-Lagamar in cuneiform records. 

M. Lenormant thinks that Eri-aku, being a Babylonian 
name adopted by an Elamite prince, may have been assumed 
as a throne-name on his accession. This would involve a 
double name in his case ; and Mabuk, it was thought, a similar 
title adopted by the father. Bat Kudur-Mabuk is generally 
regarded as a different man from Kudur-Lagamar ; " possibly 
they were brothers," says Prof. Sayce. 

We will now pass from the names to the deeds of these 
potentates, who belonged originally, says Mr. G. Smith, to 
the north-western part of the country of Elam. The great 
event of their reign in Babylonia was their capture of the 
"royal city " of Karrak, the site of which is not yet iden- 
tified, " but it was probably not far from Nipur " f (Niffer, 
about half-way between Babylon and Ur). 

Eri-aku became a great rebuilder of cities, temples, and 
fortifications, including Ur, Erech, Larsa, Nipur, Eridu, 
Zirgulla, Karrak ; and before his overthrow by Khammurabi 
" rebuilt Gisgalht-ki of the goddess Ma-sig-dng," says Hommel, 
"a striking illustration at the same time for the vassal- 
ship of Amraphel to Larsa in the days of Ariok (Gen. 14). 
A few years afterwards Khammurabi overthrew his former 

* Sayce, Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. III., p. 479. 
t G. Smith, Hist. Bab. p. 71. 

S 6517. 


patron and rebuilt the temples of Larsa " (P. S. B. A. 
xv. 110). 

The copper head of Khammurabi's mace or sceptre, in- 
scribed with his name, is now in the British Museum, and 
is engraved in The Straggle of the Nations, p. 41. 

In the ruin-heaps of Eri-aku's capital Larsa, fifteen miles 
south-west of Erech, Mr. Loftus made very interesting dis- 
coveries dating back to tombs of the time of Urba'u.* " The 
whole area of the ruins is a cemetery ; wherever an excava- 
tion was made, vaults and graves invariably occurred, and the 
innumerable cuneiform records contained in them substantiate 
their undoubted antiquity. So numerous were the clay tablets, 
I almost arrived," he says, " at the conclusion that the fine 
brown dust of the mounds resulted from their decomposition." 

The most memorable conquests of Kudur-mabuk and 
Eri-aku were, however, those which delivered into their hands 
Syria and Palestine, and conferred on the lord of Elam the 
proud addition of " father of Martu." This career of victory 
would really appear to be the same as that recorded in 
Gen. 14 of Kudur-lagamar and his viceroys. With re- 
gard to the date, Canon Rawlinson gives the probable date 
of Kudur-mabuk at about B.C. 2100 ;f Prof. Sayce's opinion, 
expressed to me in a letter, is that he must be placed at 
B.C. 2000 ; and M. Lenormant also assigns his reign ap- 
proximately to the epoch of Abraham. J Prof. Hommel now 
gives, and explains, for Khammurabi's reign the date B.C. 1947- 
1892 (Heb. Trad., p. 125). 

The other kings subject to Kedor-la'omer besides Ariok 
were the kings of Shinar and of Goim (" nations ") 
shin'ar. Tiie lan( j f ghin'ar ("ftttEO is identified by Assyriologists 

with the Sumir of the cuneiform inscriptions^ which is 

* Chald. and Sus., p. 252. + Bible Educator., Vol. I., p. 68. 

X La Langaie prim., p. 374. § Chald. Magic, p. 387 ; Sayce, Bab, Lit., p. 75. 


conjoined with Akkad in the royal titles, as we have seen 
in the case of Kudur-Mabuk. M. Bertin says that 
S.W. Babylonia is still called Somer by the Arabs {Bah. 
Chron. and Hist., 21 note). The king of this province 
bore the name given in Hebrew as SfilStf , Amraphel of the 
Authorised Version. 

But it has been proposed to identify Amraphel with 
Khammurabi. Several theories have been set forth to shew 
how this may be done. See, for instance, the English trans- 
lation of Schrader's Keilinschriften unci das Alte Testament 
by Prof. Whitehouse, p. 299. Prof. Hommel is of this 
opinion, in which Prof. Sayce now joins, although by another 
method {P. S.B.A. xix., 75). He makes Amraphel equal to 
Ammurabi-ilu, Khammurabi the god. Compare what is else- 
where said on divine honours paid to Chaldean kings. 

The D^Ji, Goi'm, or "nations," are identified with the Goim. 
" Guti " (or " Gutium ") of the inscriptions, also called Ku. 
"In the great work on astrology compiled by order of 
Sargon I., king of Agade, as well as in some bilingual geo- 
graphic lists, which appear to be of about the same time, 
the Gutium are clearly marked as the Semitic tribes, as yet 
imperfectly organized, who dwelt then to the north of Baby- 
lonia, and of whom one part became afterwards the nation 
of the Assyrians." # 

But the Hebrew appears correct in reading 1 and not \ 
for we now have cuneiform inscriptions which justify that 
reading by its equivalent, Tud-Khula. It is worthy of remark 
that the auxiliaries of the Hittite alliance against Rameses II. 
were commanded by a " Ta'adal," as M. Lenormant has noticed 
(Les Or iff. in., 79). 

Mr. Pinches has discovered injured tablets which, although 
of late date, appear to be copies of ancient records, and contain 

* La Langue prim., p. 376. 



the names of Eri-aku, Tudghula, and Kudur-Laghghamar 
in connection with one another (see his paper read to the 
Victoria Institute, Feb. 3rd, 1896, and Knowledge, May 1st, 
1896), and the name is now read by P. Scheil as Kudurla'ggamar 
(see Hommel, Heb. Trad., 174, 180, and a letter from Mr. 
Pinches to me). Dr. Scheil has discovered, in the Museum at 
Constantinople, letters written by Khammurabi to his vassal 
Sin-idinnam of Larsa, in which mention is made of the 
Elamite king Kudur-Laghghamar. 

Thus we have the viceroys of northern and southern Baby- 
lonia, and the lords of the country afterwards bearing the 
name of Assur, under their lord paramount the king of Elam, 
engaged in just such a campaign as those which gave Kudur- 
Mabuk the title of father of Martu. 

We will now consider the Biblical narrative of this 

In the deep valley of the Jordan had been formed one of 
those confederacies of cities so characteristic of the Canaanite 
races, as we learn equally from Scripture and from the annals 
of Egypt and Assyria. The region is called DH&Tl pfoV, the 
" vale of the Siddim." The word rendered vale is applied to 
open valleys inclosed by hills. " Siddim " has been an enigma 
to the commentators. Dr. Deane has suggested that the 
gypsum of the cliffs is called in Heb. sid, and would thus 
account for the name.* Col. Conder, E.E., comes near the 
same point. f Taking the word as it stands, however, without 
the late addition of points, it seems likely enough that it might 
have been the " Shedim," to whom we have before referred, 
the local Canaanite gods to whom the sons of Abraham were 
afterwards enticed to offer sacrifice. The " Valley of the She- 
dim " would be no unlikely designation of so thick a hive of 

* Bible Educator, Vol. IV., p. 15. 
t P.E.F., 1878, p. 18. 


allied Canaanites. Anyhow, in this tropical depth they had 
established a hot-bed of heathenish vice. 

Franz Delitzsch remarks that "the possession of the 
Arabah, i.e. of the great deep-sunken valley to the north 
and south of the Dead Sea, was of great value to a conqueror 
of Upper Asia, becanse ' this was the road traced out by nature 
itself, which, starting from the iEIamitic Gulf, and cutting 
through the great wilderness watered by the Nile and Eu- 
phrates, was the means of intercourse between Arabia and 
Damascus, and because at no great distance from the south- 
west border of Canaan, and near to the Iduruaaan mountains 
is found the point of intersection of the roads from the east 
of the Mediterranean to Arabia, and from Middle Egypt to 
Canaan ' (Tuck)." 

The cities of this alliance were Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, 
and Zeboiim, and Bel'a (afterwards Zoar) ; their respective 
kings Bera, Birsha, Shinab, and Shemeber, and a king of 
Bel'a, whose name is not given. It seems clear enough that 
these kings were especially formidable to the eastern con- 
querors, and their subjugation very important. In fact they 
commanded the great route of Arabian commerce, and enriched 
themselves with the wealth which the Egyptians, the Phoe- 
nicians, the Babylonians, and Elamites valued so highly. 
Doubtless, many a rich caravan of " Midianite merchant- 
men"* with "spicery and balm and myrrh," many a long 
train of Amu with their bales of rich clothing and cosmetics 
and metals, would pass within reach of those Canaanite lords, 
who must not be allowed to levy their black-mail for their 
own independent profit. If these chieftains were allied with 
the Pharaohs of the Delta they would be ready enough to 
throw off the eastern yoke, and would fear the Babylonians 

* Gen. 37.. 28. The present Hadj route to Ai-abia passes within twenty miles 
of these cities. See map in Tristram's Land of Moab. 


just as heartily as Salatis himself; and all the more because 
they were on the highway instead of being ensconced within 
the great walls of the old monarchs of Egypt. 

So only " twelve years they served Kedor-la'omer, and in 
the thirteenth year they rebelled," with Lot among them. 
Is it not possible, as I have elsewhere suggested,* that the 
presence of so wealthy an independent Semitic leader, with 
his greater relative Abram near at hand over the mountains, 
may have emboldened them to this outbreak ? 

It is easy to see that the mastery of Egypt by the allied 
races to whom the Canaanite clans belonged would be almost 
sure to briDg about a struggle to rid themselves of the eastern 
domination, and the Semitic influence would naturally be an- 
tagonistic to the lords of Elam, of the rival race who had for 
the time conquered Babylonia and were wielding its forces. 

These things were likely enough to bring it to pass that, 
" in the thirteenth year they rebelled." 

It is interesting to inquire, where was Abram when the 
first expedition of Kedor-la'omer passed the Euphrates ? The 
answer seems clear enough. For Abram was eighty-six years 
old when Ishmael was born,f and it was "after Abram had 
dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan, "J that Sarai gave 
Hagar to Abram. And this agrees with Abram's age when 
he left Kharran, viz., seventy-five. § But this seems to involve 
two things. First : Abram must have arrived in Canaan in 
the year in which he set out from Kharran, and so he could 
not have been long at Damascus, as Dr. Malan has shewn. || 
Secondly : the stay in Egypt could not have been very pro- 
tracted, as it is simply reckoned as part of the " dwelling in the 
land of Canaan." Now let us add to these data what we are 
told in Gen. 15, that ''after these things," viz., the in- 

* Trans. Vict. Inst., 1878. t Gen. 16. 16. % Verse 3. 

§ Gen. 12. 4. || Phil, or Truth, p. 143. 


vasion and defeat of Kedor-la'omer, "Abram said, Lord 
Jehovah, what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless?-" 
and consider that thus "the fourteenth year" after the first 
invasion must fall within the " ten years " of Abram's dwell- 
ing in Canaan before his taking Hagar. Therefore it is 
certain that Abram must have been dwelling at Kharran, 
and Terakh yet alive, when this great motley array of the 
four eastern kings drew its march through Kharran on its 
way to conquest, and again returning with the spoils and 
captives to Chaldsea and to Elam. So that Abram had very 
probably set eyes on Kedor-la'omer some fourteen years before 
he found himself in arms against him. 

This second expedition is an exceedingly interesting study 
for several reasons. The chapter containing it is generally 
viewed by critics as a contemporary, or at least very ancient, 
record of Canaanite origin. The way in which " Abram the 
Hebrew " is mentioned seems unlike the way in which he 
or his children would have named him. Prof. Sayce has 
suggested that it may be of Babylonian origin : since Am- 
raphel, king of Shin'ar, although not the sovereign in chief, 
is first mentioned in specifying the reign. At any rate it 
seems that materials of this kind are quoted in the narrative, 
and it is the only point in the long life of Abram in which 
we find him discharging the duty of a military leader. 

We have already seen the mode in which an Egyptian 
general of the old empire had operated for the reduction of 
the revolted Herusha, in almost the same country which 
formed the objective of this Elamite king's campaign. Pro- 
bably the descendants of these Herusha felt the sword of 
Kedor-la'omer. Una's achievements, however, were within 
easy reach of his base of operation. But not so in the 
other case, for Susa is practically some two thousand miles 
march from Sodom and Gomorrah. 


In his essay on Merodach-Baladan,* M. Lenormant has 
noticed the able strategy of Sargon, who, to reduce that 
Babylonian patriot, supported by Elain, instead of marching 
direct against Babylon, swept the whole course of the Tigris 
to the Chalda?an marshes to cut off his enemy from his 
supports, " reserving himself to return at length on Babylon 
and its neighbouring towns, which, thenceforth isolated, must 
soon fall into his power. We see," remarks the historian, 
" that the famous turning movements, of which we have 
heard so often within the last few years, are no invention of 
yesterday. The plan of Sargon, very ably conceived, suc- 
ceeded entirely." Now we may truly carry back this strategy 
some twelve centuries from Sargon, and indeed much further 
in effect, since Una's last campaign in the time of the sixth 
Egyptian dynasty was conducted on the same principle. 

Drawing together the contingents of the different states of 
Babylonia, Kedor-la'omer would pass up the Euphrates, cross 
the Khabour, perhaps at Arban (ancient Sidikan), the Belikh, 
near Kharran, the Euphrates at Carchemish, and so march by 
the route which we have described in tracing the migration 
of Abram, passing Aleppo, Hamath, and Emesa. The further 
march is indicated in the Biblical narrative, if we take for 
granted (which we may well do) that the army returned over 
the same ground, excepting where the contrary is stated ; 
Kedor-la'omer then doubtless received the homage and tribute 
of the ruler of Damascus ; but instead of pouring down the 
valley of the Jordan in a direct course to the revolted cities, he 
first cut off their supports, and completely cleared his flanks 
by an extended campaign ; for, sweeping all the highland 
plateau to the east of Jordan, and following the great ancient 
course of commerce where now the Hadj road goes down into 

* Les prem. Civ.> Vol. II., p. 243 


Arabia he chastised and disabled the old-world tribes who had 
evidently shared in the rebellion. 

The first of these tribes whom he " smote " were the 
Rephaim, to whose race in after time Og king of Bashan 
belonged. They are called Amorites ; * and Og is expressly 
called by that name (Josh. 9. 10), a " king of the Amorites." 
Their stronghold was Ashteroth Karnaim, the site of which 
was only a subject of conjecture. It appears to have been 
enrolled by Thothmes III. in his Karnak Lists as Astaratu 
{Southern List, 28), and next to this name occnrs the remark- 
able name Anau-repa (perhaps er-Rafeh, four miles from ed- 
Dr'aah, see Merrill). This reminds one of the Rephaim. 
This Rafeh is about fifteen or twenty miles, I believe, in 
eastward distance from Tell Ashary. It is remarkable that 
within four or five miles from this great fortified strong- 
hold are ruined places near the Yarmuk river still called 
el-Amuriyeh and Tellul Kan'aan (Schumacher, Across the 
Jordan). Thus this district bears the names of its ancient 
lords till this day in "the hold of Rapha," "the mound 
of Ashtoreth " (or the Ashera, if it be, as Oliphant and Schu- 
macher "believe, Tell Ashary), "the Amorite town," and "the 
mounds of Canaan." Ashteroth-Karnaim appears also in the 
Tel el-Amarna tablets as " Ashtarti " (P. S. B. A., xix. 24). 
It has been considered by Oliphant and Schumacher to be 
marked by extensive ruins with triple rampart at Tell Ashary 
between the River Yarmuk and the main road from Damascus 
to Arabia (Across the Jordan, p. 203). See on the Rephaim 
and the whole of this episode Prof. Sayce's Patriarchal Pales- 
tine, p. 37, etc. 

The next tribe southwards which he encountered were the 
Zuzim in Ham, which has been identified with Hameitat, 

Amos 2. 9. 


about six miles to the east of the lower part of the Dead Sea.* 
Here are extensive ruins, and " the name (of Ham) is read in 
the Targums," says Canon Tristram, " Heinta," very nearly 
the name given to him on the spot. I fancy it may be the 
place named Huina in the list of Thothmes III., which name 
is perhaps found in the Jebel Humeh, a little way to the north 
of Kureiyat, which Tristram identifies with Shaveh-Kiriathaim 
(Land of Moat, p. 297 and map). The name Zuziin occurs 
nowhere else in the Bible. After defeating these people, 
Kedor-la'omer smote the Emim (Q^K) in Shaveh-Kiria- 
thaim ; that is, the plain of the twin-towns. This name also 
does not recur in Scripture. 

However this may be, Kedor-la'omer passed on from the 
Emim still further southwards, and smote the Khorites in 
their mount Seir, the cave-dwelling people, or rather, perhaps, 
the white race, as Prof. Sayce thinks, in the ridges and ravines 
of their wild mountain country. Brugsch has identified the 
" Saaru of the tribes of Shasu " who were conquered by 
Rameses III., with the Seirites.f In those later times, how- 
ever, these Saaru did not live in rock-hewn dwellings, it seems, 
but in tents.J 

Their wild and inaccessible range of mountains stretched 
from the Dead Sea and westwards, reaching south to the gulf 
of Akaba, which bounds to the east the Sinaitic peninsula, 
and the mountaineers of Elam must have found congenial 
scenes while chasing these hardy clans in their perilous 
fastnesses. This achievement the eastern commanders ap- 
pear to have thoroughly carried out, even "unto El Paran" 
(which is thought by Prof. Hommel to be Aila or Elath on 
the ^lamitic Gulf) "which is by the wilderness." This 

* Land of Jlonb, p. 117. t Hist. oVEg., p. 146. 

t Chabas, Nineteenth Dyn. t p. 51 ; see also W. Max MUUer, Asien u. Evropa, 
p. 136. 


wilderness (Heb. midbar) bore the name of Paran, wher- 
ever El Paran itself may have been. It is clear that this 
was the extreme limit of the expedition, and before reaching 
it the whole range of mountains must have been harried, 
and the Khorites thoroughly put down. In Arrowsmith's 
Map of Syria (1823), a place called " Phara, Paran " is 
marked on the Roman road running westwards from Akaba 
towards Suez. It is some twelve miles south of the Hadj route 
to Egypt. " A genuine trace of it (the ancient Paran) may 
perhaps be found in the Phara, marked in the Roman tables 
of the fourth century as a station on the road between the 
heads of the two gulfs, one hundred and twenty Roman miles 
from the western, and fifty from the eastern extremity." This 
is the place, and it would be in the wilderness ; * but the ex- 
pression in the Hebrew text TS'Vftri 7^ seems consistent with 
this. In this case Kedor-la'omer would have cleared the whole 
route to the gulf of Akaba and the mining region of the 
Sinaitic peninsula ; and as that would seem to have been the 
great object of his expedition, and, moreover, as the same 
achievement appears to have been carried out by Naram-Sin, 
I do not see any difficulty in believing that after overcoming 
the formidable obstacles which lay in his path he should have 
attained such a point (if not even the Paran of the "Wady 
Feiran) before "they returned, and came to En-Mishpat, 
which is Kadesh, and smote all the country of the Amalekites." 
This would seem to suggest the sweeping a broad expanse of 
desert, and would be consistent with the Kadesh (Kadesh- 
Barnea) being the 'Ain Gadis described by Prof. Palmer, f and 
since so perfectly by Prof. Trumbull. Kadesh was a great 
stronghold, both a sanctuary and a seat of government, as the 
names indicate. 

* Cp. Hitter, I., pp. 69, 428, seqq. Clark's Trans. : Speaker's Com., I., p. 685. 
t P. E. F., Jan. 1871. 


Prof. Palmer has given a sketch from this spot in his 
History of the Jewish Nation* " In the immediate neigh- 
bourhood are the mountains of the Amorites (Deut. 2. 19, 20), 
still called by their Scriptural name, in its Arabic form, 
'Amarin." And " the Amalekites and Canaanites " are said to 
have been there in the days of Joshua. f 

Dr. Trumbull, in his beautiful and very learned book 
Kadesh Barnea, has shewn many reasons for believing that 
Kedor-la'omer must have found his turning-point at Kala'at 
en-Nakhl, " which was the one oasis which is in mid-desert in 
the great highway across the wilderness of Paran. ... It is 
there that the great desert roads centre ; and it is at that 
point that a turn northwards would naturally be made ; that 
indeed a turn northwards must be made in following the 
road Canaanward " (p. 37). The kind of country inhabited 
by the Khorites may be seen in Prof. Hull's Mount Seir, etc., 
and in Major-Gen. Sir C. "VV. Wilson's article on Mr. Holland's 
notes in P. E. F. Q., 1884, 4, etc., and map. From Prof. 
Hull's book may be gathered some notion of what the route 
further extended southwards would have been. 

Mr. Holland's own account of his routes, with his map, is 
given in the Trans. Vict. Inst, xiv. 1, etc., where it may well 
be seen how natural a great turning-place is Kulat Xakhl, as 
Dr. Trumbull says. 

And now Kedor-la'omer began to draw towards the special 
end of his expedition. Having made good his rear by " smit- 
ing all the country of the Amalekites," he made his way 
towards the " Salt sea," skirting along its western border. 
" Up to En-gedi they could march without interruption," 
writes Canon Tristram, J " by the shores of the sea below ; and 
though there are several openings south of Engedi by which 

* P. 34. t Num. 14. 43. t Land of Moab, p. 25. 


troops could easily make the ascent into the upper country, yet 
any of them would necessitate a long march across a rough 
and almost waterless wilderness. Practically, then, Ziz was 
the key of the pass. To the north of it the shore-line is im- 
practicable even for footmen, and there are no paths by which 
beasts could be led up. Hence the old importance of Hazezon- 
Tarnar, or Engedi, which is still the route by which the trade 
between Jerusalem and Kerak (Kir of Moab, a formidable 
fortress on the east side of the Dead Sea) is carried on, and 
by which the former city obtains its supplies of salt." 

Here, then, half way up the western side of the deep hot 
" Salt sea," the leader of the conquering forces was unable to 
push on by the shore, and compelled to force the difficult and 
steep pass to the left. There lay before him the beautiful 
recess of the mountains where the Amorites had nestled in 
their choice settlement of Hazezon-Tamar, afterwards and 
still called En-gedi ('Ain-Jidy), the well-spring of the kid. 

In his admirable books of travel entitled The Land of 
Israel, and The Land of Moab, Canon Tristram has given full 
and accurate descriptions, and many landscape illustrations of 
the region of the Dead Sea. The statements of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund also contain very interesting details. 

Dr. Tristram thus describes 'Ain Jidy : * " Several hundred Engedi 
feet up the slope, about a mile and a half back from the shore, 
is the true 'Ain Jidy, midway between the two wadys. Its 
little silver thread of a streamlet dashes down lofty but (in 
volume) pigmy cataracts to the sea. Below the falls, in the 
centre of the plain, is a group of ruins of some extent, built 
of unbe veiled squared stones of fair size, but nothing mega- 
lithic, and all very much weathered. These crumbled walls 
carry us with a mighty stride across the history of man. They 

* Land of Israel, p. 281. 


are all that remain to tell of a city as old as the oldest in 
Syria, perhaps in the world, Hazezon-Tamar (the Felling of 
the Palm Trees), which is Engedi, the contemporary of Sodom 
and Gomorrah, an existing city when Hebron first arose. 
Through it passed the Assyrian hordes of Chedor-la'omer, on 
the first great organized expedition recorded in history ; the 
type and precursor of all those invading inroads which, from 
the days of Tidal, king of nations, to Saladin, have periodically 
ravaged the east. The plain around is now as desolate as the 
old city of the Amorites, though once a forest of palms, . . . 
and the real fertility of Engedi lies only in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the fountain, or is enclosed in the narrow 
gorges of the two boundary streams, choked with canes and 
great fig-trees, and so deep that they are not perceived until 
the traveller has entered them." 

Prof. Gr. Adam Smith gives a very delightful description of 
the oasis of Engedi : "He who has been to Engedi will always 
fear lest he exaggerate its fertility to those who have not. 
The oasis bursts upon him from one of the driest and most 
poisoned regions of our planet. Either he has ridden across 
Jeshimon, seven hours without a water-spring, three with 
hardly a bush, when suddenly, over the edge of a precipice, 
400 feet below him, he sees a river of verdure burst from the 
rocks, and scatter itself, reeds, bushes, trees, and grass, down 
other 300 feet to a broad mile of gardens by the beach of the 
blue sea ; or he has come along the coast (like Keclor-la'omer's 
army) through evil sulphur smells, with the bitter sea on one 
side, the cliffs of the desert on the other, and a fiery sun over- 
head, when round a corner of the cliffs he sees the same broad 
fan of verdure open and slope before him. He passes up to 
it, through gardens of cucumber and melon, small fields of 
wheat, and a scattered orchard, to a brake of reeds and high 
bushes, and a few great trees. He hears what, perhaps, he 


has not heard for days — the rush of water ; and then through 
the bush he sees the foam of a little water-spout, six feet high 
and almost two broad, which is only one branch of a pure 
fresh stream that breaks from some boulders above on the 
shelf at the foot of the precipice. The verdure and water, 
so strange and sudden, produce the most generous impressions 
of this oasis and tempt to an exaggeration of its fertility. 
The most enthusiastic, however, could not too highly rate its 
usefulness as a refuge, for it lies at the back of a broad 
desert, and is large enough to sustain an army.' 1 (Hist. Geog. 
of the Holy Land, 209.) It is easy to imagine the fresh 
vigour of the eastern warriors when they had smitten the 
Amorites in this lovely place of gardens and palms. 

The very name of Hazezon still survives in that of Husasa, 
by which the land at the top of the pass is known, and the 
pass Hazziz (2 Chron. 20. 16) is the same word in reality, as 
suggested by Sir G. Grove.* 

Following the track of Kedor-la'omer, the sons of Moab, 
Amnion, and Seir ascended to Judaea by this precipitous way. 

Thus we have a double identification of this historic spot, 
haunted by such primaeval remembrances of war, in the names 
of Husasa, and 'Ain-Jidy. There is also a Wady Husasa 
about six or seven miles further north. 

After smiting the valiant Amorites in their green and 
palmy nook under the mountains, the host of the eastern kings 
clomb the perilous height. "The path is a mere zigzag, 
chiefly artificial, cut out of the side of the precipices, but 
occasionally aided by nature." The height is about 1800 feet. 
The spring is G10 feet above the Dead Sea level and 1,340 feet 
below the top of the precipice, according to Sir C. W. Wilson. 
Then the march must have been over the hill-tops, and down 

* Smith, Die. of Bib. " Ziz." 


across the wadys, and so by a bending route until they came 
into the Jordan valley, perhaps on the level at the north-west 
corner of the lake, "a proper and natural spot for the in- 
habitants of the plain of Jericho to attack a hostile force 
descending from the passes of 'Am Jidy." # 

The fight at Hazezon-Tamar had been within seventeen or 
eighteen miles of Abram's abode at Mamre, and the march 
inland over the hills must have brought the army of Kedor- 
la'omer still nearer. Abram's allies, An'er, Eshcol, and Mamre, 
Amorites though they were, do not appear to have been en- 
gaged with their kinsmen in the lost battle ; but it must have 
been a time of great alarm when the Elamite king was pour- 
ing down his forces into the vale of Siddim. " And there 
went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and 
the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of 
Bela (the same is Zoar) and they joined battle with them in 
the vale of Siddim ; with Kedor-la'omer king of Elam, and 
with Tidal king of Nations (Goim), and Amraphel king of 
Shinar, and Ariok king of Ellasar ; four kings with five. And 
the vale of Siddim was full of slime-pits (bitumen-pits). And 
the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, and fell there ; and 
they that remained fled to the mountain. And they took all 
the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah (it does not say, of the 
other three cities) and all their victuals, and went their way. 
And they took Lot, Abram's brother's son, who dwelt in 
Sodom, and his goods, and departed." 
ernes of the All attempts to fix the sites of the " cities of the plain " 

Plain, L 

(Kikkar) have hitherto been futile. In 1874 Col. Conder, 
R.E., writes thus : f " Having carefully examined in person 
the whole tract from Jordan mouth to the Ras Feshkah, I do 
not hesitate to say that if the cities of the plain were within 

* Sir G. Grove, Die' of Bib. "Siddim." 

t P. E. F„ 1874, p. 39 ; see note in the Appendix. 


this area, all trace of them has utterly disappeared. ... It 
seems to me certain that the gradual rise of the level of the 
plain caused by the constant washing down of the soft marl 
from the western hills would effectually cover over any such ruins, 
did they ever exist below the surface. The tract, however, pre- 
sents literally nothing beyond a flat expanse of semi-consolidated 
mud." The same officer thus describes the scenery : " No- 
thing is more striking than the general aspect of the country 
we have thus passed over. The broad plain, bounded east and 
west by the steep rocky ranges at whose feet lie the low marl 
hillocks of a former geological sea ; the green lawns of grass 
leading to the lower valley, where in the midst of a track of 
thick white mud the Jordan flows in a crooked milky stream 
through jungles of cane and tamarisk, are all equally unlike the 
general scenery of Palestine. . . . The chorus of birds and 
the flow of water are sounds equally unusual and charming 
in the stony wilderness of the Holy Land." 

The arguments for the northern situation of the cities 
(which in fact seems involved in the very phrase of the ancient 
record "cities of the KiJckar" the well-known "circle of 
Jordan," Gen. 13. 10, etc.), have been so ably put by Grove, 
Tristram, and others, that it seems needless to reproduce them. 

The line of Kedor-la'omer's march, so perfectly traced in 
the firm strokes of the primaeval record, equally ascertains the 
northern position of the final scene of his long warfare. The 
name Hazezon-Tamar reminds us that Jericho also stood in a 
great tract of palm-groves some nine miles long, of which all 
but two or three trees are gone ; although on the other side of 
the Dead Sea they still grow abundantly.* Dr. Tristram com- 
pares the climate of Jericho to that of Egypt ; and that of 
'Ain-Jidy is exceptionally healthy and fit for a sanatorium for 

" Land of Moab, p. 356. 
S 6517. P 


delicate chests. The late lamented 0. F. Tyrwhitt-Drake thus 
writes : * " The climate of Jericho would seemingly have 
changed since the days of Josephus, or more probably the 
surplus irrigation was not then, as now, suffered to become 
stagnant pools, causing malaria and fever. The great Jewish 
historian in many passages vaunts the wonderful fertility of the 
place, and calls it QzUv xtyiov, a region fit for the gods. At 
present the luxuriance of vegetation is almost tropical. But 
the inhabitants are lazy, dissolute, and incapable of continuous 
work. . . . All kinds of vegetables, such as tomatoes, 
vegetable marrows, etc., are in season all the year round. 
Grapes grow to a great size, . . . indigo flourishes, but is 
seldom cultivated : sugar, too, and cotton would doubtless 
succeed. Sloth, however, and indolence on the part of the 
government and peasants, now reign supreme, where a little 
care in drainage, and steady cultivation, might annually raise 
produce of equal value with the revenues of all the rest of 
Palestine." In truth this region might well again become " as 
the garden of the Lord." 

As to the bitumen-pits in the vale of Siddim, it is stated 
by Dr. Thomson f that the ancient name is still used by the 
Arabs, who dig such pits in the chalky marl (that is, gypseous 
marl) of the Lebanon for the same purpose. They call them 
biaret hummar (1£n m^O). The bitumen from the Dead Sea 
was used by the Egyptians at an early period for embalming 
their dead. On the north-western coast of the lake Dr. Tristram 
found "the shore lined with a mass of bitumen, in which 
pebbles of all kinds were thickly embedded." J The Chaldean 
troops would be as much at home in these low, hot plains as 
the Elamites on "the high places of the earth," in Bashan 
and Se'ir. 

* P. E. F., 1874, p. 75. t Tlie Zand and the Book, p. 224. 

% Land of Israel, p. 277. 


The defeat of these demoralized Canaanites must have been The Battle 

and its 

complete. All who could escape fled to the mountains. The sequel, 
crowning triumph of this adventurous and skilful campaign 
must have satiated and burdened the eastern army with plunder, 
and " all the victual " which they took from Sodom and Go- 
morrah, including the beer and wines which the Egyptians 
imported from this very region, together with the security of 
having thoroughly beaten their enemy down the whole line to 
the frontiers of the Egyptian territory, and the knowledge that 
Egypt itself (as Manetho says) was in fear of their power, must 
have sent them on their homeward way in high exultation and 
carousal. Stanley has noticed that the Septuagint translators 
have taken the word which we have in our Authorised and 
Revised Versions as goods (E^D^), as horse (£0*1), which is a 
variant reading ; and translated accordingly in vv. 11, 21, 
" horse " — " above all the war-horses, for which afterward Ca- 
naan became so famous," says Stanley. This is highly interest- 
ing, and seems to me more likely than " all the goods " or 
"riches," which would be much more unwieldy in climbing 
perilous heights in the hill-country. Then Abraham gave up 
all the horses to the king of Sodom. This would be most 

The route of their return would be up the valley of the 
Jordan to the Sea of Kinnereth, some sixty miles, then round 
the west side of that beautiful lake, and through the northern 
"garden of the Lord," which was afterwards "the goodly 
heritage of Naphtali, ' satisfied with favour, and full with the 
blessing of the Lokd ' (Deut. 33. 23) ; from Kinnereth north- 
ward to Dan," * now Tell-el-Kady, thus described by Canon 
Tristram : " Nature's gifts are here poured forth in lavish 

* Land of Israel, p. 578. Laish is identified by Mariette with the Lauisa (No. 
31) of the Karnak lists of Thothmes III. Col. Conder thinks the name may survive 
in Luweizeh, some five miles further north. P. E. F., 1876, p. 96. Mem. I., 139. 

P 2 


profusion, but man has deserted it." Yet it would be difficult 
to find a more lovely situation than this, where " the men of 
Laish dwelt quiet and secure." "We have seen the land, and 
behold it is very good. ... A place where there is no 
want of anything that is in the earth" (Judg. 18. 9, 10). 
"At the edge of the wide plain, below a long succession of 
olive-yards and oak glades which slope down from Banias, 
rises an artificial-looking mound of limestone rock, flat-topped, 
eighty feet high, and half a mile in diameter. Its western 
side is covered with an almost impenetrable thicket of reeds, 
oaks, and oleanders, which entirely conceal the shapeless ruins, 
and are nurtured by ' the lower springs ' of Jordan ; a won- 
derful fountain like a large bubbling basin, the largest spring- 
in Syria, and said to be the largest single fountain in the world, 
where the drainage of the southern side of Hermon, pent up 
between a soft and hard stratum, seems to have found a collec- 
tive exit. Full-grown at birth, at once larger than the Hasbany, 
which it joins, the river dashes through an oleander thicket.* 
On the eastern side of the mound, overhanging another bright 
feeder of the Jordan, are a holm oak and a terebinth side by 
side, two noble trees. . . . This terebinth is, I believe, the 
largest of its kind in Syria, and the other tree is more comely 
than the so-called Abraham's oak at Hebron." In his lively 
and graphic way, Mr. McGregor describes the whole of this 
neighbourhood, and gives a ground-plan of Tell-el-Kady, and 
maps of the country, f It was in the winter that he visited the 
place. He thinks the mound almost entirely artificial. It is 
defended by a rampart thirty feet high, enclosing an area of 
oblong form with the corners rounded, about 300 yards by 250, 
which contains within it the spring-head itself. No wonder 
that Kedor-la'omer, as he drew on his long train, cumbered 

* Land of Israel, p. 580. + Rob Roy on the Jordan, p. 213. 


with all its captives and their goods in their triumphal home- 
ward march, should halt by these abundant waters, before 
crossing the mountain track that would lead him to the next 
delightful and luxurious halting-place, Damascus. 

Here, then, among these old enemies, was Lot, on his way 
back to his native country, or perhaps, to grace the triumph 
at Susa, an enslaved prisoner of war, spoiled of all he had, 
and bitterly rueing the parting with Abram and his evil 

But meanwhile, in the south, those that escaped from the 
lost field of battle fled over the mountains to Hebron, and " told 
Abram the Hebrew ; for he dwelt in the oak-grove of Mamre 
the Amorite, brother of Eshkol, and brother of An'er : and 
these were confederate with Abram" (see the remarks of 
Dr. Trumbull on Abraham's covenant with these three princes, 
The Blood-Covenant, App. 316, and its relation to the trees). 
This at once shews the importance and dignity of "Abram 
the Hebrew," the foreigner ; for these stricken Canaanites fly 
straight to his tent. Their knowledge of his character led them 
thither, and they were not mistaken. 

He had borne no part in the contest, although the invaders 
had marched and fought within so short a distance of his own 
abode. But now came news that Lot was ruined and taken 
away captive. Then all his yearning pity for his nephew, who 
had been to him as a son, kindled into a flame. Doubtless he 
was prepared for some such sudden call. His people were 
within easy reach and under strict discipline. The Lord Him- 
self bare witness afterwards : " I know him, that he will com- 
mand his children and his household after him, and they shall 
keep the way of the Lord, to do justice and judgment." * 
Men-servants from Egypt and a large following Abram had ; 

* Gen. IS. 19. 


but only the very choice of his home-people would he take on 
such a perilous service as this. He did not need to " arm " 
them, as our version suggests. They were doubtless both well- 
armed and ready for the word of command. " He drew out 
his trained (men), born in his own house (not bought, or 
given to him), three hundred and eighteen." They are after- 
wards called "the young men." They were choice men, 
"trained," or, as Gesenius explains the word, "skilled, of 
tried fidelity." 

They must have been such men as the last choice of Gideon, 
fit for an "enterprise of great pith and moment." And of 
course Abram must leave a sufficient staff behind for all the 
service of the camp. 

Happily Abram and the Amorite chieftains were, as the 
Hebrew says, " lords of a league," and, as we know from what 
followed, An'er (LXX., 'Awdv) and Eshkol and Mamre led 
their contingents ; and if each commanded as many picked 
warriors as Abram, they must have mustered altogether some 
twelve or thirteen hundred. All had friends to rescue, or at 
least to avenge. Not an hour was lost. Down the passes they 
go, and speeding along the green depths of the Ghor on the 
track of the enemy, and after four days' and nights' swift 
march they see the camp ; and with all precaution and secrecy 
wait for night. The very picture is drawn for us in the history 
of David : * " Behold, they were spread abroad upon all the 
earth, eating and drinking and dancing, because of all the great 
spoil that they had taken." Eastern armies are notorious for 
a loose night-watch. Xedor-la'omer had no reason to suspect 
the least danger. Josephus tells us f his men were asleep, or 
too drunken to fight. It was after a march of some hundred 
and forty miles, that Abram and the Amorites had to attack 
the forces of the four kings. 

* 1 Sara. 30. 16. + Antiq., Book. I., c. x. 


Ifc was in the fifth night, says Josephus. Such a surprise 
it must have been as that of Gideon. " He divided himself 
against them, he and his servants, by night, and smote them." 
And now their turn was come to flee to the mountains in wild 
dismay and rout, leaving their camp, and captives, and the 
spoil of all their war. The liberated prisoners might join in 
the pursuit. The trusty Eliezer would know the ways across 
the mountains to Damascus right well. Abram is not content 
with mere victory. All the next day and night * the pursuit 
rages, until the remaining fugitives had reached Khobah, north 
of Damascus. No wonder they kept clear of the city, where 
they would have had an evil welcome. The name of Khobah 
is not unknown in Egyptian records, if Brugsch f is correct ; 
and the place is still shewn, " in the corner of the vast plain, 
just w T here the bare hills, intersected by a deep ravine, descend 
on the mass of verdure which reaches up to the very foot of 
the rocks." J It w T as here, I suppose, that the chief of the 
routed forces turned at bay, unable to escape further on their 
homeward route to the north. The tradition is that at this 
point, where there is now a holy place, Abram returned thanks 
to God for his victory. " It is a rude mosque built on the side 
of a naked cliff, its inner chamber opening into a deep cleft," § 
three miles north of Damascus. The name Khobah means " a 
hiding place," || and if indeed any of the chiefs took refuge 
here, as the Canaan ite kings " fled, and hid themselves in a 
cave at Makkedah," from Joshua,^" this would account for the 
pursuit ending at this spot. 

It does not, however, as Canon Eawlinson ** has remarked, 
necessarily follow from either the Hebrew word in this ancient 

* Josephus. 

t Pierret, Yocab., p. 354, and ref. Geog. II., 75. See also Tel-el-Amarna Tablets 
Offord, P. S. B. A., xix., 25. 

t Stanley, Sermons in the East, p. 211. § Porter, Giant Cities, etc., p. 351. 

J| Gesenius. 1 Josh. 10. 16. ** Anc. Mon., Vol. I., p. 162, note. 


record, or the equivalent Greek in Heb. 7. 1 (from the LXX.) 
that either of the eastern kings was actually slain. What was 
the personal result to them beyond the utter rout and over- 
throw of their army, we do not know. But the more we reflect 
on the real significance of the history, the more does the con- 
viction grow that this battle was a great event in the history 
of the civilized world, in which if a predominant conqueror 
then existed it was Kedor-la'omer. Doubtless Abram intended 
effectually to hinder the return of this monarch to the land 
of Canaan, and he disappears thenceforth from the Biblical 
narrative. Hommel gives from Scheil a letter of Kham- 
murabi to Sin-idinam, original and translations, at length 
{Arc. ffeb. Trad., 174, etc.) on the defeat of Kudur-Laga- 
mar, and his consequent position. This refers to the great 
overthrow of the Elamites at Larsa, when they were driven 
out of Babylonia. 

But of Kudur-Mabuk and his son Eri-aku of the Chaldtean 
inscriptions we have some further account to give. In two in- 
scriptions we find Khammurabi alluding to the defeat of Kudur- 
la-akh-ga-mar, then his foe, not his ally, as Prof. Driver says 
{Exp. Times, viii., 143, note). And we now know that Kedor- 
la'omer was eventually conquered and driven out of Babylonia, 
as we have above said, and Khammurabi assumed the title 
"king of Martu." We will gather up the fragments of this 

Eri-aku conquered Erech and Karrak, and reigned at 
Larsa, and also won the city of Dur-ili in Upper Baby- 
lonia,* and, as we have seen, was king of Sumir and Akkad, 
while his father was sovereign from Elam to Syria. Eri-aku 
was reigning at least twenty-eight years after the capture of 
Karrak, from which so many documents were dated. Then 

* Becorts, Vol. V., 68. 


Kliammurabi established his power at Babylon with great 
splendour, and attacked Eri-aku, in Southern Babylonia. But 
Eri-aku claims to have successfully repelled " the evil enemy " 
for a time. However, we have Khammurabi's own records of 
his final conquest over Eri-aku and his ally the lord of Elam, 
as we have said. 

" From the time when Kliammurabi fixed his court at 
Babylon, that city continued to be the capital of the coun- 
try, down to the time of the conquest of Babylonia by 
the Persians."* He founded the first Chaldaean empire 
(see Maspero, Dawn, etc., 39, etc.) and reigned fifty-five 

It is observable that most of the inscriptions of Kudur- 
Mabuk and Eri-aku have been found at Ur (Mug-heir). 

The Elamite conquest could scarcely have been other than 
adverse to Terakh and his house ; so when Abram assailed the 
eastern forces to rescue Lot he was probably encountering an 
old enemy of his house and people. 

During the time of Sargon the Semitic language had begun 
to supersede the old Turanian Akkadian, and the custom grew 
up of recording the contracts of sale and loan in Semitic, when- 
ever one of the contracting parties was of that race. "The 
decline continues rapid " (says M. Lenormant) " under the 
Kissian [now called Arabian] kings, of whom the first is 
Khammurabi, when the capital is definitely fixed at Babylon. 
It is under these kings, who occupied the throne during many 
centuries, that the Akkadian became extinct as a living and 
spoken language." f 

The oldest bilingual royal inscription in Akkadian and 
Semitic yet found belongs to Khammurabi. J He was a great 

* Records, Vol. V., 09. + La Magie, p. 291. 

X Assyr. Disc, p. 233. 


and splendid king, who developed the resources of the Baby- 
lonian country, and consolidated its power for the first time in 
a long inheritance of grandeur. 

One of the few distinct chronological data which we possess 
is given in a notice that Khammurabi considered his own time 
as seven centuries later than Urba'u.* This would bring the 
date of Urba'u, the first great monumental king, to somewhere 
about B.C. 2600. 

Although the great monarch Khammurabi records stately 
temples reared, cities fortified, and delightful channels of run- 
ning water dug and banked on a huge scale, and although 
he assumes the titles, " the king renowned through the four 
zones," and " king of the four zones, king of regions which 
the great gods in his hands have placed," yet his only 
records of military achievements hitherto discovered relate to 
conquests in the country of the Euphrates and Tigris. Scrip- 
ture is equally silent as to any campaigns in Palestine from 
this quarter for centuries after the time of Kedor-la'omer. In 
fact the next recorded collision between east and west arose 
from the conquests of the Egyptian Pharaohs of the eighteenth 
dynasty in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Assyria after the expulsion 
of the Hyksos. 

"In connection with the supposition that Abraham may 
have been contemporary with Kudur-Mabuk (writes Mr. 
Cr. Smith) we may note that the name of Ishmael is mentioned 
in the next reign, that of Khammurabi. A son of a man 
named Ishmael was witness to some contracts : his name is 
Abuha son of Ismiel."t Prof. Sayce tells me that Ishma'il is 
also found in a contract of the time of Sargon of Akkad, 
discovered at Xiffer. Akhu-Tabbe (Ahitub) occurs in the 
same contract. And since the lamented death of Mr. G. Smith 

* Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol I., p. 61. 

+ Xotes, etc., p. 23. 


at Aleppo, very numerous names of Biblical form have, as we 
have before said, been found on tablets as early as the age of 
Abram, including the very name of Abramu,and now the names 
of Jacob-el and Joseph-el also, so that these familiar names 
were not newly invented for the patriarchs of the Bible. (See 
Sayce, Patriarchal Palestine, Preface ; and now also Hommel, 
Anc. Heb. Tradition.) 

It is needless to recall the various opinions of scholars on 
the chronological points involved in this portion of history, or 
the wavering of the same mind as one spark of light after 
another appeared in the course of research. Yery modestly and 
truly George Smith confessed : " I never lose sight myself of 
the fact that, apart from the more perfect and main parts of 
these texts, both in the decipherment of the broken fragments 
and in the various theories I have projected respecting them, I 
have changed my own opinions many times, and I have no 
doubt that any accession of new material would change again 
my views respecting the parts affected by it. These theories 
and conclusions, however, although not always correct, have, 
on their way, assisted the inquiry, and have led to the 
more accurate knowledge of the texts ; for certainly in cunei- 
form matters we have often had to advance through error to 

It seems at present established that Kedor-la'omer and 
Kudur-Mabuk, and Khammurabi, are closely linked together 
in history in the way that has been recounted in these pages ; 
and there is, I think, a growing disposition among scholars 
to admit that those are right who have set the date of Abram 
at about 2000 before Christ.* Hommel makes B.C. 1900 " the 
approximately correct date of Abraham's migration from 
Haran," etc. {Anc. Heb. Trad., 140.) 

* La Magie, p. 2S9 ; Babylone, etc., p. 98. 


All that is hitherto known tallies in the most remarkable 
manner with the firm strong outline in the Book of Genesis of 
facts which, as M. Lenormant justly pronounces, "have a 
historic character the most striking "; # and when we estimate 
at its true value the decisive interposition of Abram in his only 
recorded act of warfare, we do not wonder at the honourable 
acknowledgment of the sons of Kheth, "A prince of God art 
thou among us." 

* La Langue prim., p. 373. 

( 2:37 ) 



THE foregoing studies are simply specimens of the kind of 
treatment naturally invited by the comparison between 
the sacred Scriptures on the one hand, and the results of recent 
research on the other. They scarcely cover three chapters out 
of the thirteen or fourteen of the Book of Genesis in which the 
story of Abraham is given to us, namely, those which form the 
first of four well-defined stages in " the days of the years of his 
pilgrimage" according to Franz Delitzsch, Edersheim, and 
others, chapters 12—14 inclusive. But these three chapters 
involve the relations of the patriarch towards his native country 
and the Land of Promise, with Elam on the east, and Egypt on 
the west ; comprising the whole of the grand " first civiliza- 
tions " of that age of which any records remain. 

I have tried to deal fairly, and to give the student the 
means of testing every statement for himself. The learned 
reader will, I trust, deal leniently with endeavours of so tenta- 
tive a character in a field so little cultivated when my book 
was first issued, but now so fruitful. The effect of twenty-five 
years' work on my own mind has been to confirm the " most 
striking historic character" of the Biblioal narrative. u The 
fundamental Biblical part of the entire theological system," 
wrote Franz Delitzsch, w is throughout historic " (0. T. Hist, of 
Redemption, p. 1). 

This historic record is, however, the base of a sublime 
psychological, spiritual, and theological lore familiar, more or 


less, to every well-instructed Christian. To this the present 
series of studies may be regarded as introductory, or supple- 
mentary, or confirmatory ; and surely nothing which is fit to 
serve these purposes will be indifferent to any soul that has 
embraced the truth which St. Paul enunciates when he writes : 
"If ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs 
according to the promise." 

In order to emphasise the historical position of the life of 
Abraham, the author reprints, with slight addition, his remarks * 
on Prof. Goldziher's Mythology among the Hebrews (translated 
by Mr. Russell Martineau). 

In this elaborate work it is seriously asserted that Abraham, 
Sarah, Isaac, Jacob, Esau, and the whole group of patriarchal 
characters of the Bible in general had no real existence, but 
are mythical creations belonging to a system of very early 

The general line of argument is twofold. The author first 
endeavours to establish an etymology of the proper names 
suitable to his theory, and then knits up the story, or some 
selected particulars, into the mythical web. He has thus trans- 
lated the old fathers far away from the earth and its doings. 

For instance, Abram (father of height) is the nightly sky. 
Sarah (princess) is the moon : so is probably Milka. Hagar 
(the flying one) is a solar name. Isaac (the laugher) is origin- 
ally the sun, but further on " the ' smiling one,' whom the ' high 
father' intends to slay, is the smiling day, or more closely 
defined the smiling sunset, which gets the worst of the contest 
with the night-sky and disappears " (p. 96). 

Thus narratives which are distinctly treated in the Penta- 
teuch by Moses, and by Joshua and the Prophets, and the 
Evangelists and Apostles, and especially by our Lord Himself as 
veracious history are resolved into fables, not indeed " cunningly 

* Originally published in the Trans. Vict. Inst., Vol. XII., p. 110. 


devised," but spontaneous (p. 31), and the inevitable growth of 
the human mind according to supposed psychological laws. 

I offer a few thoughts on this mode of exposition. 

(A.) And, first, the philological argument is of a very slight 
texture indeed. The names, for instance, are for the most part 
not shewn to have ever been used with the asserted significance. 
Abraru was never a word for heaven, nor was even " ram " in 
Hebrew, although " rayam " in iEthiopic is adduced ; and no 
instance is suggested in any language where Abram denotes 
anything but a man, and this (by the way) not only in Scrip- 
ture, for Abramu was a court-officer of Esar-haddon (Ep. 
Can., p. 39). 

Again, no instance is given of Yitskhak (Isaac) really de- 
noting the sun or the sunset, or anything else than a man whose 
name is explained in the Scripture narrative ; nor of Sarah 
being a title of the moon in Hebrew or any other language ; 
nor of Hagar meaning the sun in Hebrew. The noon-day sun 
may well be called al-hajira (the flying one), as our author tells 
us, by the Arabs quite consistently with a slave having borne 
(if so be) a similar name. Moreover Hagar occurs among the 
Pharaohs of the xxix th dynasty ; so that Hagar may after all 
have been a real Egyptian name. The Hagarenes, too (Hagar- 
anu in Assyrian), are mentioned both in Scripture and in an 
inscription of Tigiath-pileser II. 

A curious statement is made (p. 158) that " Sin (the moon) 
and Gula of the male triad are balanced respectively by * the 
highest Princess,' and by Malkit ' the Queen ' in the female ; 
and these are only Sarah and Milkah again." This is hard to 
understand, for Gula was a goddess, not a "male," and could not 
be " balanced " by Malkit. In fact, Gula was the " female " 
corresponding to Samas the Sun-god, and " sometimes replaced," 
says M. Lenormant,* " by a group of three wives, equal among 

* La Magie, p. 107. 


themselves : Malkit, G-ala, and Anunit." Moreover, the spouse 
of Sin does not appear to have been called Sarah ; nor is there 
any evidence of a goddess called by the Hebrews Milcah. 

So with Abimelekh king of Gerar. Prof. Goldziher 
includes this title in the " Solar " list, p. 158. Yet the name, 
like Abrani, appears in the Assyrian annals (viz., as a prince of 
Aradus in the time of Esar-haddon). 

If all owners of lofty, or even celestial, titles are to be rele- 
gated to the skies, what will become of the Egyptian Pharaohs, 
whose especial glory it was to boast themselves in "solar 
titles " ? 

We have a good instance of a name which has a very 
mythical look at first sight, in Ur, Abram's birthplace. 

This, however, is happily tied hard and fast to this world 
by the bricks of which it is built, which bear the name of the 
town Uru. 

The local and personal names of Holy Scripture will yield 
rich results under reasonable inquiry. 

(B.) But I turn from philology to psychology, which is 
made responsible for this line of explanation. 

Now the characters and doings of these old fathers and their 
wives and families are so thoroughly human, so very various, 
yet each so consistent in itself, bearing such marks of truth- 
fulness under the touchstone of human experience, that this 
kind of exposition in the hands of such men as the late 
Prof. Blunt has acquired a very distinct and acknowledged 
value. I appeal from psychology beside herself to psychology 
sober as a very credible witness to the genuine historical 
character of the lives of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. 

(C) Then again, historical research is daily adding fresh 
confirmation to our trust in the sacred records. Look, for 
instance, at the episode of Elam. The world had nothing to 
shew of this old powerful highland monarchy conquering as far 


as the Egyptian borders, except in closest relation to the life of 
Abraham, and so only through Lot. 

But now we read the story in quite a consonant sense in 
Chaldsean muniments. 

What right have we to rend out the figure of Abram from 
the canvas, leaving the Amorite chiefs, on the one hand, and 
the allied kings of the East, on the other ? 

(D.) But this form of credulous scepticism is, most of all, 
a violation of the spiritual consensus of the whole Hebrew and 
the whole Christian Church. 

Prof. Goldziher has nowhere so utterly wandered as in 
his opinions on religion, whose genesis he thus explains 
(p. 218): — "It must be regarded as established and certain 
that the psychological process of the origin of religion, a process 
influenced only in its most advanced stages by ethical and 
esthetic forces, is, in the first instance, developed out of the 
older mental activity which resulted in the creation of myths." 

Now this is the very inversion of the order of things 
established alike by Scripture and Archaeology ; that the 
spiritual faculties which cry out for the living God germinated 
first from the embers of an " older mental activity " exhausted 
(as the Professor goes on to say) by this creation of myths, is 
surely the most unlikely thing imaginable in itself, and con- 
trary to what we find in the dedications, prayers, and hymns of 
earliest date, both in Chaldaea and Egypt. If . our author 
denounces as inhuman, and therefore monstrous in itself, the 
opinion of Renan that " the Semites never had a mythology," 
surely we may, on similar ground, repudiate the dogma that all 
mankind were destitute of religion until in the course of ages 
they produced it for themselves. 

In the Expository Times, vol. vil, 49G, etc., is a very 
interesting notice of Prof. Kohler's article on Abraham in the 
new Real-Encijclopcedie by Prof. Tasker. " To him Abraham is 

S 6517. Q 


no myth, but a real person, and the sublime story of his life is 
history, and not fiction." And I am glad to find Prof. Kohler 
holds such views as are expressed above as to the mythical 
theories. On the .other hand, he "holds that the author of the 
Book of Genesis made intelligent and honest use of the materials 
at his disposal, but that it is impossible to reconstruct any one 
of the three sources E, J, P ; he also inclines to the view that 
the writers of these narratives had access to very ancient records, 
some dating ' even from pre-Mosaic times.' But if the possi- 
bility is allowed of the preservation of a reliable tradition 
concerning Abraham to the time when the documentary sources 
of the Book of Genesis were written, no reason remains why, in 
spite of all the objections just urged, we should regard him as 
a legendary hero, a product of Israelitish imagination in later 
years. A sentence which AYellhausen wrote in a different con- 
nexion should be remembered here : " If the Israelitish tradition 
be only possible, it would be folly to prefer any other possibility 
to it." 

Finally, the life of Abraham is a vital part of that unique, 
coherent, and divine development which St. Paul calls "the 
purpose of the ages" (Eph. 3. 11), whereby the Book of Genesis 
is intelligibly correlated with the Apocalypse through all the 
intermediate range of sacred literature. I appeal to sound 
historical criticism, to sober psychology, to pure religion ; and 
trust that we see how consonant these are with a straightforward 
belief in the record as it stands. 

( 243 ) 



1. Passage from Damascius. Prof. Sayce* understands 
Damascius to state that Sige " was the primitive substance 
of the universe." "Now Sige," says he, "is the Akkadian 
Zicu or Zigara," the heaven, "the mother of gods and 
men," while Apason is Ap'su, "the deep," and Tavthe 
Tihamtu, "the sea," etc. Prof. Sayce has explained to me 
how he reaches this meaning : "I prefer the reading <riyr,v 
TcapCivat in the extract from Damascius," he writes, "but we 
may retain <nyr} (not o-iyrj), regarding the word as indeclin- 
able." In the former conjectural emendation of the text, I can- 
not follow the learned writer. But if we read 2*777 as an 
indeclinable proper name, the meaning would be : " Of the 
barbarians the Babylonians seem to pass over the one principle 
of the universe, Sige ; but to make (or to mention, e*V«* ; 
Munich MS.) two, Tauthe and Apason," etc. This may lead 
to an interesting inquiry into the terminology of the Gnostics. 
Yalentinus made Sty*} the consort of Bv6o<;, but he drew 
from older sources. " It is very certain," says Mr. W. Wigan 
Harvey, the learned editor of Irena3us,t "that Simon Magus 
was the first that spoke of Sige as the root of all ; for this is 
the meaning of Eusebius, de Eccl. Th. n., 9, in describing as 
one fundamental tenet of Simon Magus, \v Gdq kou 'Eijrj 

* Acad., Mar. 20, 1875 ; Cliald. Magic, p. 123 ; also Horamel, IX. Orient. Congress, 
London, II., 221 (Ziku=shamu, Heaven). 
t S. Iren., Tom. I., p. 98, note. 

Q 2 


God was also Silence, not, there teas also God and Silence. 
For in the Philosopltumena of Hippolytus we read Zvo 

€i<ri TrapcLfvaZeq rav obuv alccvuy . . . ano [aigo; pA^ft rjTit; i<rn 

Iwxpis ?iyyj> k.t.k. This may well be compared with what 
Damascius states on the authority of Endemns the disciple of 
Aristotle as the doctrine of the Babylonians. Much more may 
be learned about Sige in Irenaeus and other early writers. But 
the term seems to have been used always by the Gnostics in its 
proper Greek form and sense. Nevertheless, as Simon Magus 
was a Samaritan, brought up in the lore which had been im- 
ported by the worshippers of " Adrammelech and Anammelech " 
from Sepharvaim and such head-quarters of Chaldaean religion, 
it may be possible that the Akkadian Ziku* was the traditional 
name which became confounded with the Greek 2<y») in the 
lapse of ages. For my own purpose, however, be this as it may, 
the statement of Damascius, and no less that of Hippolytus, 
will lead to the conclusion that the Babylonians took for granted 
a first origin (a/>%-/?) of all things, whatever divarications and 
" endless genealogies " they and their Gnostic brood may have 
feigned lower down the stream. 

2. Salt and brimstone near the Dead Sea. See Canon 
Tristram, Land of Israel, p. 245, where he speaks of " morsels 
of sulphur" in the mud of the Delta, north of the Dead 
Sea ; and p. 243 : " As we approached the sea, the whole of 
the upper level was more or less incrusted with a thin coating of 
salts, apparently deposited from the atmosphere, with deposits 
of gypsum, and occasionally varied by thicker deposits of 
sulphur." For the sulphur on the western shores see Land of 
Israel, pp. 279, 301, 365 ; Land of Jloab, 354 ; on the east, 
see Land of Jloab, 243. 

3. Mazor ; hence Mitsraim = " the two defences," 
Upper and Lower Egypt. The origin of the name is treated 

* Cha 7 d. Magic, pp. 123, 140, 156. 


very carefully by Prof. Ebers. Aegyptm und die Bilcher 

Mose's, p. 85. On the occurrence of Matsrima as a Hittite 
proper name, see ante, p. 89. 

4. Osiris. Is the Asar of Egypt connected with the A-sar of 
the Assyrians ? [This note is retained as written before 1878]. 
See Rev. C. J. Ball, P.S.B.A., June 1800, and xv. 48 (November 
1892), by whom the identity of Asari, a title of Merodach, 
and " AsAri, or rather Uasar (Wasari) " | , Osiris, is estab- 
lished, and even the identity of the graphic signs in Akkadian 
and Egyptian, as before mentioned in this volume. See also 
Prof. Hommel's memorable paper in Trans. Ninth {London) 
Congress of Orientalists, i., pp. 218 et seqq. 

5. Monotheism in Egypt. Canon Cook reiterated his 
belief on this subject : * "I hold it to be a fact, settled 
on the surest evidence, that the oldest Egyptian inscriptions 
bear strongest witness to a primeval belief in the unity of God, 
and the absolute dependence of all creation on His will. One of 
the most instructive documents is the text of Chapter xvn. of the 
Egyptian Ritual, published by Lepsius in the Aelteste Texte, etc. 
It shews that at a very early age, far before the Mosaic period, 
interpretations were already common, each obscuring and cor- 
rupting the original text, which was purely monotheistic. 
Comparing the text, as it stands in that work, with all later 
texts, e.g. de Rouge's, and Lepsius in the Todtenbuch, it be- 
comes self-evident that the later the text the wider is the 
departure from the original truth, the wilder and grosser are 
the superstitions engrafted on it." (Canon Cook's verdict 
agrees with that of M. Robiou, derived from the monumental 
inscriptions, as noticed in the text of this work, p. 120. and also 
with that of Profs. Mahaffy and Lefebure, Prolegomena to Anc. 
Hist., 2G3, etc.) 

* Trans. Viet. Inst., Vol XII., p. 93, 1878. 


6. Embalming the dead. In his valuable Studies, Biblical 
and Oriental* the Rev. W. Turner quotes Chwolson as 
noting that mention is made in an Arabic writer of the 
discovery of embalmed bodies in South Chalda^a. Is there 
any other evidence of such a discovery ? 

7. Among the most useful and accessible handbooks of 
the Bible-student has been the Queen's Printers' well-known 
"Aids." A fresh edition is now ready, with Illustrations 
selected and described by the Rev. C. J. Ball. It is with vivid 
gladness and satisfaction that I find so much support to my 
own old convictions expressed in general terms in his preface, and 
specifically in the expositions of the successive photogravures 
which form this excellent collection ; such as the attribution 
of the group of so-called Hyksos sculptures to that date and 
race, and his agreement in the date of Raineses II. and Me- 
neptah for the oppression of Israel and the Exodus ; and 
many points in which I would have cited his authority in my 
text if I had been earlier aware of the preparation of this work. 

8. Hobah. This name Khobah occurs in the Tel el- 
Amarna tablets (P. S. B. A., vol. xix., p. 25). 

9. The name "JSarai" It is due to the late learned Dr. 
Haigh to say that substantially the view I have suggested was 
put forth by him in the Zeitschrift f. Aegypt, Spraehe, 1877, 
p. 39, and in a letter to myself in 1877: " *-*!£> Sar-I. '/is 
king ' ; I was a divine name, and Ave know from the tablets 
that it was equivalent to Iau, Iahu." Compare Hornmel, Heb. 
Trad. 166, and Pinches, P. S. B. A., xv. 13-15. 

10. Babylonia and Palestine. In the P. E. F. Quarterly, 
1885-6, I contributed several papers bearing on the culture 
of Babylonia transported into Palestine, the gigantic heroes 
of Philistia, the worship of Tammuz, Lakhmu, and kindred 

P. 110, note. 


matters too discursive for this volume, hut inferring the early 
and strong influence of Chaldsea in the West. 

11. "Biblical Proper Names" Under this title a paper 
of mine maybe found in Trim*. Vict Inst, which was read 
and discussed on Jan. 26, 1882, and elicited some very interest- 
ing comments from Professors Cheyne and Maspero, Canon 
Girdlestone, and others. The late Lord A. C. Hervey, Bishop 
of Bath and Wells, wrote to me : " The argument from the 
agreement linguistic, moral, and religious, between the names 
and the surrounding circumstances of those who bore the 
names, is very cogent as unmistakable evidence of historic 
truth." In view of the cogent argumentative use made by Pro- 
fessors Hommel and Sayce, Mr. Pinches and others, of proper 
names, Hebrew, Babylonian, Arabian, etc., it may be worth 
while to refer to this old forgotten paper. 

12. " The sons of AnaJc." That this renowned Amorite 
clan "came (as I wrote) from the plain of the Euphrates, 
whatever their original seat," is the more likely since we can 
now trace two out of the three great names (Xum. 13. 22) to 
Babylonia. Prof. Sayce tells me he has found " Akhamanu " 
in a contract tablet of the reign of Zabum before the time of 
Abraham ; and among the kings of a contemporary dynasty 
with that of Khammurabi, the fifth out of eleven is Shusshi, 
sW which is equivalent to "Sheshai" (Josh. 15. 13, 14) In 
the paper referred to in note 11 above, I suggested that the 
second element in Akhi-man might be "Mann the Great " of 
the Babylonians, the god of fate (see Lenormant, Chald. Magic, 
120, and compared Talm-on and Akhiman, temple-porters in 
the time of David, with these Anakim). Absalom's mother 
was "the daughter of Talmai, King of Geshur," in the 
Amorite region of Bashan. 

13. Maraihu8—Martu mul the land of Amurri. See the 
treatment of this subject by M. Delattre in P. S. B. A. t xvn. 72. 


14. The Sutekh of the Hyhsos. Is it not possible that 
Sutekh bears the name of the Suti, or Sati, the nomad archer- 
hordes whose name was used by the Egyptians to designate 
the Hyksos ? Prof. Maspero says, " Sutikhu, Sutkhu, are 
lengthened forms of Sutu, or Situ (Struggle, etc., 59, 
note 1)." Comp. Zannukhu or Zanni, god of Mitanni. (Sayce, 
"Language of Mitanni," Zeitschr. f. Assyr. v. 269.) "The 
Egyptian Sute = Bednin, Asiatics, is, as Jensen points out, a 
Babylonian loan-word " (Hommel, ffeb. Trad. 211, note). 
Did they not bring Sut, or Sutu (Sut-ekh) with them as their 
eponymous god ? 

15. TercCklts wife. Tnrakhu, the antelope, appears to be 
even the symbol of sacrifice. Mr. Ball has given a picture of 
human sacrifice from a seal-cylinder (Mon. Ulust., Xo. 108), 
in which an antelope is springing up from the heel of the 
victim, a sort of ideograph of sacrifice. In a Syriac MS. 
edited by Dr. Bezold (Die Schatzhohle, etc., Leipzig, 1883, 
35), the mother of Abram is called Jauna (Yauna = J"QV 
Dove ? also a most renowned sacred animal). Surely, Yauna 
could not represent a descendant of Javan (J,*) ? 

16. Abram and "Amram. Does not 'Amram (D^JO rank 
with Abram, Akhiram, and the like, and, with other names begin- 
ning with 'Am, indicate an Arabian origin as Prof. Hommel 
has pointed out ? This would agree with other indications of 
kindred in the life of Moses, his retreat to Midian, etc. 

17. Khammurabi — Amraphel. Prof. Sayce writes to me 
from Paris that Dr. Scheil has found the name of Khammu- 
rabi-ilu' agreeing with his theory. Mr. Ball accepts Amraphel 
as assuredly Ammurabi, or Khammurabi. 

18. Aamn, or Amu. Dr. W. Max-Miiller suggests that the 
Amu may have been so-called, not from D>*, people, but from 
their weapons, the " boomerang " or throw-stick, Am (Asien 
and Europa, 125). 


19. "The faith of our father Abraham? To the addi- 
tional notes, rapidly put together at the last, I would add 
one more, containing- the testimony of three witnesses, 
worthy of all credit, to the relative value of reason and 
faith. These are all gone from us, but they are all the more 
worthy of hearing. The late Dr. Edersheim, himself a lineal 
and spiritual son of Abraham, in his preface to his Lives of 
the Patriarchs, writes : " When all has been done, the feeling 
grows only more strong that there is another and a higher 
understanding of the Bible, without which all else is vain"; 
and explains his well-known meaning, to which his own 
course of devoted life agreed. A short story will bring for- 
ward the consensus of two noble sons of Abraham in spi- 
ritual genealogy : — 

Bishop Selwyn was requested to write his name in a book 
of autographs, and a vacant space was found under the writing 
of Dr. Arnold of Rugby — the end of a letter to his beloved 
sister Susanna. The Bishop looked earnestly at those affec- 
tionate words, and said : " Do you wish me to write my name 
under Dr. Arnold's ? Then will you allow me to add the 
connecting link between myself and him ? " I assented gladly, 
and he wrote — 

" The highest exercise of reason is Faith." 

"Dr. Arnold." 

with his signature as Bishop of New Zealand, " Nov. 10th, 
1867," adding a few emphatic words unwritten. On the day 
before this Lord Derby had written to ask his acceptance of 
the See of Lichfield. Thus it was at a great turning-point of 
his pilgrimage that the words were written. Reason " seeing: 
Him Who is invisible," is transfigured into faith (Rom. 12. 
1, 2.) 

" "Where reason fails with all her powers 
There faith prevails, and love adores." 

( 251 ) 


Aah-iiotep, Queen. page 

Her jewels . . 135, 191 


King of G-erar . . .185 

Born at Ur . .8 

The name Abranm in 
the Assyrian Eponym 
Canon . . . .58 
Name of . . . .63 
Called of God ... 66 
Migrates to Kharran . 67 
„ to Canaan . . 77 
to Egypt . .126 
Back to Canaan . .189 
Pursues and defeats Kedor- 
laomer. . . 230, 231 

Mentioned in tomb of 
Khnum-hotep . .136 

AdrAmmelech and Anammelech. 

Worshipped at Sepharvaim 34 

Near to Salim . . .90 

First king of eighteenth 

dynasty . .180, 184 

Naval officer, his inscrip- 
tion . . . .102 

Language, had ceased to be 
spoken before the 17th 
century, b.c. . . 26 

Calendar and Zodiac later 

than 2300 B.C. . . 26 
Poetry at its height 4000 

years ago . . .26 
Sabbaths. ... 29 
Worship . . .33, 40 
Human sacrifice . .34 
Proverbs . . . .39 
Laws .... 49 
Magic . . . .42 



Aku, see Six. 

Its name . . . .80 
Castle of . . . .81 
Amar-utu-ki, see Marduk. 

Amenemhat I. fortifies the 

Delta . 99 
„ subdues the 

Sati . 100 

,, colossus of, 

at San . 127 
Egypt under the Ame- 

nemhats . . .141 
An officer of the twelfth 
dynasty . . .164 

Amenhotep I., second king 
of the eighteenth dy- 
nasty .... 

His office and prayer . 54 

King of Tennu . .100 


Their land . . .103 
Personal appearance of . 105 
Chariots of . . .105 
Standard of . . .106 
Gods of . . . .108 
Their language . .109 

AhbAphbl, King. 

Identified as Khammurabi 211 

Name of Terakh's wife in 
the Talmud . . • .41 

Egyptian name for Semitic 

people . . . .97 
The thirty-seven at Beni- 

hassan . 

Plumes of 





An. page 

Biblical On, Greek Heli- 
opolis . . . 132, 151 

Perhaps a tribe of Hyks6s . 128 

Papyrus Anastasi VI. re- 
ferred to . . .141 
Papyrus Anastasi III. cited 1 89 

Ancessi, Abbe. 

On Egyptian religion 148, 152 


God of heaven . . .33 
"Worshipped at Erech . 33 


The wicked serpent . .149 

Hyksosking . . 172, 173 

Early home of Semites . 9 

Meaning of the name . 128 

Arban, on the river Khabour. 
Antiquities found by Lay- 
ard at . . . . 179 


East of Jordan . . .87 

Domestic, of Chaldsea . 58 
Argob, in Bashan . . .86 

Probably Eri-aku . .208 
Arks, Sacred. 

Used in Babylonia as in 
Egypt . . . 36, 121 
Aryans ..... 203 

A title of Marduk . .37 

Asari-mulu dugga. 

Identified with Marduk . 38 
Analogous to Osiris . . 39 

Asiiteroth Karnaim . .217 


Painted at Beni-hassan . 137 
In Egypt. . . 142, 184 

A ssur-bani-pal. 

King of Assyria, took 

Susa . . .15, 206 
Removed the Library of 
Sargon I. from Erech . 17 




Conquered Arba-ki . 

Canaanite figures of . 

Fully developed in Ckalda?a 
about 2000 b.c. . . 25 
Attila, the Hun . . . 204 

In the Delta . . .132 




Identical with Set . 

Gryphon of 
Bachtan, or Bit-ani. 

Near Armenia . 

Granite lion found at . 161, 171 


Lake on the Orontes. . 82 

Name of Dead Sea . .194 
Baker, Sir Samuel. 

His remark on pet animals 142 
Beersheba . . . .191 
Beke, Dr. 

On Harran-el-Awamid . 83 

His temple at Nipur. . 25 
BelIkh River. 

Affluent of the Eu- 
phrates . . 71, 77 

Subterranean chambers 
of . . . .135 


Described . . .123 


Ferry over Euphrates at . 77 

Birch, Dr. 

On the Nemma-sha . .101 
On the Hyksos . .183 


Of Sinaitic Arabia . .136 

The great tower of stages . 28 
Boscawen, Mr. W. St. Chad. 

Assyrian Beading Book 
cited . . . .120 

His papers on Gudea . 175 



His geographical inscrip- 

His Excursus on Egvpt 

tions .... 




,0n the Rnten . 


On Abram in Egypt 


„ origin of the Egyptians 



„ the Delta . ' . 


Akkadian ideas of . 


Bubton, Sir R., R.N. 

Egyptian opinion on 


His discoveries in MidiaD . 



On Canaanite religion 




In Egypt 


Statue at . 


Canaanites. (See also Kiieta, 

From the Persian Gulf 

Their religions 

Their present descendants. 



Quoted .... 

Tradition of Abram at 
Dan, now Tel-el-Kady . 




Daniel, Tomb of . 


In Babylonia . . 53 

, 55 



Brick pyramid of 


Modern Jerabolus . 78, 


Davis, Rev. E. J. 


Inscription at Ibreez 


In Egypt 
Cesnola, General di. 

Antiquities found in Cy- 



Name of the Pole Star in 
Dead Sea. 


prus by 


Shores of. 


Chabas, M. Fr. 


On Camel in Egypt . 


Or Kiriath-Sepher . 


„ Abram in Egypt. 185, 



„ Egyptian phrases 


Of Egypt, its condition . 


„ Hittite tablet 


Deveria, M. Theodule. 


On statue in the Louvre . 





Pantheon of . 


Dogs of Abram 


Astronomy of . 


Drake, Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt. 

Sabbath in 


On route through Bashan 


Religion of . . 30, 36 

On climate of Jericho 



Dravidians . . . . 


Ur of the Chaldees . 


Drew, Rev. G. S. 

Dress of . 


Quoted . . .130 


Cosmogony of . 


Duzi, see Tahzi. 

Chester, Rev. Greville J. 

Antiquities brought home 


In Egypt . 


by . . . 


Ebers, Professor. 

Choaspes, modern Kerkhaii 

On Sphinxes of San . 


River, see Kerkhaii. 

,, History of the Delta 


Clermont-Ganneau, M. 

„ Marriage in Egypt 


On Canaanites 



Conder, Col. C. R., R.E. 

Garden of, perhaps ir 

On Mukams . 


' Chaldsea 




Edwards, Miss Amelia B. 


Letter from Lepsius 



Lower Egypt described . 


Religion of 


„ distinguished 

from Christi- 




Kudur-nakhundi king of. 

b.c. 2280 . 


Name of . 


Description of . 


Races in . 




Emim. {See also Imu.) . 





Name of kings of the 

eleventh dynasty . 134, 



Now Warka, a city of 

Nimrod ravaged by Ku- 

dur-nakhundi, b.c. 2280 


Monotheism, taught at 


Ishtar worshipped at 


A great burial city . 


Description of a cylinder- 

seal from 



Son of Kudur-mabuk . 208 
His buildings and con- 
quests . . . .209 


Crowned by his father . 73 
Esther, Book of . 200 

Et-tell, see Ha¥. 

Akkadian . . .43 


Of angels . . .36 

„ man . . . .36 


District on the west of the 

Nile . . . .141 

Obelisk in . . .144 

Fenekhu . . . .115 

Finn, Mr. Consul. 

On Canaanites . .118 

Finn, Mrs. page 

Describes Abram's journey 
to Egypt 

Punishment of sin . 

Floods of Euphrates and 
Tigris .... 

Umlias destroyed by 

Used in Babylonian dress . 




Ancient name of Car- 
chemish . . .78 

Gerar 126 


Described . . .91 


Epic of, not older than 
b.c 2300 ... 26 

Epic of, probable date 
about b.c 2000 . . 26 

Gutium of the inscriptions 211 

Used by Akkadians . .59 
Gold, White. 

Silver so called in Egypt . 185 
Goodwin, Mr. C. Wycliffe. 

Translates story of Sineh . 99 
Grove, Sir George. 

On the Dead Sea . .194 


Viceroy of Zergulla, his 
statuettes . . .175 
Gutium, see Goim. 



. 124 

Haigii, Rev. D. H. 

Quoted . 

. 99 

On Hittite names 

. 110 

„ Khebron 

. 129 

,. Pa-neham . 

. 99 

Ham, probably Hameitat. 

Hemta of the Targums 

. 217 


On the Orontes 

. 81 

Incised stones found at 

. 81 

Hamy, Dr. 

On statues of Hyksos 

. 174 


Near Damascus 

. 82 




Hazeroth . . . .126 

Hazziz 223 

Hebron (Khebron). 

Its foundation . . .127 
Heliopolis, see An. 

Author of " Attila " . . 204 

Nomad tribes . . .97 
Hommel, Prof. F. 

"The Oldest History of 
the Semites " quoted . 12 

Ancient Emesa. . .104 

In Egypt . . .183 

Hurki, see Sin. 

Husasa, ancient Hazziz . .223 
Hyksos or Shepherd Kings. 

Date of . . . .160 

Period of . . .161 

Statues of, at SRn, &c. .164 

Name and race of . . 17* 

Their religion . . .176 

Akkadian, to the Moon- 
god . . . .21 

On the ship of Ea , .120 


From Sinai , . .136 

In the Taurus, inscription 
found at . . .81 
Ilu, the supreme god . .32 
Lw, perhaps the ancient Emim, 

see Emim. 

Pare among the Akkadians 60 

When born . . .214 
Isiitar, temple of, at Erech . 25 

Or Gilgames, perhaps 
same as Nimrod, slays 
Khumbaba . . .199 


On Egyptian religion , 147 

James, Sir Henry, R.E. page 

Describes a remarkable 
block of tin . . .137 
Jerabolus, see Carchemisii. 

Piver . . , .197 

Climate of 226 


Son of Ishmael . .84 


His mode of life . .76 

Epithet in Egyptian in- 
scriptions . . .156 

Kadesh Barnea . .104, 220 

Kadesh on the Orontes . .81 

The Turanian name of 

Babel . . . .32 

Kaivanu, Heb. Kiun . .28 

Name of Canaan in Egyp- 
tian and Assyrian . 95 

Father-in-law of Terakh 

in the Talmud . .41 

Taken . . . .209 

Derivation of . . .48 

In Elam . . . .201 

Kassian gods . . . 202 

King of Elam . . .196 

His first expedition to 

Canaan . . .214 

His second expedition . 215 
Kenrick, Mr. John. 

On Western Migration . 66 

A Mohammedan burial 

city . . . .59 
Kerkhah. Choaspes. 

River . . .197, 200 

Canal constructed by . 55 

His conquests . . . 234 






Called the city of Nakhor . 


Its history 

Its gods . 

His sacrifice 
Kiiatti, Assyrian name of Hit- 

tites, see Kheta. 

Or Hebron, its foundation . 

Dr. Haigh on . 


Sons of Kheth, Khatti, 
conquered by Sargon I. 

Their golden vessels 

Arms, &c. 

Personal appearance 
of ■ . 

Literature on the 

Land of . 
Kheth, see Kheta. 

His tomb 

Near Damascus 

Susian god 

Slain by Izdubar 

Their titles 


Their limited power 


Kassi of the monuments . 
Kitto, Dr. 

Description of tent life 
KLAFT,an Egyptian headdress . 


Tumulus of Abydos . 

King of Elam, formerly 
thought identical with 
Kudur-lagamar . 


King of Elam, B.C. 2280 























Kurn Surtabeh. 

Hill near Jordan 


. 197 


Used in Egypt 



Perhaps Ellasar 


Lauth, Professor . 





Family lawsuit. 


Layard, Sir A. H., see A.rbax . 


Used for writing in Egypt 


Lefebure, M. 

On development in Egypt 


Lenormant, Professor F. 

On Canaanite religions 


„ Egyptian skulls . 


,, Elemental Spirits 


., Egyptian Magic . 


Describes the Hyksos head 

in Villa Ludovisi . 


On statuette from Babylon 


,, languages and gods of 

Elam . . .201- 


Lepsius, Dr. 

On the Amu of Beni- Has- 

san .... 


„ the Hyks6s. 



Claimed Arba' as their 

father .... 


Lieblein, Professor. 

On the Hittites . 82, 


Loftus, Mr. W. K. 

His account of Elam 


„ ,, Susa 


Ludovisi, Villa. 

Head of Hyksos at . 



Akkadian . . 39, 42 

Egyptian . . 45, 145 

Makan, the Sinai'tic Peninsula 208 

Malan, Rev. Dr. S. C. 

Description of Kharran . 68 
On Abram's route . .77 
„ life of Abram . .186 

Mamre the Amorite . . 195 

Marathus . . . ,120 



Marduk. Akkadian Amar- page 


Identified with Asari- 
mulu-dugga . . .38 

On Egyptian religion . 149 
„ Monuments of Zoan . 163 
„ the Hyksds . 169, 182 

Laws of . . . .50 
In Egypt . . .185 

Mars 28 


Explained . . .120 
Maspeeo, Professor. 

On Monotheism . 148, 149 

„ the stele of Iritisen . 155 

„ theHyksos . 161, 183 

Mazor . . . . 127, 162 

McGregor, Mr. John. 

At Zoan . . . .162 

On Tell-el-Kady . . 228 
Medinet Habu, see Rameses 



In Lower Egypt . .132 

Temple of Set at, t. fifth 
dynasty . . .177 
Mexaxt, M. 

On Chaldeans . . .46 

Son of Eameses II. . .141 
Men ka-ra, Mycerinus. 

His coffin . . .153 

His palace . . .187 

Gryphon sacred to . .181 

Name of kings of eleventh 
dynasty . . .134 

Lake in the Delta . .174 
Merodacii-baladan . .216 

Meyer, Dr. E. 

On the red crown of 
Lower Egypt . .163 

On Set . . . . 177 
Midi ax. 

Riches of the Midianites . 1 37 
Milkaii 62 


Travels of a . . .92 


Plan of, described . . 93 

Whether lost by the Akka- 
dians . . . .30 
In Egypt . . 147, 153 


Third month sacred to the 

Moon-god . . .24 
Nisan, ceremonies in .54 

Moon - god. Akkadian 
Uru-ki or Aku; Assy- 
rian Sin . . .20 
Hymn to . . . .21 
Moses . . . . .157 

Importance of, among; the 
Akkadians . . .49 
Mukams, see Conder, Col. C. R. 


In Midian . . .208 
Mullias, see Flood. 

Systematically developed 
about 2000 b.c. . . 25 

Nablous, see Sichem. 
Nabu-nahid (Nabonidus). 

An important inscription 
of . . . .11 

Susian goddess . . 202 

Nana . . . .15, 202 

Deified in life-time . . 207 

Son of Sargon I. . .207 
Naville, M. 

His labours on the Ritual 145 

Nebo 24 


A Mohammedan burial city 59 

Or "the South" de- 
scribed . .124, 189 

Nomads, Dr. Birch on .101 
Nephthys . . . .177 

God of War . . .25 
Nkolaus of Damascus. 

On Abram ... 82 

S 6517. 






Ancient Nipur . 

209 | 

Possible derivation . 



Pepi Meri-ra. 

Identified with Izdubar . 


King of sixth dynasty 




His queen's pyramid 


Mountains of . 



Ncrris, Mr. Edwin. 

Nomad tribes . 



Cited .... 



Northey, Eev. A. E. 

The title . 


View from Enbad . 


Pharpar, Eiver. 

Numidians, see Nemma-sha. 

Its course 




Akkadian name of Elam . 


Language of . 


Nusku, see Nebo. 

Eeligion of 
Blocks of tin . 



Pierret, M. Paul. 

In annals of Assur-bani- 

On the word Amur (West) 


pal .... 

Tables of . . 


,, Monotheism 



„ the epithet " justi 



Oppert, Professor Julius. 

Pig In Egypt 


On Egypt and Assyria 


Orchoe, see Erecti. 

Of Hyksos . 



Of Hittites 


Hamatli on 
Osburn, Mr. William. 


Pleyte, M. \V. 



On the Amorites 


Polytheism . 




Poole, Mr. Eeginald Stuart. 

His worship . 


On the Canaanites . 


Owen, Sir E. 

On camel in Egypt . 


Proto Medic Language 




Pad AN- ARAM. 



Plain of the Highlands . 


Prudentius, cited . 


Palmer, Professor E. H. 


On land of the Amo- 
rites . . .101, 






The Creator, worshipped 

Pax jab. 

at Memphis . 



Aryans in 


Pur-Sin IE, King . 



Defined by M. Lenormanl 



Panther- skins, robe of . 


Midday sun 



Eam, see Sacrifice. 

Used by the Akkadians 



Anastasi VI. referred to 


LLI. palace of, at Tell-el- 

Almost extinct in Egypt 


Yahudieh . 



Skiffs of . 


Pavilion of, at Medinet 

Eor writing in Egypt 


Habu . 


Prisse, commented on 


II. assault of Dapur 


Anastasi III. cited . 

. 189 

„ his treaty with Kheta- 

Saltier I. cited . 

. 189 




Paran .... 


III. conquers the Shasu . 




Ra-smenkh-ka. page 

Called Mer-mesha, colos- 
sus of . . . .164 
Rawlinson, Rev. Professor. 
On ancient monarchies, 

cited . . . .58 
„ date of Kudur-Mabuk 210 
Rawlinson, Sir H. C. 

On Western migrations . 64 
„ Kudur-Mabuk . . 207 

The colour of Nergal 

(Mars) . . .28 

Red Land, to - tesher 

(Egyptian) . . .163 
Remarks on . . .181 

Renan, M. Ernest. 

On monuments in Higher 
Lebanon . . .119 

Tribe on East of Jor- 
dan . . . 84, 217 

Believed by Akkadians . 37 
Associated with Marduk . 37 
In Egypt . . .152 


Patron of Irrigation . 25 
Robiou, M. Felix. 

On Egyptian religion . 148 
Rouge, Vic. Emmanuel de. 

On Set . . . . 178 
Rowley, Rev. Henry . .142 
Rubad, see Stanley, Northey. 

Upper Ruten in Southern 
Palestine . . .115 

Upper and Lower . .115 


The Moon - god, called 
" Lord of Rest," i.e., of 
Sabbaths . . .23 
Known to Akkadians and 
Assyrians . . .29 
Sabians 74 

Sacrifice. page 

Akkadian, the ram and 

the bull ... 34 
Human . . . .34 
,, Akkadian texts on 35 
„ attributed to Hyk- 

s6s . . . 181 
„ abolished by Ah- 

mes . . .181 
Sakti, or Sati. 

Semitic race . . .100 
M. Lenormant on . .101 
The Shepherd - kings 
called . . . 102, 174 

The first Shepherd-king, 
his inscription . .208 
Samas, Shemesh . . .25 
San, see Zoan.' 

Laws concerning . .49 

Story of . . . 99, 186 

Title in Chaldaea and 
Egypt . . . .186 

Identified with Iskah . 62 
Import of her name . 63 

Sargon I. 

Legend of . . .17 
Sargon, King of Assyria . 216 

Assyrian name of Lugal- 
banda . . . .129 

His numeral 4 . .128 

Saturn 28 

Sayce, Rev. Professor. 

Assyrian grammar cited . 58 
On Hittite language . . 110 
„ languages of Elam and 

Media . . .202 
Describes seal - cylinder 
found at Curium . . 208 

Of Ur-ba'u described . 23 
Babylonian . . .58 
Buried with the dead . 59 
In Egypt . . .143 


The crocodile-god . .132 



Sebek-hotep. ] 


Sin, Akkadian Aku. page 

V. king of thirteenth dy- 

Semitic name of the 

nasty .... 


Moon-god . 


Se'ir, Mount .... 


Patron of brick-making . 



His numerical symbol 30 . 




SiNA'iTic Arabia. 

Type of countenance 


Mining-stations of . 




Above the second cataract 


Built a Temple at Erech 


to Lugal-banda . 


Ancient Larsa . 



SepharvaTm, see Adrammelech. 

Twin cities of (Sephar- 


va'im) .... 


OfChaldsea . 


Human sacrifice at . 


Set, see Sutekh. 

Skene, Mr Consul. 



Suggestion as to Jerabolus 




Defeats Hazael at Saniru . 


Akkadian laws, concerning 


Shapur, river . 


Law suit, concerning 


Sharpe, Mr. S. 

Smith, Mr. George. 

On Egyptian head-dress 
Klaft .... 

Discovery of Carchemish . 



Buried at Aleppo 



On early kings 


Nomad tribes . 


Smith, Mr. Philip. 


His Manual of Ancient 

Kiver at Susa . 


History of the East, 



cited .... 


Shedim .... 181, 



Shemesh, or Samas. 

Taken .... 


The Sun-god, his temple 


at Larsa 


Of San . . . 164, 



In the Louvre . . 164, 


Amorite name of Hermon 


Stanley, Dean. 

Assyrian Saniru 


On Abram's route . 
View from Eubad . 



Sumir of the inscriptions 


Description of Sichem 

„ View from 



near Bethel . 


OfUr . 




Symbol of gods 


Ancient Susa . 


Stars shewn to Abram 


Shushan, see Susa. 



Akkadian name of Mer- 



cury, Star of Nebo 



The prince of the men of 

Vale of . 




SlDON . 


Sulum, see Sabbath. 




Used by the Akkadians 


Susa . 

In Egypt . 





Inscription at . 


Father of Kudur-Mabuk 




I XI) EX. 





Or Set, same as Ba'al 

99, 116, 176 
The nocturnal Sun . .178 
His symbolic figure . . 176 
Statuette of, at Ley den . 180 
Porcelain statuette of, at 

Buiak . . . .180 
Pig connected with . .184 


In duplicate, how formed . 52 

Talbot, Mr. H. Fox. 

On Monotheism . .31 


Or mountain gorge . .198 

Tan is, see Zoan. 

Tell-el-Kady, see Dan. 


Palace of Rameses III., 
at .... 105 

Teman, see Harkavy. 


In Southern Palestine . 100 

Thammuz, or Dumuzi. 

The Sun of Life . .26 

Thomson, Rev. Dr. W. M. 

On Bitumen-pits . . 226 


III. tablet of, at G-izeh . 100 
Conquests of . . .110 
I. fights against the Ruten 1 1 4 
III. geographical lists of 
Karnak . . Ill, 114 


Used in Egypt . .136 

Tid'al 211 


River . . . .197 

Tin, see Midian. 

Tristram, Rev. Canon. 

Description of Bashan . 85 

View from Gerizim . .92 

On Mamre . . .195 
„ Engedi . . 220, 221 

„ Dan . . . .227 

Trumbull, Rev. Dr. 

On Kadesh Barnea . . 220 

Tu, or Tutu. 

Setting Sun, the god of 

death . . . .26 


The nocturnal Sun . .151 


First civilizers of Baby- 
lonia . . . .18 

Invented Cuneiform writ- 
ing . . . .18 

Conquered by Semites . 19 

System of elemental 
worship . . .28 

Turanian element in 
Egypt. . . .130 

Turanian Elamites . .201 

Turanian language of 
Media . . . .203 
Turner, Rev, William. 

" Studies Bil.lical and Ori- 
ental,'' cited . . 58 


Goddess of Lower Egypt 179 
Ujfalvy, Professor de. 

Quoted on the Aryans in 

the Panjab . . .61 
On Vryans, Semites, and 
Chamites . . .65 
Ula'i, or Eul^eus, see Siiat-atik. 

Inscription of . . 97, 187 

Uru, capital of Uru-ma . 8 
Situation and port . 9, 15 
Ur-ba'u and Dimgi, Kings 

of .... 10 
Devoted to the Moon-god, 

his temple . . .20 
Ruins described . . 24 

A great burial -city . .59 

King of Ur (Mugheir), 
his temples . . .24 

I. Colossus of, at San . 127 

II. Pictures of his reign . 135 
I. Obelisk of . . .144 

„ Statue of, at Abydos . 163 
,, Two statues of, at San 164 
,, Gold leaf used in his 
time . . . .190 

Usous, see Usu. 


Explained . . .120 



Venus. page 

Planet, its phases ob- 
served in Chaldaea . 27 
Identified with Ishtar and 

Bilat . . . .28 
Tutelary of Agarde, and 
of Erech ... 28 

Wady Far'aii. 

From Jordan to Sichem . 89 

Indigenous in Chaldaea . 9 

In Egypt . . 112, 167 

Wilkinson, Sir J. Gardner. 

On Osiris . . .151 

Williams, Eev. George. 

Describes El 'Amud . .22 
Wilson, Maj.-Gen. Sir C. W., 

Description of Sichem 

Woman, see Marriage, Mo- 
Worship, see Sacrifice. 

Yabrok, sec Zerka. 
Yamutbal, see Elam. 

! Zerka. 

Ancient Yabbok . . 88 

Akkadian word for Spirit 145 

Their navigation . .120 
, Ziggurat. 

Tower of stages, its uses . 20 


Temple of Sar-ili, at Zir- 

gulla . . . .25 

Gudea, Viceroy of . .175 

Ziz 223 


Tanis, now San . 99, 127 

Favourite residence of 

thirteenth dynasty . 159 

Its monuments . .163 
I Zodiac, see Akkadians. 

Zuzim . . . . .217 


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" HHHE object of this important Commentary is unique. It is to exhibit the 
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chosen and tersely expressed. Further, their range of material is wide, all the things 
we usually find in a Dictionary of the Bible being gathered into the service, with not a 
few we should not expect to find there. The indexes are excellent. The author is 
evidently fit for his work. He is conservative in criticism, but he is a scholar. He has 
read the commentaries on his books, and he has read his books themselves." 

Mr. Gladstone writes :— " I am delighted with the ' Hebrew Monarchy.' " 

Rev. F. J. Chavasse, Principal of Wycliffe Hall, Oxford.—" It supplies a distinct 
need, and is likely to prove of real service to the clergy and to Bible students generally. 

The Ven. Archdeacon of Sheffield— " Deeply interesting; it is what I have long 
wanted, and will be an immense help." 

The Archbishop of York (Dr. Maclagan).— "It seems to me likely to be very 
useful and to cover ground which has not yet been occupied." 

The Archbishop of Armagh.—" From the study of it I expect valuable results. A 
work which commended itself in its inception and idea to the two spirits, so noble and 
so diverse, whom you mention in your dedication, must be a blessing to many. 

The Bishop of Durham (Dr. Westcott).— "A very solidand valuable help to the 
study of the history of Israel, admirable in plan and execution." 

The Bishop of Lincoln.— "One effect of modern criticism has been to lead men to 
excuse themselves from studying the Bible. Many of the modern books seem to miss 
the real spirit of the Book. I am so glad you have brought out the historical value of 
the Prophets." 

Canon Crowfoot (Head of Lincoln Theological College).-" It will be constantly 
in my hands. It is unique in its plan, and that plan is most admirable. 

Canon Blackley. — "A work of vast labour and care." 

The Rev. Dr. Plummer.— " Welcome and useful. An immense amount of informa- 
tion in a very handsome volume." 

The Rev. Dr. Sinker (Librarian of Trinity College, Cambridge)..-" Having 
regard to the tvpe of readers for whom it is primarily intended it is admirably done. 
The idea is a very good one and well worked out, the work is thorough and exact, and 
the matter is pleasantly and interestingly put." 

Principal of St. Aidan's College, Birkenhead— "Admirable in arrangement and 


12 special f^ubttcaftons. 


Cloth. Boards, Red Edges. Demy 8vo. 

Volumes I. -VI. Others in preparation. 

THIS Series of Volumes, popular in style and moderate in 
size and price, is designed to meet the needs of the ordinary 
Bible Student, a large and increasing class of practical students 
of the Bible, as well as the requirements of more advanced scholars. 

Much light has been thrown in the course of the present century 
on almost all branches of Biblical Inquiry, and it is very desirable 
that such results as are surely ascertained should be placed within 
the reach of all in a systematic manner. Difficulties will always 
remain, owing to the extreme antiquity of the Sacred Books, and 
to the peculiar nature of their contents. On these questions 
experts must be heard upon both sides, but the multitude which 
is so deeply interested in the results has neither the time nor the 
training for battling over technical details. 

Accordingly, the preparation of these volumes is entrusted to 
men who have patiently considered the drift of modern inquiry so 
far as it concerns their own special branches of study, and who are 
not lightly moved from their carefully formed convictions. 

Their aim is to set forth as clearly and accurately as possible 
the literary position of the Books of the Old and New Testa- 
ments and their contents in relation to Theological, Historical, and 
Scientific questions. 

The series is mainly constructive and positive in tone, and will 
tend to check that bewilderment as to the very foundations of 
sacred truth which, if allowed to spread, will seriously affect the 
work of the Sunday School Teacher, the Bible Class Leader, the 
Home and Foreign .Missionary, and the devotional student of 


Special ^tblicaficms. 13 


Volume I. 





Hon. Canon of Christ Cliurch; late Principal of Wycliffe Hall, Oxford. 

Cloth Boards, Red Edges. Demy 8vo. Price 3s. 6d. 


Guardian. — "Written in a reverent spirit." 

Theological Monthly.—" Any one who takes up the book will be led, we think, 

to peruse and ponder till he arrives at a sound conclusion on what is, and must 

remain, one of the most important matters within human ken." 
Church Review.—" An invaluable work." 
Rock.—" Canon Girdlestone as an expert gives us the results of his own personal 

research. We are taken into the very workshop and shown the methods and processes. 
Churchman— " It is worthy to become a text-book in a theological assembly." 
Christian.—" "Will assist many to gain a firm foothold with regard to the verity of 

Holy Writ." 

literary Churchman.— " This is a book of exceeding breadth of learning, and 

quite exceptional value. We desire to give an unusually emphatic recommendation to 

this valuable treatise." 

Literary Opinion.—" The style throughout is clear, elevated, and forcible." 

Globe.—" A mine of strength to the holders of the ancient faith." 

Quiver.—" We can heartily commend it." 

Baptist.—" Canon Girdlestone's arguments will command general respect." 

National Church.—" Precisely the kind of work wanted in these critical times." 

Evening News.— "A perfect armoury of argument and scholarship." 

Yorkshire Post.—" Shows results as interesting as they are valuable." 

Church Bells.—" The various topics involved are put in a very interesting way." 

British Weekly.—" It has a calm and dignified style— with a splendid courtesy to 

opponents, and altogether it is a pleasant book to read." 


14 special ^ublicatiotts 


Volume II. 




Professor of Hebrew, King's College, London; Prebendary of St. Paul's ; 

Author of " The Structure of the Old Testament" ; 

" The Religion of the Christ " (Bampton Lecture) ; " Christ and the Bible," &c, &c. 

Cloth Boards, Red Edges. Demy 8vo. Price 3s. 6<a. 

The late Dr. Liddon wrote : " How I wish you could see your 
" way to writing a book on, say, * The Law and the Prophets,' 
" putting the Law back into the chronological and authoritative 
" place from which the new criticism would depose it, and so 
" incidentally reasserting in the main, and with the necessary 
" reservations, the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch." 

This book is partly the result of that suggestion. 


Church Quarterly Review.—" A careful work." 

Guardian.-" Deserves wide circulation It was an excellent idea thus to collect 

these allusions." 

Church Times.—" Most valuable." 

Spectator.— " Proves the antiquity of the Mosaic Law, by the references that are 
made to it in the books of the Prophets, books that are conceded on all hands to have 
at least a considerable relative antiquity. The contention of the extremists, that the 
whole legal ritual is post-exilian, certainly lays itself open to hostile criticism. The 
appeal of the Prophets to the Hebrew people seems founded on the fact that there 
was a covenant which the people had broken." 

Church Review.—" If Dr. Stanley had never done any other good thing 
than he has done in writing this most valuable book, he would be fairly entitled to 
rank as one of the most successful defenders of Holy Scriptures of our day." 

Baptist Magazine. — " Dr. Leathes has set an example which ail who are opposed 
to the method and result of modern Biblical criticism would do well to follow. He 
brings the question to a sound and religious test." 


Special "g'ubltcafions. \5 

Volume III. 



Rev. J, J. LIAS, M.A., 

Chancellor of Llandaff Cathedral ; formerly Hulsean Lecturer, and Preacher 
at the Chapel Eoyal, Whitehall. 

Cloth Boards, Red Edges. Demy 8vo. Price 3s. eel. 

1\TR. LIAS, -who is well known as a writer on theology and literature, in this 
-L'J- book offers a historical view of the two chief lines of criticism, which 
have been directed against the Old and New Testaments, and points out that 
the wave of adverse criticism, after failing when levelled against the Christian 
Scriptures, the New Testament, has now for its object the disintegration of the 
Hebrew Records of the Old Testament. He brings to the task an easy style of 
an unfettered mind ; takes his own line in discussing such subjects as Inspira- 
tion, and tests the results of modern critical analysis in the light of good sense, 
whilst passing under review the historical and prophetical writings of the Old 

On the whole, for a beginner in critical studies there are few books which 
are so likely to put the student on the right line. 

The Church Times.— ""We have seldom seen in so small a compass so admirable, 

and withal temperate, exposition of the ingenious puzzles which German criticism has 
been weaving under the guise of truth. AVe gratefully recognize the value and 
importance of this volume ; and a reverent investigation carried on, on the lines hero 
suggested, cannot fail to be profitable to the Biblical student." 

The Record.— "The book is one that we can very cordially recommend ; it is both 
reverent and scholarly, the discussions are temperate and logical, and the style 
attractive. It is likely to do good service." 

Church Quarterly Review— "Mr. Lias is entitled to the gratitude of churchmen." 

The Churchman.—" Will prove of real and lasting service. TVe hope it will be 
very widely circulated, as it deserves." 

Expository Times.—" Exceedingly useful as a storehouse of facts." 

Spectator.— " Perhaps the most important chapter is that of 'The Evidence of 
Ihe Psalms.' Mr. Lias knows that the controversy turns largely on the date of these." 

The Baptist Magazine.—" Mr. Lias has a masterly chapter on the genuineness of 
the Pentateuch, he is fair and courteous in his methods, and knows that argument must 
be met with argument." 

The Christian World.—" Deserving of the highest praise we wish it a wide circu- 


16 Special publications. 

Volume IV. 




Rev. W, L, BAXTER, M,A M T>,T>. 3 

Minister of Cameron. 
Cloth. Boards, Red Edges. Demy 8vo. Price 6s. 

THOUGH specially designed for Bible Students, this volume demands no attainments 
in Hebrew scholarship for its appreciation. Its main aim is to guide and 
strengthen an ordinary reader, with his English Bible in his hand. 

In particular, the dismemberment of the Mosaic legislation into three antagonistic 
Codes is shown (taking Sanctuary and Sacrifice as conclusive tests) to be quite at 
variance with a fair and comprehensive survey of the legal, historical, and prophetical 
Records of the Old Testament. 

"While exposing the views of Wellhausen (the applauded pioneer of " Higher 
Critics "), the author seeks at every turn to give a positive presentation of Bible truth 
on the topics handled. Mere destruction is not his aim, but to instruct and re-assure. 
A special helpfulness characterises his constructive surveys of the prophecy of Ezekiel, 
and of the so-called Priestly Code. 

Some ©pinions of tbe press. 

The Morning Post.—" Dr. Baxter has shown in his reply a wide knowledge of the 
subject discussed, and has rendered a powerful support to the opponents of that 
dogmatic criticism of which Wellhausen is a prominent example." 

The Daily Chronicle.—" Dr. Baxter is always interesting, and he certainly tries 
to be fair. \\ ellhausen's answer will be awaited with much interest." 

The Record.—" We suggest that any reader who is somewhat cowed at the long list 
of learned names hurled at him should work patiently through Dr. Baxter's book, 
argument by argument. He will find one sweeping piece of destructive theorising (we 
refuse to say criticism) after another toppling over. It is impossible to devote to this 
remarkable book the space which the importance of the subject and its striking 
handling calls for. It is the most vigorous attempt which we have yet seen to carry 
the war into the enemy's country." 

The Speaker.—" An effective answer to the German Professor's attack, and well 
deserves the high praise given it by Mr. Gladstone and Professor Sayce." 

Church Quarterly Review.—" The book must be read to understand its force ; 
the new theory is destroyed. Dr. Baxter has not been answered, and that simply 
because he is unanswerable." 

The Church Times.—" We are sincerely grateful to the publishers for this valuable 
addition to the Bible Student's Library. A book like this will form a rallying point for 
those who had begun to think that the possession of common sense was a thing to be 
ashamed of, and unwavering tradition on any point rather a source of weakness than of 

The Churchman.— "We strongly recommend those who have not done so to read, 
mark, and inwardly digest the ' Sanctuary and Sacrifice.'" 

The Christian World.—" It is an honest and serious discussion of important 
questions. Those who differ from Dr. Baxter may learn from his criticisms." 

The Christian News.— "' Sanctuary and Sacrifice' should be possessed and 
studied by all those who are interested in such subjects, and especially by ministers, 
who have to be able to defend the Bible as the Word of God. It is an able, spirited, 
and masterlv refutation of the contentions of the leader of the school of modern critics." 
The Methodist Times.—" This is by far the most telling challenge to the higher 
criticism that has yet appeared in English." 

The Critical Review.—" ' Sanctuary and Sacrifice ' is able and interesting." 
The Primitive Methodist.—" Those who have been unsettled in their faith in the 
Old Testament by the speculations of some modern writing would do well to make the 
acquaintance of this volume." 


Special publications. 17 

Volume V. 




Librarian of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Cloth Boards, Red Edges, Demy 8vo. Price 3s. 6d. 

THIS work compares the Bible history of this King with contemporary 
records, and generally deals with his period in an interesting way. The 
Assyrian Inscriptions have yielded a most striking confirmation of the Bible 
story ; they have shewn the connection of events ; they have filled up gaps, 
and so imparted greater coherence to the narrative, clearing up difficulties 
where some have accused the scriptural account of inaccuracy. 

The growing development of God's purpose is traceable in the Scriptures 
written aforetime for our learning, and it has become an imperative duty to 
study them in the fullest light obtainable. 

No period of early history is more full of suggestiveness. The intense 
human pathos interwoven in the life of Hezekiah and the Monuments which 
survive of his handiwork in Jerusalem impart to his reign a more than 
ordinary interest to the modern reader, and particularly to those keenly 
interested in all that concerns the Holy Writ, and are willing to avail them- 
selves of all fresh light thereon, as it arises. 


chap. CHAP. 







18 <Special ^publications. 


Large Type VARIORUM Reference Bible, 

(Size, 9§ x 6f x 1$ inches. 1308 pages.) 

(Size, 9| x 6| x If inches. 276 pages.) 

For the TEACHER'S EDITION (1980 pages) see page 21. 

The Year 1893 will be remembered by Bible Readers for the Publication of New 
Editions of the various Teacher's Bibles, but most particularly for the 

Completion of the New Edition of the Variorum Reference Bible. 

The VARIORUM Edition of the Authorised Version has a great and independent 
value, whether for daily use or as a standard work of Reference. It meets the wants of 
every grade of student, from the intelligent reader to the learned reviser. 

In its style and appearance the VARiORUM Reference Bible has been stu- 
diously assimilated to the ordinary 8vo. Reference Bible to make its utility no less 

This Edition is distinguished from all other Reference Bibles by the addition, 
on the same page as the Text, in Foot-notes, of a complete digest of the chief of the 
various Renderings and Readings of the original text from the very best Authorities. 
The sources from which the Annotations are taken comprise, in the 


90 Com mPTitn tors n 78 Commentators, 

9U Commentatois, . 19 Commentators, Ancient Versions 

14 Versions, including 6 Ancient Veisions 

20 Versions, 23 Ancient Manuscripts, 

the Revised Version, n Critical Editions of the Text, 



R.V. Marginal Readings. 15 Manuscripts. Revised Version & Margin. 

The VARIORUM Notes, together with the "New 8tog its Bi&k Stu&ents " (see 
pages 25-26), give to the ordinary reader of Scripture an amount of information 
hitherto confined to great scholars and owners of a very costly Library, and com- 
prise the quintessence of Biblical Scholarship in the most convenient form. 

The Commentary here is strictly textual (with Brief Explanatory Notes) j and 
the names of the Editors— Professors CHEYNE, DRIVER, SANDAY, the late Rev. 
P. L. CLARKE, and the Rev. C. J. BALL— are sufficient guarantees for its accuracy 
and completeness. 

The numerous Commendations of the completed Work include:— 
The Rev. Dr. Wace, Principal of King's College, London .— 
" It is a work of incalculable usefulness, for which the warmest gratitude is due alike 
to the editors and yourselves." 

The Rev. Canon W. J. Knox Little :— 
" It is a beautiful and valuable work. I think it the most satisfactory copy I have 
ever had. I like it more, the more I make use of it." 


Special "gfuMtcafions. 19 




Rev. C, J. BALL, M.A., 

Chaplain of Lincoln's Inn. 

Large Type. (Bourgeois 8vo. Superfine Paper. 276 Pages. 

Cloth, bevelled boards, red edges 

Leather, gilt edges 

Leather, round corners, red under gold edges, gold roll inside cover . . 

Morocco, boards or limp, gilt edges, gold roll inside cover 

Morocco, limp, round corners, red under gold edges, gold roll inside cover 
Levant Yapp, round corners, gilt edges, lined Calf panels 


Academy :— 
" Excellently adapted to its purpose ; there does not exist a commentary upon the 
Apocrypha which is at once so concise and so helpfuL" 

Athenaeum :— 
" A difficult task satisfactorily accomplished, it will be a great help to those who 
write on Apocrypha literature." 

Guardian :— 

"Mr. Ball has worked through a large number of authorities— forty-nine ; he has 
not however confined himself to quoting their opinions, but has added throughout 
many suggestions of his own, both critical and explanatory. 

"The information which he has given is judiciously selected, and the advance 
marked by his work, on previous works upon the Apocrypha, is exceedingly great." 

Record :— 
" The study of the Apocrypha is gaining ground, and it is a great convenience to 
have the interpretations of the commentators in so handy a form. Lovers of 
ancient Jewish literature must heartily thank the editor for placing in their 
hands so convenient and trustworthy a summary of recent criticism." 

Globe :— 
"The editor has done his work carefully and with knowledge. He contributes 
an informing preface, and his annotations are to the point." 

Church Review:— 

"This volume, which completes the 'Variorum Bible' is a fitting crown to a 
task which has done more to explain the Uttera scripta of the Holy Scriptures 
than any other publication of its kind. 

"Mr. Ball's scholarship and researches have brought much light to bear on many 
obscure passages. 

"The number of commentators, versions, and MSS. consulted by the editor is a 
guarantee of the thoroughness with which he has discharged his task; his name 
guarantees the ability with which he has done it." 


T 2 

20 §peciaX ^ubUcaftons. 


Expository Times :— 
"Possessors of the 'Variorum Bible' will understand what the Variorum 
Apocrypha means. There was great need for such an edition of the Apocrypha. 
The work has been done with patience and good judgment." 

Public Opinion:— 
"Furnishes the general reader with the quintessence of modern and ancient 
learning bearing on the text." 

Literary "World:— 
"Mr. Ball gives us a 'Variorum' edition, embodying not only different readings. 
but in some cases his own happy emendation of corrupt passages. He gives the 
poetical parts in metrical form. His edition will be prized by the student, and will 
stimulate the appetite of the English reader." 

Ecclesiastical Chronicle :— 
" To have all the best renderings focussed, as it were, for ready use, is a privilege 
every student of the book should appreciate." 

Rock :— 

" It is most convenient for the requirements of the student. It should find a 
place in every clergyman's library." 

Church Quarterly Review;— 

"One of the gi^eatest difficulties in dealing with the Apocrypha consists in the 
endeavours to restore the lost original text of books which, for the most part, once 
existed in the Hebrew tongue. In his preface Mr. Ball points out numerous 
instances where confusions of similar Hebrew letters have made sheer nonsense of 
the Greek text. 

" The book is a welcome addition to the well-known Variorum Reference Bible." 

Saturday Review:— 
"The books of the Apocrypha, containing as they do much splendid literature, 
should have the long standing neglect they have suffered removed, by such an 

Queen :— 
"A valuable work." 

Church Times :— 
" Most complete, containing everything having an important bearing on the text." 

Professor E. NESTLE, the distinguished Septuagint Scholar, writes: — 
"Eine Erganzung zur Variorum Bible, die nicht genug empfohlen werden kann." 
— Theologische Literaturzeitung , Leipzig, 20 Januar, 1894. 

"How splendidly has Ball restored the corrupt text of Judith xvi. 2 (3) by 
inserting a single letter, 6 -riflels. Many more examples might be quoted from Ball's 
Variorum Apocrypha."— Erom Professor E. Nestle's Paper on The Cambridge 
Septuagint (Transactions of The Ninth International Congress of Orientalists). 


Special publications. 




With. APOCRYPHA. (276 pages.) See pp. 18, 19. 

Bourgeois 8vo. (Size, 9| x 6 J x 2§ inches). 1930 pages. 

This novel and comprehensive Edition of the Authorised Version-— the climax 
towards which the Queen's Printers have consistently developed their Series of 
Teacher's Bibles during nearly 23 years (1875-1897)— combines— 

I.— The VARIORUM QefevBtice giMe* (See p. 18.) 

n.— The " Al DS to tlje ^tttbettt of tlje $oI« ^iWe." {See pp. 25, 26.) 

To the completed Variorum Edition of the Preference Bible, the appended 
"Aids to the Bible Student" adds a compendium of Biblical information 
admitted to be not only the largest and fullest work of the kind, but also the 
best. The most competent judges have drawn attention to the compass and 
thoroughness of the " Aids " — none of which are anonymous, — and to the 
eminence and authority of the contributors. 

Special Subjects. 














Special Subjects. 


METALS, &c. 





Members of Old Testament Revision Committee. 

Prices, Finest India Paper, from 27s. to 52s. 9d. ; with Apocrypha, 6s. 9d. additional. 

Thin White Paper , in various leather bindings, from 24s. to 47s. 3d. 

SCHOLASTIC EDITION, bound in cloth, 18s. 9d. ; 

with Apocrypha, 4s. 6d. additional. 


Without Apocrypha. 

Nonpareil 8vo. (Size, 7f x 5| x 1| inches.) 1250 pages. 

Prices (Finest India Paper or Thin White Paper), from 7s. 6d. to 38s. 6d. 


22 Special fJPuMicaftoits. 



Above every other Bible. 

For the Variorum TEACHER'S Bible, see page 21. 

1. It contains a collection of foot-notes, vastly superior to any that can be found 

in any one-volume portable Bible. 

2. THE GENERAL READER unacquainted with the original languages, Hebrew 

and Greek, is enabled to arrive at a true); fuller, and deeper meaning of 
Scripture than he could obtain from any other published work. The 
VARIORUM foot-notes correct, explain, unfold, and paraphrase the text; in- 
deed, the alternative versions of obscure or difficult words and phrases often 
render further note or comment needless. 

3. THE SUNDAY SCHOOL TEACHER will find the use of the VARIORUM foot- 

notes of the utmost value to him in the preparation of his lessons. And, 
whilst teaching, a glance at the foot of the page will enable him to give the 
best alternative reading or translation of the original text, or to explain 
phrases or special words in the A.V. 

Rev. Db. PARKER says that it is quite as valuable for preachers and 
hearers as for teachers and scholars. It is a library in itself, containing 
everything that is immediately needed for the elucidation of the sacred text. 

4. THE MODERN PREACHER finds every passage ear-marked of which the text 

or the translation is considered by scholars defective, and in the corresponding 
foot-notes he finds the evidence, for and against alterations, judicially digested 
from the most authoritative Versions and Editions, including the readings and 
renderings adopted in the Revised Version and its margin. This discrimination 
of sources and of authorities saves him infinite time and labour. "Where all 
scholars agree upon a rendering the names of authorities are omitted. 

The late ARCHBISHOP OP CANTERBURY said : ** It is so useful 
that no apology is, I am sure, needed for commending it." 

5. THE PROFESSIONAL STUDENT of the original texts will find in this con- 

spectus a more careful selection of critical data, especially as regards the 
Old Testament and authorities, than is elsewhere accessible. He will have 
at hand the very essence of textual criticism, extracted from the most reliable 
sources, ancient and modern. 

Dr. Y\"ESTCOTT (Lord Bishop op Durham) says : " 7 constantly use the 
Old Testament, and find it a great help to have at hand a brief and trust- 
worthy summary of facts and results. Nothing could be better done than 
the Psalms." He also informed the Archbishop of Canterbury and the 
Conference at Lambeth that he considered that this VARIORUM Edition of 
the Authorised Version "was much the best edition of the kind." 


Special publications. 






And 172 Illustrations of the Holy Scripture. Edited, with Autotypes of Antiquities 
and of important Biblical Sites and Cities, by the Rev. C. J. BALL, M.A., Chaplain 
to the Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn ; Member of Council of the Society of 
Biblical Archaeology, &c. 

FIFTEEN EDITIONS. Prices from 3s . to £2 2s. 

In this series of Editions of the Authorised Version — several of them page 

for page — are combined — 
I. — The Queen's Printers' 1* eleven cc & l)avicvttnt llefevenee gtWe». 
II.— The Queen's Printers' "AIDS to the gtinfceni of tire £)oUj $tt*L?." 

The u Aids to the Bible Student " is a compendium of Biblical information 
admitted to be not only the largest and fullest work of the kind, but also the 
best. The most competent judges have drawn attention to the compass and 
thoroughness of the "Aids" — none of which are anonymous,— and to the 
eminence and authority of the contributors. 

Special Subjects. Authors. Special Subject. 


























METALS, dec. 




* Members of Old Testament Revision Committee. 

The AIDS, which have now passed their 23rd year of publication, were in 1893 
thoroughly revised to date as well as enlarged. 

The work of the Westminster Revisers was riulv collated, their identifications of 
words relating to the "ANIMAL CREATION IN THE BIBLE," and "PLANTS 
OF THE HOLY LAND," being reviewed and collected by the Rev. Dr. Tristr vm, 
TESTAMENT" was revised and extended bv the Rev. Canon R. B. Girdlestone, 
OLD " bv the Rev. Dr. H. B. Swete. The following new articles were also added :— 
"THE BIBLE: ITS HISTORY," by Rev. Dr. H. B. Swete, Regius Professor of 
Divinity, Cambridge; "HEBREW 'POETRY," by Rev. T. K. Cuetxe, M.A., D.D.. 
Oriel Professor of Interpretation, Oxford, Canon of Rochester ; "NOTES ON THE 
BOOKS CALLED APOCRYPHA,' by the Rev. C. H. H. Wright, D.D., M.A.,Ph.D. 

To the New Edition (1897) is now added a comprehensive series of Illustrations 
selected and described by the Rev. C. J. Ball, M.A., under whose general editorship 
the AIDS TO BIBLE STUDENTS have bi en once more revised and brought up to date, 
and further enlarged with the following articles:-" REFERENCES IN THE N. T. 
by the Rev. C. J. Ball, M.A., and "THE PERIOD BETWEEN THE TESTA- 
MENTS," a comprehensive article by the Rev. G. H. Box, M.A. 

This revision has afforded an opportunity of inserting also " A COMBINED INDEX 
the Rev. C. Hole, M.A. 



Special ^itbUcations. 




I! Or.nghleotu- 

Deut. 24. 13. 
P«. 112 9. 
Dan. 4. 27. 
I Or, wilk. 

I Or, 


Deut. 24. 


Ps. 112. 9. 

Dan. 4. 27. 

2 Cor. 9. 9 


| Or, iritt. 
a Bom. 12. 


PEARL 24mo. 

TAKE heed that ye do not your 
II alms before men, to be seen of 
them : otherwise ye have no reward 
|| of your Father which is in heaven. 
2 Therefore a when thou doest 
thine alms, II do not sound a trum- 
pet before thee, as the hypocrites 
do in the synagogues and in the 
streets, that they may have glory 
of men. Verily I say unto you, 
They have their reward. 

• Size, si x 4\ x if inches.) 

RUBY 8vo. 

TAKE heed that ye do not your 
|| alms before men, to be seen of 
them : otherwise ye have no reward 
|| of your Father which is in heaven. 
1 2 Therefore a when thou doest 
thine alms, II do not sound a trum- 
pet before thee, as the hypocrites 
do in the synagogues and in the 
I streets, that they may have glory 
of men. Verily I say unto you, 
I They have their reward. 
;Size, 6f x 5! x if biches.) 

2 Or, right- 
Deut. 24. 

Ps. 112. 9. 
Dan. 4. 27. 

2 Cor. 9. 9, 

3 Or, with. 
a Rom. 12. 




e 1 Kingsl8. 
2G, 29. 

MINION 8vo. 

TAKE heed that ye do not your 
2 alms before men, to be seen of 
I them : otherwise ye have no reward 3 of 
your Father which is in heaven. 
2 Therefore a when thou doest thine 
alms, 4 do not sound a trumpet before 
thee, as the hypocrites do in the syna- 
gogues and in the streets, that they 
(Size, 7! x 55 x x\inches.) 

Father which seeth in secret shall 
reward thee openly. 

7 But when ye pray, d use not vain 
repetitions, as the heathen do: e for 
they think that they shall be heard 
for their much speaking. 

8 Be not ye therefore like unto 
them : for your Father knoweth 


6x2 niches.) 


Pearl 24mo. 



1 6 







lined Calf, 

with flaps. 


Best Levant, 

lined Call, with 

flaps and Pocket 

for MSS. j 


Ruby 8vo. ... 







Minion 8vo. 







Brevier 8vo. 









Bourgeois 8vo., 388 -pages,. {Separately.) 


Cloth, bevelled boards, red edges 5 

Paste Grain Roan, gilt edges 8 

Morocco, gilt edges, gold roll inside cover 12 


Special publications. 25 


New Illustrated Aids to Bible Students 


Forms the Second Part of the Queen's Printers' 
Teacher's Bibles. 

HPHE Queen's Printers were the First to Issue what was known as the Sunday 
J- School Teacher's Bible in May, 1875. It was not until 10 months afterwards 
that a Bible issued from the Oxford University Press, bearing on its title page 
"The S. S. Teacher's Edition," and closely following the model of the Queen's 
Printers' Teacher's Bible ; this brief statement is necessary to remove misunder- 

The success which attended the publication of the Queen's Printers' Teacher's 
Bible has been unprecedented. Over One Million Copies have been sold. 

This is no doubt due to the fact that "E^e 'SUtig to ISuMc S>tuti£nts" were from 
the outset prepared with the utmost care, in order that the Student might have at 
his disposal the Best and Surest information from the pen of the most Eminent 
Authority on each of the various subjects treated. 

The cordial approval of the principle and contents of former editions by eminent 
Biblical Scholars, and by the representatives of all classes of Teachers throughout 
the "World, has led to the enlargement of each successive issue, in order to give to 
the Student The Best, Most Reliable, and Most Recent information that could 
be obtained. 

In the present issue, very considerable improvements and additions have been 
made. The Articles have undergone a careful and thorough revision, and, pursuant to 
recent discoveries, new matter has been added and the whole volume brought up to 
date. The Hifts will therefore be found more than ever Practically Useful, 
Exhaustive in Treatment, and Complete in their character. Several new 
Articles have been added. 

The Publication of the VARIORUM Bible, and of the Revised Version which 
followed it. called popular attention to the sources from which we have received the 
Sacred Text, and the quotations in the VARIORUM Notes of Manuscripts, Versions, 
Ancient Fathers, etc., have aroused a spirit of enquiry as to their relative importance. 
To meet this, the Rev. Professor Swete has written for these AIDS a new Article 

The Bible : its History.— In this Article, the Rev. Professor Swete places before the 
Student a summary of the most important results which have been reached by 
competent enquirers on such questions as the formation and transmission of the 
original Text, its Versions, Ancient and Modern, etc., etc. 

The Bible and its Contents:— Old Testament, a valuable summary and analysis 
of each Book by the Rev. Professor Stanley Leathes, has been further expanded 
by Canon Girdiestone. 

„ The Apocrypha has been summarised and analysed by the Rev. Dr. "Wright. 

The New Testament Article by Prof. W. Sanday will be found to contain 
the best results of modern New Testament Scholarship, and his Analyses of 
the Gospels and Epistles are simply invaluable. 


26 Special ^ubUcafions. 


Important articles revised: — 

References in the New Testament to Passages in the Old, revised and 
extended by the Rev. Dr. Swete. 

Hebrew Poetry, by the Rev. T. K. Cheyne, M.A., D.D. 

Metals and Precious Stones, by Professor N. Story Maskelyne, F.R.S. 

Plants and Animals : — Criticisms of their Identifications in the Revised Version, 
by the Rev. Canon Tristram, D.D., F.R.S. 

The Bible and the Monuments, or the Hebrews in their relations with the Oriental 
Monarchies, has been revised by the Rev. Professor Sayce. 

The Glossary of Bible Words, in the Variorum Edition, has been revised and enlarged, 
and will be found very complete. It refers to the Authorised and Revised Ver- 
sions, with their marginal readings, and to the Variorum Notes ; also to the 
Apocrypha. It also includes particular names of Plants, Animals, Metals, &c., 
which" formerly appeared under their individual articles, but are now inserted in 
the Glossary for ready reference. 

The Supplementary Contents, or Key to Subjects, which indexes the names and 
words not treated alphabetically elsewhere, will be found of very great use to 

The Concordance (40,000 references) is added, also an Atlas of new Maps, with 
Index, revised and brought to most recent surveys. 

A Comprehensive Series of 172 Illustrations, selected and described by the Rev. 

C. J. Ball, M.A. 
References in the New Testament to Passages in the Apocrypha and other 

Jewish Writings, by the Rev. C. J. Ball, M.A. 
The Period between the Testaments, a comprehensive article by the Rev. G. H. 

Box, M.A. 

A Combined Index to the Proper Names, Places, and Subjects of the Bible, 
by the Rev. C. Hole, M.A. 

A List of some of the Contributors to the AIDS: 
REV. PROFESSOR SWETE, D.D., Begins Professor of Divinity, Cambridge. 
Rev. PROPESSOR STANLEY LEATHES, D.D., Professor of Hebrew, King's 

College, London, &c. 
Rev. C. H. H. WRIGHT, D.D., Examiner in Hebrew, Universities of Oxford, 

Durham, and London. 
Rev. PROFESSOR W. SANDAY, D.D., LL.D., Dean Ireland's Professor of 

Exegesis, Oxford. 
Rev. PROFESSOR CHEYNE, D.D., Oriel Professor of Interpretation, Oxford; 

Canon of Rochester. 
Rev. PROFESSOR SAYCE, M.A., LL.D., Professor of Assijriologtj, Oxford. 
Rev. CANON TRISTRAM, D.D., LL.D., F.R.S., Durham. 
Rev. S. G. GREEN, D.D., Co-Editor of the Revised English Bible. 
Rev. C. HOLE, M.A., Professor of Ecclesiastical History at King's College, 

PROFESSOR N. STORY MASKELYNE, M.A., F.R.S.. Professor of Mineralogy 

in the University of Oxford ; Hon. Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. 
Sir J. STAINER,M.A.,Mus. Dac.,Professor of Music in the University of Oxford. 
F. W. MADDEN, M.R.A.S., Author of "History of Jewish Coinage," d-c. 
Rev. G. H. BOX, M.A., Hebrew Blaster at Merchant Taylors' School. 
Rev. C. J. BALL, M.A., Chaplain to the Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn, 

Member of Council of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, etc , &c. 
&c. &c. &c. 


Special publications. 27 

Wt\* (SJueen's Printers* 



The late Archbishop op Canterbury (Dr. Benson) :— 

The Archbishop said, at a Diocesan Conference:—'' I should, like to call the atten- 
tion of the Convocation to the New Edition of the ' Variorum Reference Bible,' 
published by Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode. I will just read an account of what 
it contains. The whole book has been revised. It was laid, I may say, before the 
Lambeth Conference— the promise of it— and now it is finished. The old. edition 
forms the basis of the new edition ; it is printed in larger type ; and every passage 
which has been disputed by great scholars as to its correct translation or rendering, 
is marked by a figure before and after the sentence or word, these figures referring 
to the foot-notes, which give the alternative renderings or readings, together with the 
authorities for the same, abbreviated to save space. The collection of these notes 
from 69 commentators for the Old Testament, and 73 for the New, has occupied 
many years close study and preparation. The New Edition is much amplified as com- 
pared with the old one, and you may like to know that the opinion of Dr. Westcott 
is that it is much the best edition of the kind that has appeared." 
The late Archbishop op York (Dr. Thomson) : — 

"The names of the authors guarantee its excellence. A miniature library of 
illustrative matter. If such a book is carefully and generally used, there must 
be a great improvement in Bible knowledge in this generation. The critical matter 
at the foot of the columns is remarkably complete. The last feature gives it special 

The late Archbishop of Armagh:— 

"I have carefully examined the •Variorum Teacher's Bible' published by Messrs. 
Eyre and Spottiswoode. The varied and valuable amount of information it contains 
is most remarkable. There are few subjects connected with the Bible left un- 
elucidated. The Student of the Bible will find the Variorum Edition a treasury replete 
with instruction." 

The Bishop of Durham (Dr. \Yestcott) :— 

•'Admirably done. I constantly use it." 
The Bishop of Limerick:— 

" The Variorum (Teacher's) Bible, with its References, Concordance, Various Read- 
ings and Renderings, and supplemented by its Aids to Students, serves as a Biblical 
Encyclopaedia, useful by its compactness and the value of its contents, to Biblical 
Students of all grades." 

The Bishop of Exeter (Dr. Bickersteth) :— 

'"I am much gratified with it . . . eminently fitted for teachers, and all who 
desire in a clear and compendious form very full information respecting the sacred 
Scriptures. „ 

"A most valuable work, and will greatly enrich the library of Biblical Students. 

The Bishop of Llandaff :— 

"An immense amount of information, a great help to Teachers, and to Bible 
readers generally. 

"The names guarantee the value of the information. I trust it will be largely 

The Bishop of St. David's (Dr. W. Basil Jones) :— 

"I have delayed . . . until I could find more time to look into the volume; it 
contains so large an amount and variety of matter in a very small space. But its 
contents appear to me of the highest value and admirable in arrangement. I would 
refer especially to the various Readings and Renderings in the foot-notes." 


28 Special publications. 

The Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol:— 
"A very valuable work, well suited for those for whom it is designed, and for all 
earnest students." 

The Bishop op Liverpool:— 
" I admire it very much, and think it a most valuable edition of the Holy 
Scriptures. I shall be glad to recommend your work." 

The late Bishop op Wakefield (Dr. Walsham How) :— 
"I have carefully examined the (Variorum) Teacher's Bible published by Messrs. 
Eyre and Spottiswoode, and I consider it a most valuable work. Believing that the 
Bible is its own best interpreter, I am sure that the aids to an intelligent under- 
standing of the text itself, together with the assistance given to students who' desire to 
have an accurate conception of the purest form of that text, will prove of inestimable 
service to all Bible readers." 

The Bishop of Down and Connor:— 
"I consider the Variorum Teacher's Bible highly useful both to Teachers and 
Students. The various readings in the foot-notes largely increase its usefulness, 
placing before the professional Student an amount of information and research 
which to many would otherwise be inaccessible." 

The Bishop op Coek:— 
"The eminent names of those who have contributed Articles to the Teacher's 
Aids are a guarantee for the accuracy of the information, which will be found most 
valuable to those who wish to understand or teach, or first to understand and then to 
teach, and help to provide that skilled and accurate teaching, which is not only the 
true antidote to prevalent unbelief, but the great preventive of it." 

The Bishop of Killaloe (Dr. Fitzgerald) :— 
"I find it to be a most perfect compendium of information on almost every 
Biblical matter that could be comprised within such a compass, and it seems 
marvellous how much has been introduced and how varied the topics. It will, I 
am sure, prove a most important aid to Clergymen, Sunday School Teachers, and 
many others, and I hope to avail myself of it yet in that direction." 

The Bishop of Tuam:— 
" I admire greatly the most valuable contents." 

The Bishop of Kilmore (Dr. Darlet) :— 
" I have looked through it carefully ... a most valuable edition of the sacred 
Scriptures. The Variorum foot-notes represent much critical research, very carefully 
arranged ; the Aids to Bible Students contain a mass of interesting information in a 
convenient form ; useful alike to Teachers and Students." 

The Bishop of Ossory:— 

" I feel pleasure in bearing my testimony. 

"An invaluable aid both to Clergymen and Teachers, and a marvel of cheapness. 
The more I have examined it, the more thoroughly have I been satisfied and 

The Right Rev. Bishop Barry:— 
"For the study of the Text is invaluable." 

The Dean op Salisbury:— 
" I am fully sensible of the great boon you have put within the reach of 
Bible students and it will be my endeavour to promote the knowledge of this 
valuable edition." 

The Dean of Ely:— 
" I hope to make use of it, with its various adjuncts of Notes, Readings," &c„ &c. 

The Dean of Lincoln:— 
"The work will be extremely useful." 

The Dean of Rochester (late Master of Balliol College, Oxford) :— 
"A great achievement of toil and thought." 


Special Igxxbiicaiions. 29 

The (late) Dean op St. Paul's (Dr. Church) :— 
"A wonderful digest of learning. The names of the various scholars are, of 
course, warrant of care and accuracy, and certainly nothing so complete and com- 
prehensive, in such a compass, has ever before been attempted." 

The Dean of Peterborough:— 
"Your Bible strikes me as admirable in every respect. The Various Renderings 
considerably enhance the value of the work. It will give me very great pleasure to 
do all in my power to promote the circulation. I know of no one volume to be 
compared to it for the amount of information it conveys." 

The Dean of Norwich (Dr. W. Lefrot, D.D.) :— 
"There is no work of the kind comparable to this work. It is invaluable." 

The Vert Rev. Dr. Vaughan, Bean of Llandaff, and (late) Master of the 
Temple : — 
"I use the Variorum Teacher's Bible with pleasure and profit." 

The Dean oe Lichfield:— 
"I am both surprised and delighted at the fulness and accuracy of information 
to be found in it. 

" I will gladly mention it with the approbation which it so well deserves." 

The Vert Rev. Dr. Butler, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge .— 
"A great achievement." 

The Vert Rev. Dean Parrar:— 
" It lies always on my desk. I place a high value upon it." 

The late Ven. Archdeacon Hesset:— 
"Students of the sacred volume will owe a deep debt to the projectors and 

The Rev. Canon Bodt:— 
" Very well done." 

The Rev. Canon Knox Little :— 
"Most useful and helpful." 

The Rev. Dr. Wace, of King's College :— 
"A work of incalculable usefulness." 

The late Rev. Dr. Edersheim :— 
" It is certainly the best, most complete and useful which has hitherto appeared." 

The Rev. Dr. Samuel G. Green:— 
"As a companion to the Revised Version it is invaluable." 

Dr. Salmond, of Free College Aberdeen .— 
" I trust it may secure a very wide circulation. The former edition has come to 
be a familiar book among our students." 

The Rev. Hugh Price Hughes :— 
"Incomparable and invaluable." 

Dr. Greenwood, Victoria University (Oiven's College) , Manchester .— 
"Its merits and remarkable features are already known to me." 

The Rev. Joseph Parker, D.D.:— 

" I have examined your Bible with great care. It is quite as valuable for 
preachers and hearers as for Teachers and scholars. 

" It is almost a library in itself, containing everything that is immediately needed 
for the elucidation of the sacred text." 

The Bishop of Ontario:— 
"My opinion of it is nothing so good has hitherto appeared. It is admirably 
adapted for its purpose of assisting Teachers, and cannot fail to be appreciated by 
all who are really anxious to find the best instruction in the sacred volume." 

The Rev. J. H. Vincent, of Chautauqua: — 
"The book is indeed a marvel, a library of learning, a book of books, concerning 
the 'Book of Books,' and deserves a wide circulation in Europe and America." 


30 Special fabrications. 




An exact copy, in type, of the Manuscript Book of Common Prayer which 
was annexed, as the authoritative record, to the Act of Uniformity of 1662. 

In 1891, by special permission of the House of Lords (now the custodians 
of the MS. Book), H.M. Printers produced by photolithography a facsimile 
of this "Annexed Book," but the work was necessarily too costly for the 
majority of Churchmen. 

To the Type-Edition are appended (I.) A List of Erasures and Corrections 
in the MS. Book. (II.) A Collation of the MS. Book with "the Convocation 
Copy " from which it purports to be fairly written. (III.) A Collation with the 
Authorised Version of Quotations therefrom inserted in the Annexed Book. 

Royal 8vo., Cloth, Bevelled Boards, Red Burnished 
Edges, price 10s. 6d. 





Edited by the Rev. JAMES CORNFORD, M.A., 

Lecturer at the London College of Divinity. 



Cloth, Red Edges, 3/6. 


Globe.— "The system adopted is excellent." 
Guardian. — " The work has been done most carefully." 

Record.— " Welcome to the student of the Prayer Book, or to the averaere 

Leeds Mercury. — " The edition will be of great use." 

Commended also by The Times, &c, &c. 


Special ^publications. 31 



Queen's Printers' Teacher's Prayer Book: 


Right Rev. ALFRED BARRY, l> t U, 3 

Canon of Windsor, 
Late Bishop of Sydney and Metropolitan Primate of Australia and Tasmania; 

GLOSSARY by the Rev. A. L. MAYHEW, M.A. 

The ** t^eacbev'^ tyvaiiev geck," now so well known, is the only- 
work of the kind published in a popular form at popular prices. It is issued 
in two sizes, 24mo. and 16mo., and in various bindings (see School Edition and 
Prices below). 

In the arrangement of the work the most simple plan has been adopted, 
the Prayer Book and its explanation being interpaged throughout ; and the 
work of Dr. Babry as Editor makes it of such standard value as to entitle it 
to rank as a companion volume to the Queen's Printers' " Teacher's Bibles." 

__ 24mo. 



Cloth boards, red edges 3 6 

Leather, limp, gilt edges 4 6 

Leather, round corners, red under gold edges, and gold roll 

inside cover 5 6 

Polished Persian Calf, limp, round corners, red under gold 

edges, and gold roll inside cover . , 5 8 

Morocco, limp, gilt edges 6 6 

Morocco, boards, gilt edges 7 

Morocco, circuit 8 

Morocco, limp, round corners, red under gold edges, and gold 

roll inside cover , . . . 7 6 . . 12 















SCHOOL EDITION (without Commentary on Psalter and Glossary), price 2/6. 


32 gpcctctl 3?uMicaUon5. 


of Bible Moibs 

Worbe ant) pbraaes in tbe prater l&ooh, 

"With Eeferences to the Text and Illustrative Passages from English 

Classical Authors, containing obsolete expressions, especially 

in Psalms, as well as Theological, Ecclesiastical, 

and Liturgical Terms, with Explanations 

and Etymologies, 

By Rev. A, L. MAYHEW, M.A., 

Chaplain of Wadliam College, Oxford. 

price: s. 

Cloth, gilt edges 2/- 

Paste Grain Roan, gilt edges 3/- 

Morocco, limp, gilt edges 7/6 

LARGE TYPE. For the Aged and Infirm. 



Tbe Rig-lit Rev. ALFRED BARRY, D.D. 

Size, 8h x 7 x 1 indies. 

The Introduction to the Psalter is included, the main purpose of which 
— as prefatory to the special annotations on each Psalm—is to examine the 
general character, style, and structure of the Psalter, especially in relation to 
its use in the service of the Church in all ages. 

Prices and Etinclin^s. 

Cloth boards, red edges, burnished 3/6 

Leather, round corners, red under gold edges 7/6 

Turkey Morocco, limp, ditto, ditto, gold roll inside cover - - - 12/6 


Date Due 



Abraham and his age. 
Princeton Theological Sem, 

imi7r Speer Llbrary 

1 1012 00050 4516 

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